Issues #41 to #60 (July to December 1992)

From: Evelyn Hamilton <>

I went to a conference titled "Biodiversity in the Managed
Landscape: theory an practice" on July 13-17 1992 in Sacramento
California, and offer these conclusions and highlights.
The conference was sponsored by a number of agencies
including the US Forest Service. The proceedings will be
published as a book.

My address is

Evelyn Hamilton
British Columbia Ministry of Forests
1450 Government Street
Victoria, B.C. Canada V8W 3E7
Phone: (604) 387-3650
Fax:   (604) 387-0046

and I am coordinating the B.C. Ministry of Forests biodiversity
research program. 

                      GENERAL CONCLUSIONS

 1. Rare  and  endangered  species  are  the focus of most of the
    ongoing research in the US. They anticipate  the  listing  of
    many  more  species.  There  is  an  effort to move from this
    species based approach, which is entrenched  in  legislation,
    to  more  of  a  "bioregional  approach"  which would involve
    habitat rather than species protection.

 2. In Canada we seem  to  have  more  opportunities  to  develop
    appropriate management regimes for conservation of our native
    biodiversity  than  is  the case in many other jurisdictions.
    Many other areas of the US have already experienced extensive
    losses to native ecosystems (e.g. native grasslands) and  are
    focussing on very costly restoration activities.

 3. There are some fundamental issues questions relating to moral
    values  and  philosophies  that  have  to be discussed before
    societies' goals for management can be determined.

 4. The need for fundamental social and institutional change  was
    raised repeatedly.

 5. There are relatively few studies of landscape dynamics under-
    way in adjacent areas. Most other landscape research projects
    are focused on characterizing spatial patterning and fragmen-
    tation  and looking at wildlife response to landscape pattern
    at different spatial scales.

                       I. OPENING ADDRESS

Developing an environmental vision
Douglas Wheeler, Secretary for Resources, State of California

California  anticipates  steady  population  growth  and  serious
pressure  on it's biodiversity. They are looking at moving from a
species approach to a bioregional  one  -  i.e.  conservation  of
different  ecosystems  and  therefore  habitats  in the different
bioregions. There is a need for greater  public  involvement  and

                       II. KEYNOTE ADDRESS

Importance of conserving biodiversity
Thomas Lovejoy, Smithsonian Institute, Wash. D.C.

There   are  utilitarian,  ethical,  aesthetic,  theological  and
philosophical reasons for conserving  biodiversity.  The  speaker
emphasized  the  value  of  biodiversity in maintaining ecosystem
functioning and as an indicator of ecosystem stress. He made  the
following points:

 1. Some  species  may  play a more important role in keeping the
    ecosystems functioning, but it may be difficult to  determine
    the  importance of a species a priori. An example is the rare
    aquatic yeasts that are tolerant  of  and  clean  up  mercury
    contaminated  water  returning  it to a condition where other
    organisms can survive.

 2. An important way that  biodiversity  will  be  contribute  to
    human  welfare  is  through  biotechnology. For example, heat
    resistant enzymes that were needed for biotechnology applica-
    tions were found in rare hot springs bacteria. There  can  be
    great  economic  returns  from this type of activity (e.g. 10
    billion dollars a year in the US).
(BEN # 41  27-September-1992)
From: Evelyn Hamilton <>

                    III. GENETIC DIVERSITY

Understanding genetic diversity
Russell Lande, Dept. of Biology, OSU, Corvalis, OR

Genetic variation is only adaptive in  predictably  changing  en-
vironments.  If  there  is a gradient, adaptation will be to that
gradient. If there is global  change,  the  location  of  optimal
conditions  will  move  in  space. The ability to migrate to find
situations that the organism is adapted to will be important.  He
was  pessimistic  about  the ability of small populations to sur-

Conserving diversity in natural systems
G. Meffe, Savannah River Ecology Lab, Aiken, SC

 1. Because of genetic drift and mutations, what we have not  may
    not  be  the  most  fit.  Evolution is dynamic and we need to
    focus on allowing change and adaptation to occur, rather than
    trying to preserve things as they are now.

 2. Units of conservation should  be  evolutionarily  significant
    units - i.e. populations (Wapples 1991).

 3. We  need  to define geographic distribution of genetic diver-

 4. Small populations lose  genetic  diversity  faster  than  big

 5. One  population  may  represent  most  of  the diversity of a
    species or you may  need  to  preserve  many  populations  to
    conserve the genetic diversity of the species,

 6. We  need  to  keep subdivisions separate to retain diversity.
    Priorities should be to preserve  the  populations  resulting
    from the oldest divergences.

 7. With  salmonids in Pacific Northwest, for example, we need to
    identify conservation units and use hierarchy of structure to
    do so (e.g. stream orders).

 8. Rules of thumb can be problematic (e.g. the 50/500 rule  that
    states that 50 individuals are needed for short term survival
    and  500  are  needed for long term persistence). These rules
    may not apply to desert fish, for  example,  which  exist  in
    small populations.

 9. Scientists  have  failed  to  communicate  to  the public and
    resource managers about these issues.

Seed zones and productivity
M. Thomson Conkle, USFS PSW Lab, Berkeley, CA

He described the seed zone approach used in  California  and  its
utility  in  conserving  genetic  diversity. The basic concept is
that local sources are used  in  regeneration  and  unintentional
transfers are restrained.
His rules of thumb are:

 1. Conserve diversity by
    a)  collecting  widely  within  the  zones to capture maximum
    genetic diversity,
    b) supplement natural regeneration with local seed source and
    c) respect steep environmental gradients.

 2. Foster forest health by managing genetic resource.

Creating policy on genetic diversity
Gene Namkoong, Dept. of Genetics, N.C. State Univ., Raleigh, NC

We need to define the level of moral concern, i.e  population  or

 1. What is the overall goal?

 2. Which species are most important?

 3. Are patterns of genetic variation in 1992 important?

 4. Is the focus on threatened and endangered species a tactic or
    a  goal?  If it is a tactic other indicators of diversity may
    be substituted.

 5. Are we managing for keystone  or  flagship  species  in  par-

Our goals may be

 1. to preserve genetic material that has utility for present and
    future  humans, in which case rarity does not endow value and
    some species are more important than others,

 2. to insure that evolution is not inhibited.

He has authored a Oxford Univ. Press book on this topic and  will
be the new Chair of Forest Sciences at UBC.
(BEN # 42  29-September-1992)
From: Evelyn Hamilton <>

                     IV. SPECIES DIVERSITY

Species  expirations and extinction rates. Alwyn Gentry, Missouri
Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO

He estimated that there are 10K species of  undescribed  vascular
plants.  In  North  America  60  plants  are thought to have gone
extinct in recent years. In the tropics 100K species/year may  be
going  extinct. This rate may be 1000 times background extinction

He discussed the situation in Rondonia in Brazil where only 2% of
the coastal forest remain,  and  the  application  theories  from
island  biogeography  to  tropical  deforestation. These theories
state that on smaller islands there will be fewer  species.  When
you  lose  90%  of  the area, you lose 50% of the species. On the
basis of this, projected extinction in the tropics is 12-15%  per
year with a loss of 2/3 of the tropical species by the end of the
next  century.  This rate will exceed the Cretaceous mass extinc-
tion rate.

Tropical species are more localized  in  their  distribution  and
endemism  is  common.  Evolution may be random because of the in-
fluence of founder effects and genetic drift rather  than  selec-
tion.  Speciation  may occur in 15 years. If speciation is rapid,
so likely is extinction.

Population viability
Bruce Marcot, USFS Portland, OR

He stated that 1/10 of the world's birds and 1/3 of  the  world's
parrots are threatened.

There  are legal mandates, such as the National Forest Management
Act which define a viable population. Questions about the  degree
of certainty, area and time frame exist.

He  outlined  a  process that could be used to ensure that viable
populations were sustained. Steps include:

 1. Identify species of concern, level  of  protection  required,
    extent of habitat, rarity, etc.

 2. Coordinate planning among agencies.

 3. Develop species-environment tools.

 4. Integrate models into the planning process.

 5. Develop range of management strategies.

 6. Conduct viability analysis.

 7. Evaluate results - effects of alternatives.

 8. Decide what to do.

Conservation of plant species diversity
Bruce Pavlik, Dept. Bot., Mills College, Oakland, CA

Globally,  there  are about 20K rare plants. Many of these are in
the tropics. Over 70% of all rare plants have less than 5 popula-

Reserves can be used to conserve plant species. There need to  be
clear  objectives  for  each reserve. Each reserve should be sub-
jected to manipulation experiments (e.g. fire, herbivory, etc) on
at least a small portion of the site. In the absence  of  manage-
ment and the knowledge upon which to base that management you may
lose the species you hope to protect in a reserve.

He  recommends  to  develop  a  program to monitor the management
practices. All monitoring must be demographic  (i.e.  focused  on
determining  what  is  happening  to the individuals). There is a
need for trend analysis  (which  is  mechanistic,  synthetic  and
predictive),  and  factor  resolution  (studies  of  competition,
mortality, effects of management activities)  to  determine  what
species are declining and what action is needed.

Conservation of forest vertebrates
Marty Raphael, USFS Olympia, WA

General trends in W. Oregon throughout forest development are:

 1. more  mammal  diversity  at  first  and  then it declines and
    increases in oldest stages,

 2. reptiles only in young forests,

 3. amphibian diversity increases with stand age.

We need to look at habitat availability in different seral stages
from the perspectives of historical, present, likely  future  and
worst case levels.

Alternative approaches that can be taken include:

 1. maximizing  the  minimum  abundance of all species (i.e. rare
    species will be sustained at their highest possible levels),

 2. maximizing the joint probability of occurrence of all species
    being viable,

 3. maximizing the sum of all these probabilities.

Creating policy on species diversity
Michael Bean, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, D.C.

He gave a very interesting and clear talk that focussed primarily
on Endangered Species Act and made the following points:

 1. Most species conservation policy is still  focused  on  those
    species that are at risk of extinction.

 2. Only  plants  and  animals  are  covered  in legislation (not
    fungi, etc).

 3. Many more species are in peril that the 700  species  on  the
    threatened  and  endangered list. It is likely that 4-5x this
    number are eligible for protection.

 4. Recovery efforts are currently driven by the degree  of  con-
    flict and public support.

 5. Other  criteria  that should be considered in determining the
    need for species protection include whether the species is
    a) likely to play a key role in ecosystem functioning,
    b) has indicator value for ecosystem health,
    c) is related to crop species, or
    d) has traditional medicinal value.

 6. We need to determine when a species is endangered, i.e.  what
    the threshold is.

 7. The  current  legislation  requires  that listing be based on
    biological considerations not economic ones.

 8. There is evidence that protection is being withheld too long.
    Half of the plants added in the last 7 years  had  less  than
    100  individuals  when  listed and animals generally had less
    than 1000 individuals when listed. Probabilities  of  extinc-
    tions and timeframes are not articulated.

His  conclusion  was  that  we  need  to focus on the genetic and
community diversity as well as species diversity.
(BEN # 43  1-October-1992)
From: Evelyn Hamilton <>

                     V. COMMUNITY DIVERSITY

Biological and ecological processes
Mary Willson, USFS Juneau, AK

Her main point was that  units  of  conservation  should  be  the
interactions  between  organisms,  rather  than  the specific or-
ganisms. Our research has been  limited  in  terms  of  time  and
space.  Evolutionary processes have been ignored. Correlation has
been the focus rather than causation.

We need to understand and conserve interactions including:

 1. plant and animal interactions, e.g.
    a) bears, salmon and berries,
    b) treefall gaps where vegetation structure  influences  pol-

 2. plant and fungi interactions,

 3. fungi and tree interactions.

Tropical forests
Ariel Lugo, Univ. Puerto Rico Agr. Exp. Stn. Rio Piedras, PR

Many of our problems are social and economic. We need to:

 1. use natural resilience and manage sustainably,

 2. manage  the  landscape,  using natural succession to aid res-

Old-growth forests
Tom Spies, USFS, Corvallis, OR

Old growth is ecologically diverse. Disturbance is  important  at
the patch, mosaic and landscape levels.

Different types of old growth include:

 1. Coarse  grained  type  -  where  wind or fire is the agent of
    disturbance. Disturbances are large with patches > 0.1 ha  in
    size -
    a) short lived trees < 250 years e.g. aspen, red alder
    b) intermediate lived trees > 250 years e.g. Douglas-fir

 2. Fine grained type - more stable systems where the disturbance
    is more localized with patches < 0.1 ha. in size -
    a)  short  lived  trees  <250 years balsam fir, white spruce,
    black spruce,
    b) intermediate to long lived trees >250 years

Aquatic systems - freshwater and marine
Jack Williams, BLM, Washington, D.C.

In Canada there were 22 threatened or endangered species of  fish
in 1989. All of the fish species in the Colorado River are endan-
gered.  Over  67%  of  the fish species in Illinois have declined
significantly. On the west coast 214  salmon  stocks  are  endan-
gered.  In the Columbia Basin 19% of the fish species are at high
risk, > 1/3 have become extinct; <  1%  of  marine  habitats  are

Introduced  species  and  habitat  loss are critical factors con-
tributing to this species declines. In the US less than 2% of the
rivers are in a high quality state.

                    VI. LANDSCAPE DIVERSITY

Biological conservation at the landscape scale
Reed Noss, Corvallis, OR

Landscapes have  pattern  of  repeated  components.  Pattern  has
effect  on  species composition. He discussed disturbance regime,
fragmentation and reserve network  design  and  the  concepts  of
coarse  and fine filter. Protection of representative communities
(coarse filter) would protect 80% of the species.

Species are  distributed  along  environmental  gradients.  Since
plant  species  migrated  at  different  rates after the ice age,
using communities defined by vegetation to capture all components
of diversity may not be the  best  approach  in  times  of  rapid
climate change.

We  need  to  consider whole landscape management. Core areas and
linkages are likely important although these ideas have not  been
adequately tested. Some moderate level of disturbance will likely
maximize  diversity.  We  need to develop an optimal mix of seral
stages. Reserves should be large enough to be in a steady state.

We need to determine:

 1. How big do reserves need to be?

 2. How wide should corridors be?

 3. What type of human use is acceptable?

 4. What are the best habitat mosaics at regional scales?

Scaling issues for biodiversity protection
Scott Pearson, Oak Ridge National Lab, Oak Ridge, TN.

His summary was:

 1. Don't focus on a single concept like  corridors  or  patches,
    view the landscape as a whole.

 2. Don't destroy the natural heterogeneity of the landscape.

 3. Don't destroy landscape connectivity.

 4. Don't ignore the effects of critical thresholds.

(BEN # 44  5-October-1992)
From: Evelyn Hamilton <>


Interfacing science and conservation
Paul Risser, Univ. New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

He  focused  on  the need to set objectives. He reviewed the USFS
biodiversity objectives which are:

 1. to determine what species are  sensitive  to  management  ac-

 2. to develop indicators,

 3. to research management methods,

 4. to test tools,

 5. to understand ecosystem functioning,

 6. to evaluate how networks can be used in high use areas.

What do we need to do?

 1. Insure for national coordination.

 2. Expand  the Pacific Northwest Gang of 4 approach: expand this
    process used to identify critical owl habitat  to  additional

 3. Establish rapid assessment teams and do gap analysis.

 4. Conduct human settlement experiments.

 5. Include  private  sector and NGOs in our research and manage-
    ment programs.

 6. Conduct social science experiments where we  look  at  social
    science   issues,  relationship  to  decision-making,  system
    transformation and the need for a whole new  social  and  in-
    stitutional structure.

 7. Coordinate  databases  and inventories nationally and look at
    how this information is used in decision-making.


Strategies for conserving endemic plants
Donald Falk, Center for Plant Conservation, St. Louis, MO

In the US there are about 20K plants, of which 22% are threatened
or endangered, with 4% facing possible extinction  in  10  years.
Climate  change  could  have  severe  impacts on rare species. He
identified the need for population biology research.

Strategies for conserving rare animals
Scott Derrickson, Smithsonian Institute Conservation and Research
Center, Front Royal, VA

In the US there are 520 endangered species, 277 are  animals  and
243  are  plants  and  there  are  161 threatened species, 97 are
animals and 64 are plants. Recovery plans have be drafted for 382
species. Several thousand species await listing.

New perspectives for conserving ecological diversity  in  managed
Hal Salwasser, USFS, Washington, D.C.

Forest  ecosystem  management is the new objective. The objective
is to blend the needs of people and the  environment  to  sustain
diverse healthy ecosystems. Their plan involves:
    Regional  Conservation  Strategies  for the recovery of large
    wide ranging species (e.g. Spotted Owl).

 1. Identifying desired  future  conditions  and  using  this  in
    planning.  These  plans  identify protected areas, management
    emphasis zones (e.g. Bridger Teton Nat. Forest),

 2. Restoration at the landscape level through the reintroduction
    of fire (e.g. Shawnee Nat. Forest) and conserving networks of

Their ecosystem management guidelines specify that they will:

 1. sustain diversity,

 2. work with nature,

 3. consider scale effects,

 4. focus on desired future conditions and results,

 5. coordinate strategies on common issues,

 6. get people to participate,

 7. integrate information,

 8. adapt to change.

Managing biodiversity on private lands
Michael O'Connell, World Wildlife Fund

The World Wildlife Funds's  objectives  are  to  maintain  viable
populations  and  natural  distributions  of  native  species and
communities in regional landscapes. They do this  by  classifying
sites  in  terms of their significance and establishing different
objectives for each class.

Modelling vertebrate habitats in Pacific Northwest forests  under
global change: Conceptual and methodological issues
A. Hansen, OSU Corvallis, OR

Their  objective  is  to determine which species are sensitive to
landscape change. They characterized landscape pattern in the  W.
Cascades  using  Landsat  TM  data to describe habitat structure.
They used a model called Paysage which involves ZELIG - a  forest
stand development model and GIS Arc Info. ZELIG was used to model
tree  growth  and  establishment  and  mortality, based on light,
temperature and  soil  moisture.  It  was  used  to  follow  snag
dynamics  and  CWD.  They  used the model on a landscape level to
determine stand types for each disturbance regime and topographic
                            THE END
(BEN # 45  7-October-1992)

Mushroom Day - Saturday, October 17, 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.
Royal British Columbia Museum

"Plants of the Olympic Mountains" - slide show by Adolf Ceska &
Hans Roemer, Tuesday, October 20, 7:30 p.m., Swan Lake Nature
(BEN # 46  13-October-1992)
POSITION OPEN - RESEARCH ECOLOGIST                                                            
Biologist 4                                                                   
Victoria, Forests, Research                                                   
$47,247 - $50,814  OUT OF SERVICE                                             
Coordinates the provincial research program in forest                         
dynamics; prepares forest dynamics research program proposals;                
trains/instructs ministry and industry personnel in research                  
findings; consults with ministry and industry personnel to                    
resolve problems/ conflicts in forest land management; manages                
contracts and audits forest dynamics research projects;                       
performs other related duties.                                                
QUALIFICATIONS- M.Sc. in plant/forest ecology and 5 years                     
related research experience or an equivalent combination of                   
education and experience; knowledge of research methodology in                
forest resource management in B.C.; a sound knowledge and a                   
detailed understanding of forest ecology in B.C. and concepts                 
of forest dynamics; working knowledge of experimental design,                 
biometric, and data analysis; demonstrated ability to plan and                
direct work to achieve research objectives; ability to work                   
out-of-doors in situations demanding strength/endurance;                      
willingness to fly frequently in planes and helicopters; valid                
B.C. Driver's License.                                                        
COMPETITION - FR92:2743                                                        
595 PANDORA AVENUE, VICTORIA, V8W 3E7                                         
CONTACT: ANDY MACKINNON 387-6536 (FAX 387-0046) OR EVELYN                     
HAMILTON 387-3650 (FAX 387-0046)                                              
CLOSING DATE: OCTOBER 21. 1992.                                               
(BEN # 46  13-October-1992)
From: Bruce Bennett <>

I was wondering if anyone knows how the genus Orthocarpus
received the common name "Owl Clover". Please reply through my
e-mail address, or I can be reach by answering machine at (604)
(BEN # 46  13-October-1992)
From: Jane H. Bock  <BOCK_J@CUBLDR.Colorado.EDU>

I would like to learn more about the distribution of Lloydia
serotina: Liliaceae in Canada and  I am especially curious to
know if it gets very far east in Canada. As you know it is very
common here in the Rockies in Colorado and surrounding states. 
I have read about it in your Queen Charlotte Islands where it
forms the beautiful sounding subspecies flava. I am working with
a young woman, Barbara Jones in Wales where there is a single
British population on Mt. Snowdon.  There also appears to be an
isolated group of plants in Czechoslovakia - in the Slovak part
in the Tatra Mountains.  I want to look at its genetics and
reproductive biology just now. I noticed in the Kew Index that
there may be 20 species, so perhaps I will be doing some
systematics later. I thank you in advance for any localities you
may be able to tell me about. Jane H. Bock, Professor,
E.P.O. Biology Department, Box 334, University of Colorado,
Boulder Colorado 80309 USA

[Lloydia serotina is all over the place up here in northwestern
B.C., but not so often collected because it blooms so early and
then withers to inconspicuousness. We'll see what we have in our
herbarium. - Jim Pojar]                   
(BEN # 46  13-October-1992)

I am currently researching the commelinid plant Tradescantia
pallida (formerly Setcreasea purpurea) and would appreciate any
information someone might have concerning this plant. I need to
find information on the following topics:

1. the chemical composition of the plant's stem and leaf sap,
   specifically the percentages of oxalic acid,
   glucose/sucrose/fructose, and any other organic compounds;

2. any further information on the metalloanthocyanin compounds
   in the stem and leaves, disregarding for the moment the work
   completed by Japanese researchers on their species of

3. the ability of the plant to set seed, and factors affecting
   this; and

4.  the chromatographic spectra of the photosynthetic pigments.

I would greatly appreciate any information on the above topics,
and I thank you for the time and energy you put into this
conference.  Thanks again!
(BEN # 46  13-October-1992)
Newsgroups: rec.gardens

OLYMPIA, WA - If you enjoy hunting for wild mushrooms this time
of year, permits are available from Olympic National Forest. 
Forest Supervisor Ron R.  Humphrey said personal and
commercial-use permits are available at ranger district offices
located around Olympic Peninsula in Hoodsport, Quilcene, Forks,
and Quinault.  According to Humphrey, a permit policy has been
in effect since 1989 due to an increasing demand for large
quantities of mushrooms.  "It allows Forest officials to manage
this important natural resource," he said.  A personal-use
permit is free allowing up to 50 pounds per family.  Many like
to preserve mushrooms for later use and the permit allows for
greater quantities to be taken for home consumption. 
Commercial-use permits are required for individuals or groups
intending to sell mushrooms and a fee is charged based upon
appraised prices.  For incidental gathering of less than 20
mushrooms for a meal, a permit is not required.  Humphrey said
failure to have a permit for picking more than 20 mushrooms may
result in a citation.  Chanterelles, morels, matsutake and king
boletus are non-poisonous and the most popular mushrooms sought
after on the Olympic.  "To ensure future crops, pick or cut
mushrooms one by one taking care not to disturb growing sites,"
Humphrey said.  If you are unsure about identifying mushrooms
for eating, it is strongly recommended that you refer to a
mushroom guide.  Forest Service officials have information
available for the asking when obtaining a permit.  To acquire
permits and information, ranger stations can be contacted
weekdays at Hoodsport, 877-5254; Quilcene, 765-3368; Forks,
374-6522; and Quinault, 288-2525. 
(BEN # 46  13-October-1992)
From: Jerome Rainey  <>

Regarding the recent interest in the new Jepson manual from UC press, I
have some firm information.  The bottom line is that the release date
is April 1993 and the cost is $55.00 US.  I have transcribed the blurb
from the Spring 1993 catalog and include it below.

From the Spring 1993 catalog of University of California Press:

The Jepson Manual
Higher Plants of California

First published in 1925, Willis Linn Jepson's _Manual of the Flowering
Plants of California_ has been a standard of reference for teachers,
students, and naturalists.  Since that time, hundreds of new species
have been identified and botanical investigation has become more
sophisticated.  Now Jepson's philosophy of making such information
available to all is again realized in this new volume, which includes
a wealth of material accumulated over the past decades.

With contributions from two hundred botanists across North America, this
is the most comprehensive resource and identification guide to nearly
eight thousand varieties of native and naturalized California plants.
The means to identifying plants (using key traits and illustrations) is
accompanied by special information such as horticultural requirements,
endangerment, toxicity, weed status, and notes on the management of
sensitive species.  Identification keys have been designed for ease of
use, and terms have been simplified and illustrated, making the new
_Manual_ the most authoritative field guide for the expert and amateur

"Sets new standards for excellence...and picks up beautifully on the
contemporary idea that botanical work should be fully accessible to the
general public as well as to scientists."
   --Peter H. Raven, Missouri Botanic Garden

"Precise and accurate, a masterpiece of clarity and succinctness."
   --G. Ledyard Stebbins, University of California, Davis.

Willis Linn Jepson was a leader in the movement to document and preserve
California's environmental and botanical riches, founding the California
Botanical Society in 1915 and helping to establish both the Sierra Club
and the Save-the-Redwoods League.  On his death in 1946, he endowed the
Jepson Herbarium at UC Berkeley.
April 1993
ISBN 0-520-08255-9  $55.00
000 pages, 8 1/2 x 11", 00 color plates
(BEN # 46  13-October-1992)
From: David Inouye <>

University Press of Colorado is having a pre-publication sale on
a book that will appear in February 1993.  Techniques for
Pollination Biology, by Carol Kearns and David Inouye.  The book
includes >1,200 references from more than 200 different journals,
plus books and previously unpublished materials.  Appendices list
sources for equipment, suppplies, and chemicals used in
pollination studies.  Approximately 500 pages, $30 cloth (regular
price $37.50), $14 kivar (regular price $17.50).  Plus $2.00
shipping for the first copy and $.75 for each additional copy.
Orders must be received by November 15 for the sale discount.
Send checks or credit card info to University Press of Colorado,
P. O. Box 849, Niwot, CO 80544 (telephone 303-530-5337).
(BEN # 46  13-October-1992)
From: "Discussion on Biological Conservation" 

The Interior  Department's U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)
and U.S. Geological  Survey (USGS) announced publication of a
new wetlands educational  poster to  aid teachers  of science
and environmental topics.

The poster,  "Wetlands: Water, Wildlife, Plants and People,"
offers fun classroom activities for elementary and middle
schools to help children learn  about the many values of
wetlands.  The poster is a coopera- tive venture  by FWS,  USGS,
the  Army Corps  of Engineers, the National Science Teachers 
Association, and the American Water Resources Association.

The poster shows various kinds of wetlands and how people use
them. The back  of the poster explains wetland types, defines
important terms, and suggests  activities teachers  can use  to
help students learn about wetlands.   The poster  is available
in three versions, including two in color: elementary level
(kindergarten through grade 5) and middle school (grades 6 
through 8).   A  black and  white version with no text on the
back is also available for younger children to color.

Wetlands" is  the third  in a  series of nine posters on water
resources education,  initiated in  response to President Bush's
Education 2000 challenge.   "Wetlands" can be attached to the
first two posters to create a  mural.   The other two posters
are called "Water, the Resource that Gets Used and Used and Used
for Everything," and "Wastewater Treatment."   They were
produced by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the 
Bureau of Land Management, Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, American Water Resources
Association, and the National Science Teachers Association.

Copies of "Wetlands" can be obtained from:  U.S. Geological
Survey, Branch of  Distribution, Box  25286, Denver  Federal
Center,  Denver, CO 80225, or  from the  U.S. Fish  and Wildlife
Service, Publications Unit, 4401 North  Fairfax Drive,  MS 130,
Arlington, VA  22203.  Copies of the first two  posters in  the
series are available  from the American Water Resources
Association,  5410 Grosvenor  Lane, Suite  220,  Bethesda,  MD
20814-2192, and  the National  Science Teachers  Association,
1742  Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC  20009.
(BEN # 46  13-October-1992)
From: Adolf Ceska <>

1. Have a nice holiday season and happy new year 1993 !

2. I apologize for a long gap in BEN. I was in Costa Rica
and lost touch with reality. Can you imagine a country that
would preserve over 25 per cent of the land in national
parks or biological reserves? 

3. I heard from several subscribers that they did not get BEN
nos. 43 and 44. I don't know, how selective this blackout was,
but if you did not get these issues and would like to have them,
drop me a note.

4. I would like to thank all of you who sent me contributions
for 1992 BEN. Many thanks. If you have any news, notes, messages
or ideas to share with other BEN addicts, BEN will be pleased to
hear from you.
(BEN # 47  20-December-1992)
From: New Scientist (22 Aug 1992)

Jeffrey Wyman and his colleagues at the University of Wisconsin
at Madison implanted a gene that produces a toxin lethal to the
Colorado Beetle into potato. The toxin that kills Colorado
beetles comes from Bacillus thuringiensis tenebronis. The gene
was implanted in a number of varieties of potato. [I hope the
Yukon Gold is among them. - AC]
(BEN # 47  20-December-1992)
From: New Scientist (22 August 1992)

Herbal medicines made from Datura were banned from sale in
France last week after three teenagers died from overdose of
atropine. Datura stramonium has been the base of anti-asthma
cigarettes, first approved for sale by prescription in the
1920s. Smoking a cigarette made from about 1 gram of crushed
datura relaxes bronchial muscles, calming the symptoms of
asthma. This treatment is still preferred by many elderly French
(BEN # 47  20-December-1992)
From: R.T. Ogilvie, Royal BC Museum, Victoria, B.C. Canada

Don Gayton raised some questions in BEN No. 36 about the Rocky
Mountain boundary between bluebunch wheatgrass and blue-grama
grass. Here are some answers and some more questions. I enjoyed
talking to him at the Botany B.C. meetings at Lac le Jeune, and
also reading his book The Wheatgrass Mechanism.

The Rocky Mountain massif is a major physiographic barrier
separating the central plains and the western cordilleran areas.
This geographic barrier results in a major climatic demarcation
between the more maritime climate to the west and the strongly
continental climate to the east. Although the Rockies are an
obvious floristic boundary between the arid prairie flora and
the moist cordilleran forests, the mountains are by no means a
complete barrier for all plant species. For example, Douglas
fir, Rocky Mountain juniper, western red cedar, western larch,
and western yew all extend on to the east side of the Rockies,
mostly as rare scattered individuals but some of these species
form dominant communities. Likewise, many of the eastern prairie
species extend across into eastern B.C., for example: the orange
lily - Lilium philadelphicum, wild bergamot - Monarda fistulosa,
prairie cactus - Opuntia polyacantha, scarlet globe-mallow - 
Sphaeralcea coccinea, low larkspur - Delphinium bicolor,
ground-plum - Astragalus crassicarpus. 

What about the grasses crossing the Rockies? Both bluebunch
wheatgrass - Agropyron spicatum [=Pseudoroegneria spicata] and
Idaho fescue - Festuca idahoensis occur extensively along the
east slope of the Rocky Mountains and Foothills from the Bow
River southward. In this area these two species of the
Bunchgrass Prairie overlap with blue grama-grass - Bouteloua
gracilis of the Mixedgrass Prairie. Bouteloua gracilis is known
in B.C. only from a few isolated populations in the southern
Rocky Mountain Trench and a disjunct occurrence along the Fraser
Valley in the southern Cariboo. The Rough Fescue Grassland
occurs on both sides of the Rockies dominated by Festuca
campestris, while a closely related taxon, Festuca hallii, is
the dominant rough fescue of eastern Alberta, Saskatchewan and
Manitoba. Finally, little bluestem - Schizachyrium scoparium
[=Andropogon scoparius] one of the dominants of the eastern
Tallgrass Prairie extends westward into the foothills west of
Calgary. It has been collected from two localities in the Rocky
Mountain Trench of southeastern B.C.; both are considered by
their collectors to have been introduced or planted there.     

Botanists have long attributed different paleobotanical origins
and history to these different grasslands, and recent
ecophysiological research has found fundamental differences in
the photosynthetic pathways of some of the dominant grasses. The
Bouteloua gracilis grassland originated in the arid southwestern
U.S. and adjacent Mexico, and many of its species, including
Bouteloua gracilis, are C4 species adapted to growth and
photosynthesis at high temperatures. At the northern extent of
this grassland in Canada there are approximately equal
proportions of C4 and C3 species. The Agropyron spicatum
grassland originated in the intermountain area in the rainshadow
of the Coast-Cascade-Sierra Mountain axis; most of its species
have boreal affinities and are C3. Also, the Rough Fescue
grassland species have a northern origin and are mostly C3
species. Lastly, the Schizachyrium scoparium grassland had a
southeastern origin and includes several C4 species including
the little bluestem.

The grasslands on the two sides of the mountains have ancient
origins; the Agropyron spicatum grassland is about 3 million
years old, and the Bouteloua gracilis grassland is about 13
millions years old. Since Late Miocene-Pliocene time there have
been major climatic changes involving dry periods, wet periods,
cold periods, warm periods, glacial and interglacial periods. In
our area, at the northern extremity of these grasslands, this
has meant numerous sequences of migrations and immigrations
bringing the species in contact with species of different
geographic regions, resulting in grasslands of
phytogeographically diverse composition.           

Some of the earlier papers on these grasslands are by Daubenmire
(1975:Journ. Biogeography 2:1-18; 1978:Plant Geography; 1982:MoF
Grassland Symposium). There is an interesting paper by Leopold &
Denton, 1987, Ann. Miss. Bot. Garden 74:841-867. 

Finally, Dale Guthrie, in his research on the Beringian "Mammoth
Steppe" in Alaska (1990) has found compacted plant fragments of
Agropyron, Danthonia, and Salix in the molars of a 36,000 year
old ice-fossilized bison. His 1982 paper (in Paleoecology of
Beringia, p. 323) mentions that he had the nest materials of
Wisconsin-age fossil ground squirrels from Alaska, identified at
the Colorado State University Laboratory, and the plant material
included Bouteloua. As he says, this find is several thousand
miles north of the presently known range of Bouteloua in south-
central Alberta.   

Obviously, we need a lot more paleobotanical research and
critical paleoecological interpretation of the fossil data, the
modern floristic distributions, and species ecophysiology. 
(BEN # 47  20-December-1992)

Twenty speakers, from across Canada, addressed tourism, native
issues, forest fires, snow as habitat, peatlands, rivers, trees,
government and industry positions, climate change, citizen
advocacy, conservation strategies, and small scale timber
operations.  And, the audience of over 200 responded in question
and answer sessions.

The Proceedings, published with the help of Athabasca
University, is now ready to mail out.  To order a copy make your
cheque for $14.00 ($10.00 plus $4.00 postage and handling)
payable to  (amounts in Can. $)
Boreal Forest Committee,
Box 1351, Athabasca, Alberta, Canada T0G 0B0

For further information contact:

Louis Schmittroth, tel. 403-675-4408, email:, or Joan Sherman, tel. 403-675-6340,
(BEN # 47  20-December-1992)

If you know about any job for a botanist with 

1) good knowledge of British Columbia vascular plants
   (especially pteridophytes, sedges, rushes, aquatics, and
   other critical groups);
2) wide collecting experience in British Columbia and
   the Pacific Northwest (over 30,000 "numbers" since
3) good knowledge of ecology of British Columbia 
   plants and plant communities;
4) expertise in development of vegetation classification
please send a note to the editor of BEN. The botanist in
question can take contract jobs or be seconded or transferred 
within the British Columbia government.
(BEN # 47  20-December-1992)

I have no idea why some BEN readers received seven copies of
BEN #47. I wish I knew what happened, but I believe it was not
my fault. Those subscribers who reacted to the mail storm
claim that one copy of BEN is about all they can handle.
On the other hand, many subscribers did not get BEN # 43 and
44. I will try to send them again. If you have them already,
please, delete them from your mail box. - AC
(BEN # 48  23-January-1993)
From: Washington Post

The Fairchild Tropical Garden sold logs and boards from 1,300
trees downed Aug. 24, 1992 by Hurricane Andrew. Wood-turners and
artists came from as far away as Portland, Ore., to buy exotic
varieties seldom, if ever, seen on the market.  The top price of
$505 was paid for a 39 cm wide, 1.5 m length of Cephalanthus
orientalis (Rubiaceae), a species from the Himalayas with
brilliant yellow wood. Proceeds from the sale, around $31,000
after expenses, will be used in the restorations of the gardens.

If you want to contribute to the Fairchild Restoration Fund,
write to

  The Fairchild Tropical Garden
  10901 Old Cutler Road
  Coral Gables, Florida 33156
(BEN # 48  23-January-1993)
From: Association of Systematic Collections Newsletter (Aug.'92)

ASC Newsletter published and article written by the late
Dr. Henry K. Townes and submitted by Dr. Dave Wahl. Dr. Townes

"It has been a tradition that taxonomic identifications of
biological specimens are courtesies extended without charge."

"In giving free assistance, some taxonomists are probably
remembering their own restricted finances. But most requests now
come from well-funded projects. The specimens sent for naming
probably cost hundreds of dollars to collect and rear. The time
of the project supervisor, research assistant, laboratory
technician, [etc.] all have been paid by the project budget.
Only the taxonomist, the one person who must have uncommon
qualifications, would have been forgotten in the budget, and he
is forgotten only because traditionally he does not ask to be

"As long as taxonomists find free determination work interesting
enough, and there are enough in the profession, this system
could continue. But that time has about passed. ... Taxonomy has
been downgraded and underpaid for the last three decades, and
its ratio to the rest of biological sciences has reached a low

"Identifications for the scientific public should be on a fee
basis.  ... Income from identification fees would rarely be
substantial, but the most valuable result would be a changed
relation with colleagues in other fields. ... The customer also
would be in a better position. He would be paying for the work
and could expect a responsible job, and promptness."

"When or if fees become a general practice, a research project
involving the need for identification could be planned with more
confidence, and executed with more efficiency. Budgeting some
dollars for taxonomic work would give a reasonable surety that
the work could be done promptly and by good specialists. Begging
for free time, and uncertainty about whether or not the giver of
free time would function properly, would become less important
(BEN # 48  23-January-1993)
From: TAXACOM [abridged]

The Biodiversity and Biological Collections Gopher has been
established to provide Internet access to various types of
systematics, biodiversity and biological collections

The Gopher is located at ',' and can be accessed
through any Gopher client program for DOS, OS/2, Macintosh, VMS,
Unix computers.  Access is unrestricted and available to any
user on an Internet-connected computer.

[This Gopher gives you access to many TAXACOM files, such as
botanical electronic journal Flora Online, reports from various
organizations, etc. The most important feature of this Gopher is
You can look up any name from the Gray Index by genus and
species, but you can also ask questions that can only be handled
by the electronic search, such as, what species were described
by a certain author. Many thanks to for
making this information freely available. - AC]
(BEN # 48  23-January-1993)

Joseph H. Kirkbride <jkirkbride@ASRR.ARSUSDA.GOV> reported on
TAXACOMT that in July 1992 he saw a demonstration of a beta
version of the INDEX KEWENSIS (IK) on CD-ROM. The software is
being developed by the same company  that wrote the software for
the Oxford English Dictionary.

Oxford University Press will be selling the IK CD-ROM.  The
possible price is about US$4,000.00 for first time purchasers,
and the yearly update will be about US$400.00.

The database is an optical reading of the printed IK.  Computer
checks of the data have been made, such as verifying that the
year has only numerical characters, but each entry has not been
proof read.  To get it out in a reasonable time frame, the
optical reading errors have been left in, and will have to be
corrected over time as they are reported.

Two comments [AC]:

1) It would be nice to have a free on-line access to the INDEX
KEWENSIS in the same way as we have now to the GRAY HERBARIUM
INDEX thanks to the Biodiversity Gopher - see above.

2) I would not trust an optical reader, especially for the entry
of the earlier volumes of the INDEX KEWENSIS. Typographical
diversity of the old INDEX KEWENSIS volumes has to cause severe
headaches to any optical reader regardless its artificial IQ.
(BEN # 48  23-January-1993)

Feb 12, 1993, "Grasslands and Oak Woodlands of the Pacific
   Northwest" slide presentation by Reid Schuller.
   Newcombe Theatre, 7:30 p.m., tickets $3/$2.
   Reid Schuller is a plant ecologist studying native plant
   communities and is currently involved as a natural area
   scientist, in Washington state, monitoring the restoration of
   grasslands and oak woodlands.
Feb 18, 1993, "Costa Rica and Resplendent Quetzal" - world
   premiere of a video by Adolf and Oluna Ceska. Newcombe
   Theatre, noon hour (12:15 to 1:15 p.m.), admission free.
Feb 19, 1993, "GARRY OAK MEADOW COLLOQUIUM" - University of
   Victoria, Elliot Building # 167, 8:30 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.
   Speakers will address Garry Oak vegetation, its origins,
   history, rare species, insects, vegetation management, community
   planning, and discuss the role of municipal governments and
   Organized by Biology Department, UVIC with the help from the
   Garry Oak Meadow Preservation Society. For more information
   call Richard Ring (604-721-7102), Richard Hebda (387-5493),
   or Joyce Lee (386-3785).
(BEN # 49  23-January-1993)
From: Chuck Goelzer Lyons <> [from ENTOMOL-L]

A tiny caterpillar may be responsible for doing what herbicides
and harvesters could not--controlling one of the worst aquatic
weeds in the United States, Cornell University biologists say.

The leaf-eating larvae of an aquatic moth may be the cause of
dramatic declines observed in the weed, called Eurasian
watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), in Ithaca's Cayuga Lake.
If so, the moth could be a biological control agent, replacing
or supplementing millions of dollars spent annually in the U.S.
for artificial control. But more tests are needed to make that

"In the early 1970s, Eurasian watermilfoil made up 90 to 99
percent of the plant biomass in Cayuga Lake," said Robert L.
Johnson, a Cornell ecology researcher. "The plants were growing
from 3 to 20 feet long--and as long as 35 feet--starting from
the lake bottom and reaching for light, forming dense canopies
at the surface."

Beginning in 1986, Johnson's annual surveys of Cayuga Lake
aquatic plants found a steady decline in Eurasian watermilfoil.
By 1992, the nuisance plant had diminished to 10 percent of its
biomass in the 1970s. Searching for causes, he looked for the
moth, Acentria niveus, which Middlebury College biologists
previously reported in milfoil plants of Lake George, between
Vermont and New York State. The insect, also an exotic
(non-native) species, was identified near Montreal as early as
1927 and has since been collected in Massachusetts and on the
Canadian and U.S. sides of the Great Lakes.

The Cornell biologist found hundreds of insect larvae--each
about the size, shape and color of a grain of rice--eating the
tips of Cayuga Lake's milfoil in the summer of 1992. The tiny
caterpillars use their silken thread to bind milfoil's feathery
leaves into individual nests called larval retreats, effectively
halting growth of the plant stems.

When the caterpillars are not consuming leaves that hold their
retreats, they dine out on other plant parts, Johnson said. The
larvae are believed to spend up to 10 months of their lives
under water, before emerging as adults. Male moths fly for a few
days, then mate at the water's surface with females. Female
aquatic moths submerge to lay eggs on underwater plants, and the
cycle begins again.

Cornell entomologists John G. Franclemont and E. Richard Hoebeke
identified the Cayuga Lake moths as the same species or a close
relative to the ones found in Lake George.

Just because aquatic moths thrive where Eurasian watermilfoil
declines does not mean a successful biological control for the
weed has been found, cautioned Nelson G. Hairston Jr., a Cornell
professor of ecology and systematics. Controlled experiments
could determine whether other factors are involved, he said. For
example, some disease may be affecting the plants' health,
making them more vulnerable to insect predation. Or water
turbidity (cloudiness) from algal blooms in the early season
(when milfoil plants try to reach for the surface) may retard
their growth, he said.

At Cornell's experimental ponds, where controlled studies of
aquatic weeds and other plants and animals are planned for 1993,
biologist Johnson is not ready to ship moths to every lake with
a Eurasian watermilfoil problem. But their presence, he said,
complicates strategic planning for aquatic weed control.
Weed-harvesting machines, which cut the tops of aquatic plants
in some lakes, also may remove beneficial insects.

The harvesting machines' effectiveness already is in doubt from
Cornell studies that found weed-cutting may actually encourage
weed growth, Johnson said. Stray pieces of aquatic weeds from
the harvesters take root on lake bottoms, the same way gardeners
produce new plants from cuttings.

Further, the weed cutting only temporarily opens lanes for
boating and swimming, Johnson's measurement of plant growth has
shown. Like a fresh-mown (and well-watered) lawn, the Eurasian
watermilfoil soon rebounds even stronger than before.
(BEN # 49  10-February-1993)
From: C.J.O'Kelly <> [from USENET]

Dammit be careful out there!!!

Some years ago, the Botany Division of New Zealand's Division of
Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR) came to a similar
conclusion, that the day of free taxonomic IDs was at an end. 
Hence they began charging.

From that day these guys were dead.  Identifications made for
clients dropped from several per day to a few per month.  Didn't
matter what the fee was, the clients didn't come back.  Didn't
take the administrators more than a few clicks on their
calculators to discover that the users were not paying for the
service and were not going to.  Within two years, Botany
Division was dead, with most of its staff in taxonomy gone or
going (I think the herbarium curator is all that remains).  The
New Zealand University teaches taxonomy.  Just as well given the
caliber of the students who fool themselves into thinking
they're learning it.

Get real.  Underpayment is better than no payment.  And it may
mean that there are a few individuals left to pass on their
expertise when, in thirty years, folk finally recognize what
they've done by killing off the field that answers the first
question of biology ("What is it?").
(BEN # 49  10-February-1993)

Gayton, D. "Big bluestem and a tallgrass dream."  Equinox No. 67
(January/February 1993): 30-39. Don Gayton describes the work of
John Morgan and his effort to reconstruct the tallgrass prairie
near Winnipeg, Manitoba. In the same Equinox issue is a nice
article on hummingbirds.
(BEN # 49  10-February-1993)
ELVA LAWTON (1896 - 1993)
From: Melinda Denton <>
      [from <>]
Elva Lawton died February 3, 1993, at the age of 96, in Seattle,
Washington.  She retired from Hunter College in New York in 1959
after teaching 31 years and moved to Seattle, where she assumed
a Research Associate position in the Herbarium of the Department
of Botany at the University of Washington.  She collected and
studied mosses from western NA, and between 1962-1971, she
received grants from NSF to produce a regional moss flora.  The
comprehensive flora was published in 1971.  In addition to this,
she published 25 articles, of which 23 were on mosses.  Most of
these were written in the 34 years that she was associated with
UW.  She was able to work at the Herbarium nearly every day well
into her 90's. A dept. memorial service will be held in Seattle
on Monday, March 1. I have prepared a biography of her life,
including a list of publications.
(BEN # 50  21-February-1993)
From: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, NY Times, 
      San Francisco Chronicle, Novon

In May 1992 Dean Taylor and Glenn Clifton stopped at limestone
cliffs close to highway 299 east of Redding and found a shrub
that turned to be a new species of the genus Neviusia. The plant
was described as N. cliftonii (Novon 2: 285-289). Neviusia
belongs to Rosaceae, tribe Kerrieae, and its closest relatives
Kerria and Rhodotypos occur in eastern Asia. Neviusia was
considered a monotypic genus with a single rare species, N.
alabamensis, known only from several localities in AL, AR, GA, MS,
and TN. With one more day of additional field work,
botanists located two more populations of N. cliftonii
along Shasta Lake, all of them within a radius of about 15 miles.

No fossil records of Neviusia were reported, by just at the time
of discovery, Jack Wolfe and Wesley Wehr (Burke Museum in
Seattle, WA) decided that some fossil leaves from the Eocene
Princeton formation of British Columbia belonged in Neviusia.
(BEN # 50  21-February-1993)
From: Adolf Ceska <>

I was in the UC herbarium in Berkeley last Friday, Feb. 26, and
the place was a bedlam. The printers had just delivered the
first shipment of the Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California
for distribution to the general public. Everybody was running
around with a heavy brown cardboard box and the place was full
of excitement. Yes, the Jepson Manual is out !

I will tell you a little secret on how to get your copy. Send a
check for $45.00 payable to "Friends of the Jepson Herbarium"
and mail it to the Jepson Herbarium, University of California,
send a contribution of $45 (or more), you will become a member
of the "Friends" and receive a complimentary copy of the Jepson
Manual. This offer expires April 1, 1993, and no, folks, this is
not an April joke. Please print your address and phone number on
your "membership renewal application" and be patient, Jepson
Herbarium has only small staff to answer all requests.
(BEN # 50  21-February-1993)
From: Tara Steigenberger <>

The second (revised and expanded) edition of the popular Museum
Handbook no. 28 was published by the Royal B.C. Museum in
Victoria and costs $12.95 Canadian.

Individuals order from The Royal Museum Shop at 675 Belleville
Street, Victoria, BC, V8V 1X4, Tel (604) 356-0505, Fax (604)
356-8197. The Shop charges $1.50 shipping and handling per book.
Please add 7% GST to total order. Major credit cards, purchase
orders, personal cheques, money orders accepted.

Resale outlets and institutions order from CROWN Publications,
Inc. at 546 Yates Street, Victoria, BC, V8W 1K8, Tel (604)
386-4636, Fax (604) 386-0221. Major credit cards, purchase
orders, personal cheques, money orders accepted.
(BEN # 50  21-February-1993)
From: Roy Cranston, B.C. Ministry of Agriculture 

British Columbia is heavily committed to the use of natural
agents  to control noxious grassland and pasture weeds. From
modest  beginnings in 1951 with the introduction of a beetle to
control  the poisonous weed St. Johnswort, 50 agents have been
released  against 17 weed species to over 2,000 sites in B.C.  

Significant progress has been achieved in biocontrol development
through the cooperative efforts of the International Institute
of  Biological Control (Switzerland), Agriculture Canada, the 
Ministries of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and Forests and 
through support of private sector groups such as the B.C. 
Cattlemen's Association.

* Candidate natural agents that feed on a targeted weed and show
  promise for control are studied in their native habitat. 

* Exhaustive studies are carried out to ensure the insect will   
  attack only the targeted weed and not other vegetation.

* Long term results are reviewed by North American Biocontrol 
  agencies. If the natural agent is proven to damage the weed 
  without attacking other vegetation it is approved for release
  in Canada and the United States.

* The B.C. Plant Protection Advisory Council approves or rejects
  release of federally approved natural weed control agents to   
  British Columbia.

* Initial B.C. releases are made under controlled conditions for 
  the purpose of gaining establishment and to increase
  populations for provincial redistribution.

Usually several species are released to improve the chances of 
long-term control of the weed. The B.C. Ministry of Forests,
Range  Branch, maintains bioagent propagation facilities at
Kamloops and  Castlegar. When populations warrant, the insects
are then  redistributed throughout the province.  The Ministry
of  Agriculture, Fisheries and Food maintains computer and map
records  of all weed bioagent releases and redistributions.

Reductions in density, seed production and spread potential are 
realities for some weeds now and the possibility for success 
against other species is encouraging. St. Johnswort, nodding 
thistle and Bull thistle are under effective biocontrol in the 
province and no longer require herbicide treatment. Knapweed 
densities are beginning to decline dramatically at a number of 

Use of natural agents will continue to play an integral and 
expanding role in integrated vegetation management systems in 
British Columbia and will result in less need for chemical, 
cultural and mechanical control programs.
(BEN # 51  6-March-1993)
From: Roy Cranston, B.C. Ministry of Agriculture 

 Weed/Bioagent            Order        Released     Attack Site 


Puccinia acroptili       Uredinales    naturalized leaf
Subanquina picridis      Tylenchida    1985        stem, leaf


Rhinocyllus conicus      Coleoptera    1979        seedhead     
Trichosirocalus horridus Coleoptera    1986        shoot
Urophora solstitialis    Diptera       1991        seedhead


Rhinocyllus conicus      Coleoptera    1979        seedhead
Trichosirocalus horridus Coleoptera    1979        shoot
Urophora solstitialis    Diptera       1991        seedhead


Urophora jaceana         Diptera       1986        seedhead
Puccinia centaurea       Uredinales    naturalized leaf


Agapeta zoegana          Lepidoptera   1982        root
Metzneria paucipunctella Lepidoptera   1985        seedhead
Pelochrista medullana    Lepidoptera   1982        root
Pterolonche inspersa     Lepidoptera   1986        root
Sphenoptera jugoslavica  Coleoptera    1976        root
Subanquina picridis      Tylenchida    1985        stem, leaf
Urophora affinis         Diptera       1971        seedhead
Urophora quadrifasciata  Diptera       1971        seedhead
Cyphocleonus achates     Coleoptera    1989        root
Larinus minutus          Coleoptera    1991        seedhead
Larinus obtusus          Coleoptera    1993?       seedhead


Agapeta zoegana          Lepidoptera   1982        root
Cyphocleonus achates     Coleoptera    1987        root
Metzneria paucipunctella Lepidoptera   1973        seedhead
Pterolonche inspersa     Lepidoptera   1987        root
Sphenoptera jugoslavica  Coleoptera    1981        root
Urophora affinis         Diptera       1970        seedhead
Urophora quadrifasciata  Diptera       1970        seedhead
Pelochrista medullana    Lepidoptera   1988        root
Terellia virens          Diptera       1991        seedhead
Chaetorellia acrolophi   Diptera       1991        seedhead
Larinus minutus          Coleoptera    1991        seedhead
Larinus obtusus          Coleoptera    1993?       seedhead


Altica carduorum         Coleoptera    1964        leaf
Ceutorynchus litura      Coleoptera    1975        shoots, crown
Urophora carduii         Diptera       1974        stem
Larinus planus           Coleoptera     ?          seedhead


Rhinocyllus conicus     Coleoptera     1985        seedhead
Urophora stylata        Diptera        1973        seedhead
Trichosirocalus horridus Coleoptera    1991        shoot


Chirida guttata         Coleoptera     1969
Metriona bicolor        Coleoptera     1969        leaf
Aceria convolvulii      Acarina        1991        stem, leaf


Ceutorhynchus cruciger  Coleoptera     1993?       root


Apthona nigriscutus     Coleoptera     1987        root
Apthona cyparissiae     Coleoptera     1986        root
Apthona flava           Coleoptera     1991        root
Hyles euphorbia         Lepidoptera    1966        leaf
Lobesia euphorbiana     Lepidoptera    1987        leaf
Spurgia esula           Diptera        1990        shoot tip


Agrilis hyperici        Coleoptera     1955        roots
Anaitis plagiata        Lepidoptera    1967        leaf
Aphis chloris           Homoptera      1979        stem, root
Chrysolina hyperici     Coleoptera     1951        leaf
Chrysolina quadrigemina Coleoptera     1951        leaf
Chrysolina varians      Coleoptera     1957        leaf
Zeuxidiplosis giardi    Diptera        1955        leaf


Calophasia lunula       Lepidoptera    1965        leaf
Brachypterolus pulicarius Coleoptera   naturalized seed
Mecinus janthinus       Coleoptera     1992        stem
Eteobalea intermediella Lepidoptera    1992        root


Calophasia lunula       Lepidoptera    1963        leaf
Brachypterolus pulicarius Coleoptera   naturalized seed
Mecinus janthinus       Coleoptera     1992        stem
Eteobalea seratella     Lepidoptera    1992        root


Hylobius transversovittatus Coleoptera 1993?       root
Galerucella calmeriensis   Coleoptera  1993?       leaf
Galerucella pusilla     Coleoptera     1993?       leaf


Apion hookerii          Coleoptera     1992        seedhead


Hylemya seneciella      Diptera        1970        seedhead
Longitarsus jacobaeae   Coleoptera     1971        root
Longitarsus flavicornis Coleoptera     1971        root
Tyria jacobaea          Lepidoptera    1962        leaf, stem
Cochylis atricapitana   Lepidoptera    1991        root


Cystiphora sonchi       Diptera        1992        leaf


Microlarinus lareynii   Coleoptera     1986        seed, leaf
(BEN # 52  10-March-1993)

will be held June 17, 18, and 19 at Fairmont Hot Springs
(near Invermere).

Topics include: 10 000 years in the Trench
                Aboriginal use of plants
                Environmental Ethics
                Columbia Marsh Tour

Registration cost +  forms are NOT YET available.
For more information, contact Tom Braumandl at (604) 354-6703 or
Don Gayton at (604) 354-6244. Watch BEN for further information.
(BEN # 53  7-April-1993)

Herbarium mounting tape recommended by Mike Crisp (BEN 27) was
tested in the Royal British Columbia Museum and rejected by the

Bruce Bennett, who mounted the specimens, found out that 

1) the tape had a tendency to pull up unless a long leader was
2) the tape was difficult to work with when mounting dirty
   specimens: tape would not stick to root balls, etc.;
3) the tape needed in average twice or three times longer
   to mount a specimen than strapping with glue;
4) the tape was getting loose when specimens were frozen.

Mary-Lou Florian (conservationist) claims that the acrylic glue
used on the tape needs to be "cured" at high temperatures and
thus does not stick properly on the herbarium mounting paper.
Furthermore, all similar tapes (mylar base and acrylic glue)
have been rejected by the Canada Conservation Institute as not
suitable for archival use. She recommended to use archival
quality linen tape instead, especially for mounting bulky
specimens. Meanwhile we are testing another glue for routine
strapping of herbarium specimens.
(BEN # 53  7-April-1993)
From: Adolf & Oluna Ceska c/o <>

Macoun's meadowfoam (Limnanthes macounii) is an enigmatic
species, endemic to southern Vancouver Island. It is impossible
to explain the origin of this species - so distinct from all
the other Limnanthes species - in the area that was glaciated
only about 15 thousand years ago. We know the plant from about
thirty localities and only eight or nine of them host populations
with more than 200 plants.

This spring Oluna found a new locality of this plant in Victoria
on Saxe Point in Esquimalt. We have looked for meadowfoam there
before, but we have overlooked it. This is a large population
with about a thousand plants.

On the other hand, when we checked a population of Macoun's
meadowfoam in the Ruckle Provincial Park on Saltspring Island,
we found out that the Provincial Parks have expanded the camp
ground and built a road on grassy bluffs. On one spot they
had to put in a culvert and they dug up a trench that takes all
the water going through the culvert into the seepage with
meadowfoam. The water regime of the seepage has changed and
the population of meadowfoam has dwindled from the original fifty
or so plants to mere six survivors.
(BEN # 53  7-April-1993)
From: David W. Inouye <>

This is a bibliographic database containing all of the 1,240
references cited in Techniques for Pollination Biologists
(Kearns and Inouye, 1993, University Press of Colorado,
available in May - see BEN 46), as well as several hundred more
entries related to pollination biology.   Many of the entries
in the database include abstracts of the papers. 

The database is distributed with a copy of PAPYRUS Retriever, a
subset of the PAPYRUS bibliographic database program.  With this
program you can search the database for keywords associated with
each entry in the database, for specific authors, years,
journals, or words in the title of an entry (or combinations of
these variables).  The results of a search can be displayed,
stored in a file, or printed as a bibliography in the
appropriate format for several relevant journals and most
popular word processing programs.  The database is available
from its author, David W. Inouye, Dept. of Zoology, University
of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (301-405-6946), e-mail
(BEN # 53  7-April-1993)

"In writing this book I have attempted to produce exactly the
kind of Flora that for twenty to thirty years I have wanted for
my own use." - Clive Stace

Stace, C. 1991. New flora of the British Isles.  Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge. 1226 p. ISBN 0-521-42793-2
[vinyl cover] Cost: about US$ 75.00

The Flora has been designated throughout to be user-friendly.
The plants included cover all natives, all naturalized plants,
all crop plants and all recurrent casuals. A feature of the
Flora is the provision of 150 pages of illustrations.
(BEN # 53  7-April-1993)

May 17, 1993  Botany Night. Dr. Job Kuijt will talk about
        parasitic plants. Swan Lake Nature House, 7:30 p.m.
        No charge.
May 29, 1993  Scots Broom removal party in Uplands Park.
        Cattle Point parking lot, 9:00 a.m. Bring any instrument
        of mass destruction that would cut, clip, or pull broom.
(BEN # 54  17-May-1993)
From: Student Enviro-Link <>
The British Columbia Government decision regarding Clayoquot
Sound reflects their consistent bias towards the forest
industry. Premier Harcourt announced today that 62% of the
remaining unlogged area of this region will now be available for
logging. Clayoquot Sound is the largest temperate rainforest
ecosystem left on Vancouver Island and has already lost 30% of
it's original forests.
This area has been identified by conservation biologists as
one of only two remaining areas in British Columbia large enough
to ensure the continued biodiversity of the temperate rainforest
ecosystem. The implementation of Premier Harcourt's decision will
remove Clayoquot Sound from this category.
"This decision removes once and for all any doubt as to whose
interest the B.C. government is promoting," commented Friends of
Clayoquot Sound member Garth Lenz. "What can we expect from a
government which has requested industry to advise them on forest
policy, invested 50 million dollars of taxpayers money in
MacMillan Bloedel, and has launched a European propaganda
campaign with the help of the logging company International
Forest Products?" continued Lenz.
"This decision by Premier Harcourt will be held up to the
scrutiny of the international community, a community which 
increasingly associates British Columbia with the kind of
environmental practices which Brazil and Sarawak are famous for.
The British Columbia Government's ability to speak with any moral
authority in the international arena will be severely undermined
by this decision", stated Valerie Langer, a director of the
Friends of Clayoquot Sound upon her recent return from a
slideshow tour of Europe with Lenz.
(BEN # 54  17-May-1993)
From: "Pakarinen, Pekka" <PAKARINEN@cc.Helsinki.FI>

[I noticed a new "Cloudberry Liqueur - LAKKA" in the British
Columbia Liquor Stores. I asked Dr. Pekka Pakarinen to explain
me the name. - AC]

LAKKA is the Finnish name for Rubus chamaemorus, especially for
the berry. So 'cloudberry liqueur' is is a good generic name for
the product. For the plant, another name 'muurain, or
suomuurain' is a lso commonly used in Finnish language and
botany books. Collection of cloudberries provides locally
important additional income for some north Finnish farmers.
Berries are sold in marketplaces in late summer at ca 7-10+ $ /
kg (and used mainly fresh). By the way, another Rubus, R.
arcticus, (sometimes translated Arctic bramble- berry) is also a
source of a very special product, 'mesimarja liqueur', sold in
taxfree shops of Nordic airports (Helsinki, Stockholm ..)
(BEN # 54  17-May-1993)
From: Bogemans Joost <>

Title : A contribution to the diversification of the production
of vegetable crops by research on cultivation methods and
selection of halophytes.

Objective: The objective is to domesticate a number of plant
species, which are adapted to saline or brackish soils and are
locally gathered and consumed as a vegetable (Aster tripolium,
Salicornia ssp. Crambe maritima and Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima)
The endproduct will be a number of cultivars that produce
commercially interesting horticultural crops.

Specific objectives : Attempting to cultivate halophytic species
under low salt conditions, without losing the special attributes
that make these species attractive for consumption. Production
of vegetable crops that can be used in tropical and subtropical
countries, where salinisation renders arable land otherwise

The dept. of plant physiology (VUB, Brussels ) is involved in
germination aspects, mineral nutrition of halophytes under low
salt conditions, tissue culture methods.

Countries involved : Belgium, The Netherlands and Portugal
(BEN # 54  17-May-1993)

Oecologia Montana is an international journal published in close
scientific cooperation with the High Tatras National Park in
Slovakia.  It is devoted to the study of mountain ecosystems,
population dynamics of plants and animals, wildlife protection,
conservation, problems of pollution, land degradation, etc.
Subscriptions: PRUNELLA PUBLISHERS, Jarmocna 1298/16, 058 01
Poprad, Slovakia. Cost: US$35.00. Major credit cards accepted.
(BEN # 54  17-May-1993)

Internet: Mailing Lists - 1993 Edition by Hardil, E.T.L. & N.
Neou. P.T.R. Printice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 356 p.
ISBN 0-13-327941-3 CDN $35.95

This is a list of mailing lists, electronic newsletters and
discussion groups. Yes, BEN is listed there as "a newsletter
distributed on e-mail, deals with botany and plant ecology of
predominantly British Columbia, Canada and the Pacific Northwest
(from California to Alaska) with broader reference to planet
(BEN # 54  17-May-1993)

I have encountered some problems with getting to BITNET. I would
greatly appreciate, if the BEN susbcribers on BITNET could give
me their Internet address.
(BEN # 54  17-May-1993)

May 29, 1993  Scot's Broom removal party in Uplands Park.
        Cattle Point parking lot, 9:00 a.m. Bring any instrument
        of mass destruction that would cut, clip, or pull broom.
Note from Andy MacKinnon <AMACKINNON@GALAXY.GOV.BC.CA>

Perhaps you should organize an annual Captain Walter Colquhoun
Grant (1822-1861) memorial broom-pull. I've been reading a bit
about him recently - Sooke resident 1849-1853, planted broom
seeds the British consul in the Sandwich Isles gave him, only
3 plants survived and look at where we are today! Apparently
on coming ashore at Cattle Point, Captain Grant mistook
Governor James Douglas' cattle for bison, and shot several,
incurring the wrath of the Governor.
The man deserves to be remembered somehow.

[After the announcement of the memorial broom-pull in the
Victoria newspaper, I am getting death threats from broom
lovers. I am afraid that Cattle Point will become a scene
of a civil war. - AC]
(BEN # 55  26-May-1993)
From: Alison Nicholson <>

Renewable Resources: A temporary instructor is required (Aug
23, 93 to May 27 94) to deliver curriculum in Ecology with the
ability to assist in other courses. Qualifications: B.Sc.
Forestry or related field, appropriate grad school credentials
preferred; a sound knowledge of ecosystem concepts as applied
to B.C. as well as biogeoclimatic ecosystem classification.
Competition number 93S45 Salary $40,237 to $63,056/yr.
Apply to Personnel Employee Relations, British Columbia
Institute of Technology, 3700 Willingdon Ave. Burnaby, B.C.
V5G 3H2 fax 604 434 8462.
(BEN # 55  26-May-1993)
From: Christine Hodgson <CHODGSON@GALAXY.GOV.BC.CA>

[Salicornia shoots used to be a fashionable food of British
Columbia Yuppies several years ago (sold as "sea asparagus")
and the annual harvests in the late 1980's reached 5 to 7
tons. Since then, the interest in Salicornia has declined.
Christine Hodgson, B.C. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries
& Food gave me the following update - AC]

There is an annual quota of 20 tons.  Theoretically, each
harvester submits harvest logs every week to report the amount
harvested.  Once the 20 tons is reached, the fishery is
closed.  There is no limit for each licence. Past harvest of
Salicornia has been between 2-5 tons/annum.  Each year, there
have been fewer applications for licences. For 1993, there are
only two persons who have licences, one for each area (one for
south Island, one for mid-Island, near Baynes Sound).
(BEN # 55  26-May-1993)

The Living Collections catalog of the Arnold Arboretum of
Harvard University is now accessible in the Biodiversity and
Biological Collections Gopher (

The Arnold Arboretum covers 107 hectares and has one of North
America's most diverse collection of New and Old World tree and
shrub species.

The total number of individual plants tracked in the collection
catalog is 14,889 which includes some 5,191 distinct species and
varieties that are searchable in the Gopher index.

For more information on access to the collection, contact:
Living Collections Department, The Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica
Plain, Massachusetts, 02130-3519, U.S.A.
E-Mail: Telephone: (617) 524-1718,
Facsimilie: (617) 524-1418
(BEN # 55  26-May-1993)

Fenger, M.A. et al. [eds.] 1993. Our living legacy: Proceedings
of a Symposium on Biological Diversity. Royal British Columbia
Museum, Victoria, B.C., Canada. 392 p. ISBN 0-7718-9355-8
[paperback]. Cost: CDN$ 14.95.

This is a collection of papers presented at the Symposium on
biological diversity, held in the spring of 1991 at the Royal
B.C. Museum. The contributions were divided into the following
sections: Global values of biodiversity, Principles of
biodiversity, Diversity in ecosystems of British Columbia,
Diversity in risk, Strategies, What can we do?, and Public
expectations. The contributions combine general and theoretical
views (e.g. Chris Pielou's "Measuring biodiversity: Quantitative
measures of quality") with the British Columbia experience (e.g.
Jim Pojar's 'Terrestrial diversity of British Columbia").
The publication is available from the Royal Museum Shop, Royal
British Columbia Museum, 675 Belleville Street, Victoria, B.C.,
Canada V8V 1X4, phone (604) 356-0505. Major credit cards
(BEN # 55  26-May-1993)

Mitchell, A.K. 1992. The yews and taxol: a bibliography
(1970-1991). Information Report BC-X-338. Forestry Canada,
Victoria. 31 p. ISBN 0-662-19896-4

Holmes, T.A. & L. E. Manning. 1992. Recent developments in
microscopic techniques for application in forest research.
Information Report BC-X-339. Forestry Canada, Victoria. 12 p.
ISBN 0-662-19897-2

Both publications can be obtained, free of charge, from the
Pacific Forestry Centre, 506 West Burnside Rd., Victoria, B.C.,
Canada V8Z 1M5. Phone (604) 363-0600
(BEN # 55  26-May-1993)

Professor  Vladimir  Krajina died on May 31, 1993, at the age of
88, in Vancouver. Born on  January  30,  1905  in  Slavice  near
Trebic  (now  Czech  Republic), he received his doctorate degree
from Charles University in Prague in 1927.  During  his  student
days  he described Pinguicula bohemica, a new species endemic to
central Bohemia.

In 1934 Krajina was appointed Associate Professor  in  Geobotany
and  Plant  Systematics  at  Charles  University  in Prague. His
habilitation work "Die Pflanzengesellschaften des  Mlynica-Tales
in  den  Vysoke  Tatry  .."  was  published  in the Beihefte zum
Botanischen Centralblatt in 1933 and 1934. "Though a product  of
a  single  scholar,  this  monograph excels in its (1) universal
view of subalpine and alpine plant life, (2) balanced evaluation
of both phanerogamic  and  cryptogamic  plants,  (3)  year-round
observations  and measurements of climatic and soil factors, and
(4) integrated phytosociological synthesis  ...  of  plant  com-
munities in the territory under study" (Jenik, 1992).

During the Second World War, universities in Bohemia and Moravia
were  closed  and Krajina became one of the leaders of the Czech
underground resistance movement. He was the first one to  estab-
lish  radio contact with the Czech government in exile (based in
England). During his underground activity he supplied the  West-
ern  Allies with vital intelligence information. He was captured
by the Nazi's in 1943 and barely escaped execution.

After the war Krajina became a Full  Professor  at  the  Charles
University  in  Prague and the Head of the Geobotany Department.
He was also elected  to  the  Czechoslovak  parliament.  As  the
General Secretary of the main opposition party he fought against
the  Communist  Party  and  their intrigues. After the communist
takeover of Czechoslovakia in February 1948, Krajina had to flee
Czechoslovakia and seek political refuge in  Canada.  The  first
note  about  the  communist  coup  that  was  published  in Time
Magazine mentioned Vladimir Krajina and  the  note  clearly  il-
lustrates the danger Krajina was facing:
"  Armed  police  raided and sacked headquarters of the National
Socialist Party, seeking the party's secretary general, Vladimir
Krajina. But Krajina, who still had parliamentary immunity,  was
not arrested just yet." [Time March 1, 1948]

Krajina was sentenced (in absentia) to 25 years of imprisonment,
and  some of his close allies (most notably Dr. Milada Horakova)
were executed.

Dr. Krajina started to teach in the Department of Botany at  the
University  of  British  Columbia in Vancouver as a Special Lec-
turer in 1949, and became Assistant Professor in 1951, Associate
Professor in 1954, and  Full  Professor  in  1958.  In  1973  he
retired  but  as  Professor Emeritus he continued his scientific

Two main themes can  characterize  Krajina's  broad  and  varied
botanical interests in Canada:

 1. botanical  exploration  of  British Columbia, especially the
    study of plant communities and ecosystems, and

 2. nature conservation in British Columbia.

The first theme culminated in Krajina's system of biogeoclimatic
zones. Krajina and his many students sampled and studied vegeta-
tion and ecosystems all  over  British  Columbia  stressing  the
close  tie between plants, soils and climate. The biogeoclimatic
classification forms a framework for any regional  natural  his-
tory  study,  and  most  importantly,  a framework for improving
forestry practises in British Columbia and putting forestry on a
sound ecological base.

In the second theme, nature conservation, Krajina  combined  his
scientific background with political skills. Based on principles
drawn  by  the  International Biological Program, Krajina called
for the practical application  of  conservation  ideas  and  his
effort  resulted  in  the  Ecological Reserves Act passed by the
British Columbia Legislature in 1971. Using  this  act,  a  wide
range  of  natural  areas  can  be  set  aside  and protected as
ecological reserves. Krajina's goal was to protect at least  one
per  cent  of British Columbia's area in ecological reserves. At
this moment, 134 ecological  reserves  have  been  created  that
protect about 160,000 ha (one third of which are marine waters).
Yes,  we  still  have  a  long  way  to  go  in order to fulfill
Krajina's vision.

In 1972 Krajina won the George Lawson Medal  from  the  Canadian
Botanical  Association  and  in  1981  he  received the Order of
Canada. In 1990 Vladimir Krajina visited Czechoslovakia and  was
decorated with the "Order of the White Lion," the highest honour
reserved  for  a foreign [!] citizen by the Czech government. At
the same visit, Prof.  Krajina  was  granted  the  "Foreign  [!]
Honorary  Membership"  in the Czech Botanical Society. One issue
of the Czech Botanical Society journal Preslia was dedicated  to
Prof.  Vladimir  J. Krajina and both Krajina's biography and his
botanical bibliography were published in that issue by Jan Jenik
(Jenik, J. 1992. Professor Vladimir J. Krajina - Honorary Member
of the Czechoslovak Botanical Society.  Preslia,  Praha  64:291-

Vladimir  Krajina fought all his life to advance science and the
quality of life of his fellow men and women.
"We all thank him for inspiration and for setting  an  admirable
example  showing  that  a scientist's professional career can be
linked with citizen's honourable life in which  absolute  values
of  democratic  society  get  priority,  regardless  of personal
risks" (Jenik, 1992).

Adolf Ceska <>
(BEN # 56  6-June-1993)
From: Globe & Mail, June 23, 1993

British  Columbia  will  turn  958,000  hectares  of  the remote
Tatshenshini-Alsek region into a Class A  wilderness  park  -  a
decision  that  infuriated  mining  company  officials  who long
sought to dig into the estimated $8.5 billion in copper and gold
reserves there. The area will be nominated as a  United  Nations
world  heritage  site. Linked up with existing Canadian and U.S.
national parks in the Yukon and Alaska, the parkland becomes one
of the largest international protected areas in the world -  8.5
million hectares.
For vegetation description of the area see Jim Pojar's report in
BEN # 11.
(BEN # 57  24-June-1993)

Botany  BC  meeting in Fairmont Hot Springs (June 17-19) was the
largest BOTANY BC meeting ever. Ninety-six participants gathered
in Fairmont Hot Spring resort for another annual meeting of  the
Botanical  Organization To Accomplish Nothing Yearly (officially
known as BOTANY BC).

Papers about the Rocky Mountain Trench and plant-insect interac-
tions were on the agenda. Dr. Stan Rowe, Professor Emeritus from
the University of Saskatchewan (now living in New Denver,  B.C.)
gave  an  after  dinner address on "Environmental Ethics and the
Spirit of Place" elaborating on "Places with Power"  (sensu  Dr.
Jim  Pojar)  and  "Genius Loci." In the evening many of us could
communicate with genii loci that reside in the local hot pool.

Next BOTANY BC meeting (1994) should be on the  Queen  Charlotte
Islands  (Haida-gwa).  The  organizing  committee  is chaired by
Rosemund and Jim Pojar.
(BEN # 57  24-June-1993)
From: John DeLapp c/o Martha Farris <>

POSITION:Program Manager, PCN:  304056
Full-time, 12-month, permanent

LOCATION:Alaska Natural Heritage Program
Environment and Natural Resources Institute
School of Public Affairs
University of Alaska Anchorage

SALARY:Range 80, Commensurate with experience.

QUALIFICATIONS:Ph.D. in ecology, botany, zoology, or related
field or equivalent in education and experience.  Experience in
applied scientific research with emphasis in conservation
biology.  Experience in scientific program development including
securing funding, drafting proposals, developing budgets and
managing accounts.  Program management experience organizing,
coordinating, and managing multiple projects with supervisory
responsibility.  Extensive biological experience in Alaska and/or
northern ecosystems and familiarity with Alaska conservation
issues.  Knowledge of biogeography, and physical processes, and
global issues in conservation biology.  Experience in
establishing good working relationships with federal and state
agencies and knowledge of their legal mandates, organizational
structure, and key agency contacts.  Experience in college
teaching at undergraduate or graduate levels.  Knowledge of The
Nature Conservancy's Natural Heritage Program methodologies and
BCD database management system.  Experience in computers,
database management systems, and geographic information systems.

RESPONSIBILITIES:The Program Manager reports to the Director of
the Environment and Natural Resources Institute (ENRI) which in
an integral unit of the University of Alaska Anchorage's School
of Public Affairs.  The Program Manager is responsible for the
overall supervision and development of the Alaska Natural
Heritage Program.  Major responsibilities include a) coordinating
the administration, science, and data management associated with
building and developing applications of the Biological and
Conservation Database (BCD) on the most rare and significant
elements of biological and ecological diversity in Alaska; b)
developing cooperative agreements and liaisons with public
agencies, The Nature Conservancy, and others in maintaining and
developing the BCD; c) promoting the use of BCD network
management, resource protection and planning efforts; d) pursuing
and developing financial support from public and private sources
for general program funding and special projects in applied
research, inventory, monitoring, and conservation, and; e)
participating in the overall mission and activities of ENRI and
UAA, which may include teaching, presenting faculty seminar
papers, and advising students.

CLOSING DATE:Review of applicants will begin July 9, 1993, and
continue until the position is filled.

APPLICATION PROCEDURE:Submit a letter of application,
comprehensive resume or vita (must include education, work
experience, and publications), and the name, address and
telephone number of three references to:

Personnel Services
University of Alaska Anchorage
3890 University Lake Drive
Anchorage, AK  99508
(907) 786-4608
FAX: (907) 786-4727

Women, minorities, disabled persons, and Vietnam era veterans
are encouraged to apply.
(BEN # 57  24-June-1993)
From: Roy Cranston <>

An Order-In-Council amending noxious weed schedule has just been

Weeds classed as noxious within all regions of the Province:

Abutilon theophrasti      Velvetleaf
Aegilops cylindrica       Jointed Goatgrass
Avena fatua               Wild Oats
Centaurea diffusa         Diffuse Knapweed
Centaurea maculosa        Spoted Knapweed
Centaurea solstitialis    Yellow Starthistle
Chondrilla juncea         Rush Skeletonweed
Cirsium arvense           Canada Thistle
Crupina vulgaris          Common Crupina
Cuscuta spp.              Dodder
Cynoglossum officinale    Hound's-tongue
Euphorbia esula           Leafy Spurge
Linaria dalmatica         Dalmatian Toadflax
Linaria vulgaris          Common Toadflax
Matricaria maritima       Scentless Chamomile
Senecio jacobaea          Tansy Ragwort
Sonchus arvensis          Perennial Sow Thistle
Sonchus oleraceus         Annual Sow Thistle

"Regional"  weeds,  classed  as noxious within the boundaries of
certain regional districts will be listed in the next  issue  of
(BEN # 58  4-July-1993)

According  to Kertezs & Gandhi (Brittonia 45[1993]: 181-182) the
well known and wide spread  sweet-cicely  (Osmorhiza  chilensis)
should  be called Osmorhiza berteroi DC. Osmorhiza chilensis was
described by Hooker & Arnott in The Botany of Captain  Beechey's
Voyage  and  published  in  December  1830.  Osmorhiza  berteroi
(originally spelled berterii) was proposed in the 4th volume  of
De  Candolle's  Prodromus  and published in late September 1830,
few months earlier than O. chilensis.

Osmorhiza berteroi was named after Carlo Guiseppe Bertero (1789-
1831), Italian physician, botanist, who  as  a  naval  physician
travelled  in  West  Indies  (1816-1821) and settled in Chile in
1827. He died in April 1831 when the  ship  which  was  to  have
brought  him  to  Valparaiso from Tahiti disappeared on the high
(BEN # 58  4-July-1993)
From: Science Vol. 260 - 9 April 1993 p. 154,155.

Plant pathologist Gary Strobel and  chemist  Andrea  Stierle  of
Montana State University sampled about 50 fungi from Pacific yew
trees  and  found  one  that  can  produce taxol on its own. The
fungus, Taxomyces andreanae [newly described genus and species],
may have inadvertently picked up from the yew tree a copy of the
gene (or genes) for taxol. The  fungus  is  manufacturing  taxol
even  when  removed  from  its  host and grown in the artificial
(BEN # 58  4-July-1993)
From: TRAFFIC Bulletin Vol. 13, No. 2 (1992): 78.

On 2 July 1992, at Marquette  District  court,  Michigan,  Heinz
Pinkepank  of  Germany  faced  charges under the US Lacey Act of
illegally digging and removing 85 specimens  of  the  indigenous
Giant  Ratllesnake  Orchid Goodyera oblongifolia (Appendix II of
CITES) from the  Pictured  Rocks  National  Lakeshore  in  Grand
Marais,  Michigan.  The  defendant  admitted the charge and told
Park Service personnel that he planned  to  trade  or  sell  the
plants in Europe. He was fined US$3,525.
(BEN # 58  4-July-1993)

A  poster  display on British Columbia biodiversity was prepared
by the B.C. Ministry of Forests, Research Division. The  display
is  approximately  6'  tall  and  8'  wide  and consists of four
"cards" that fit into the overall self-supporting structure.  If
you  are interested in renting the display, contact Sandy Cyr at
the Forest Service Communication Section at (604) 387-7114.
(BEN # 58  4-July-1993)

A  memorial  service for Dr. Vladimir J. Krajina will be held on
Wednesday July 21, 1993  at  2:00  p.m.  in  the  University  of
British  Columbia  Chapel (formerly United Church), 5375 Univer-
sity Blvd. (near Toronto Rd). This church is on the  north  side
of the University Boulevard, west of the golf club.
(BEN # 59  15-July-1993)

July 20, 1993 (Tuesday) 10:30 a.m. - Dr. Siraj Hasan (C.S.I.R.O.
      Biological  Control  Unit, Montpellier, France): "Progress
      towards biological control of  weeds  of  European  origin
      with   particular   respect  to  phytopathogens."  Pacific
      Forestry Centre, 506 West Burnside Rd.

July 24, 1993 (Saturday) 9:00 - 12:00 a.m. - Controlled  removal
      of  Scotch  Broom in Uplands Park, Phase 2. Meet at Cattle
      In this phase we will pull or cut broom from Joel Ussery's
      test plots left behind as controls.  This  action  is  not
      widely  advertised, we don't need so many people as in the
      first attack, but come and bring your friend, if you can.
(BEN # 59  15-July-1993)
JAMES C. HICKMAN (1941 - 1993)
From: The Jepson Globe (Vol.4, No.4)

Jim Hickman, editor of the newly published Jepson Manual: Higher
plants of California, died on June 15 of Aids-related pneumonia.
The landmark field guide to all California's native  plants  was
result  of  Jim's  planning and organizing. We are grateful that
Jim lived long enough to see the result of his efforts.

Born in Iowa, Jim spent his early years in Portsmouth, Ohio.  He
obtained a degree in biology from Oberlin College and a Ph.D. in
ecology  and  systematic  botany  from the University of Oregon.
Besides teaching at Washington State University, Pullman, Swath-
more College and University of  California,  Berkeley,  Jim  was
editor  of  Madrono  and  a  program  director with the National
Science Foundation.

Jim's life was a celebration. Music, intellectual curiosity, and
friends were his touchstones. His passing reflected his  life  -
one  of  awareness,  courage and surrounded by friends. James C.
Hickman's name on The Jepson Manual is fitting memorial  to  his
vision and perseverance.

[I  met  Jim  in  1978[?],  when he and Dr. Melinda Denton led a
field trip through the Cascade Mountains of central  Oregon.  It
was  the  best  organized  field  trip  I have been on and every
participant of the trip greatly appreciated Jim's vast knowledge
of plants and the phytogeography of the Pacific Northwest. - AC]
(BEN # 59  15-July-1993)
From: The Jepson Globe (Vol.4, No.4)

The first printing of The Jepson Manual (7,500 copies) has  been
sold  out.  The new manual was snatched up in record time - just
three months after coming onto the market. The  second  printing
is already underway and, hopefully, will be available by August.
The  Jepson  Manual  Project  Staff  would like to hear from you
about any errors (the entire family of  Balsaminaceae  was  left
out!)  and  about  any  difficulties you encounter using keys or
descriptions. Address your letters  to  Jepson  Manual  Project,
Jepson Herbarium, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.
(BEN # 59  15-July-1993)
From:  CBO  radio interview with Dr. A. Emery, Director June 21,

Jennifer Frye (JF - interviewer):  "Roberta  has  just  told  us
about  big  doings of one sort at the Canadian Museum of Nature.
Well, staff at the museum are awaiting ... word on the result of
reorganization that could mean 51 [only 1  from  management]  of
the museum's 253 employees lose their jobs."

Dr. Alan Emery (AE - Director of the Canadian Museum of Nature):
"We  want  to  catapult  the museum from a kind of a traditional
organization that deals with the old-fashioned kinds of  museum-
type  exhibits,  old-fashioned  types  of  research  and ways of
holding collections, into the future; to be a  new  dynamic  or-
ganization,  one  that's in touch with nature (which is our sub-
ject) and also in touch with society and at the leading edge  of
our research and collection efforts."

JF:  "Some  employees  even had said they worry their phones are
being tapped, morale is so poor..."

AE: "Yes, there's two philosophies of how to do..  how  to  deal
with  employees  from  a  management  perspective.  One is to be
secretive, and that is to do everything completely behind closed
doors" ..."but we wanted to be more open and to use our  staff's
input as much as we could.."

JF: "When do you think they'll know for sure if they are cut?"

AE:  "Don't know. The board has delayed the decision for 30 days
from that board meeting, which would be July 9th, and then  they
will decide when they are going to make the decision."

If  you  are interested in the full transcript of the interview,
send me your snail address or the FAX number.  The  letter  that
accompanied  the  transcript had a P.S. "Please don't mention my
name" and stated "the days of  systematic  botany,  as  we  have
known it in the museum, are numbered."

The  Board  of Trustees was supposed to meet on Friday July 9th.
According to the news from Ottawa, the meeting was postponed and
now it has been schedulled for July 20.

Dr. Alan R. Emery is an ichthyologist,  B.Sc.(Hons.)  University
of  Toronto,  M.Sc. McGill University, and Ph.D. from University
of Miami. He was Curator of Ichthyology and Herpatology  at  the
ROM  and  Associate Prof., Univ. of Toronto 1980-83 and has been
the Director of the Canadian Museum of Nature since 1983.
(BEN # 59  15-July-1993)
From: Jim Pojar

Why isn't Cytisus scoparius a noxious weed ? I mean  officially,
we all know it really is.

AC: I asked the same question in 1979. The answer I got from the
Ministry of Agriculture was: "Because it grows only in abandoned
(BEN # 59  15-July-1993)
From: Roy Cranston <>

Regional  weeds - weeds classed as noxious within the boundaries
of the following regional districts:

Acroptilon repens (Russian Knapweed): North Okanagan
Agropyron repens (Quackgrass): Peace River
Arctium  spp.  (Burdock):  Bulkely-Nechako,  Cariboo,  Columbia-
      Shuswap,   Fraser-Fort   George,   Kitimat-Stikine,  North
      Okanagan,  Okanagan-Similkameen,  Peace  River,  Thompson-
Cardaria spp. (Hoary Cress): North Okanagan, Thompson-Nicola
Carduus acanthoides (Plumeless Thistle): Central Kootenay
Chrysanthemum   leucanthemum   (Oxeye   Daisy):  Cariboo,  North
      Okanagan, Peace River
Echium vulgare (Blueweed): Cariboo, Central Kootenay,  Columbia-
      Shuswap, Okanagan-Similkameen, Thompson-Nicola
Fagopyrum tataricum (Tartary Buckweat): Peace River
Galium aparine (Cleavers): Peace River
Hieracium   aurantiacum   (Orange  Hawkweed):  Cariboo,  Central
      Kootenay, Columbia-Shuswap, East Kootenay
Kochia scoparia (Kochia): Peace River
Lychnis alba (White Cockle): Peace River
Potentilla   recta   (Sulphur   Cinquefoil):   Columbia-Shuswap,
Salsola kali (Russian Thistle): Peace River
Setaria viridis (Green Foxtail): Peace River
Silene noctiflora (Night-flowering Catchfly): Peace River
Sinapis arvensis (Wild Mustard): Peace River
Tanacetum  vulgare  (Common  Tansy): Central Kootenay, Columbia-
      Shuswap, North Okanagan
Tribulus terrestris (Puncturevine): Okanagan-Similkameen
(BEN # 60  26-July-1993)
From: Robert D. Scheer <>

[Haynes' Lease Ecological Reserve # 100 is located adjacent to N
end of Osoyoos Lake, 6 km  NNW  of  Osoyoos.  The  reserve  lies
within  a  very restricted life zone commonly referred to as the
Osoyoos-Arid Biotic Area.  This  extends  as  two  fingers  into
British  Columbia from the United States, one up the Similkameen
Valley to near Keremeos, the other up  the  Okanagan  Valley  to
Okanagan  Falls. Many species of aridland plants and animals are
rare or endangered in both a provincial and national context.  -
B.C. Ecological Reserves Program]

On  Friday  July 7 a fire of unknown cause swept through Haynes'
Lease Ecological Reserve (no. 100). The  fire  which  originated
just  north  of  the  reserve was carried by brisk winds through
virtually all of the flatlands and  much  of  the  rocky  slopes

An  inspection  of  the ravaged area the following week revealed
that many of the grasses have survived  and  are  showing  green
growth  already.  Many  of  the cactus also showed the roots had
survived although the majority of the  plant  above  ground  had
been killed.

The  majority  of  the reserve was raised to a blackened cinder.
The hottest burn was at the base of the mountain  where  vegeta-
tion  was  thickest,  much lighter damage was evident within the
area burned two years ago. A few patches near  the  parking  lot
escaped  the  flames  and will be useful as comparison in future
years. Most of the Ponderosa Pine will probably survive.  During
the  inspection  last week the only terrestrial animals observed
were ants and small spiders. A canyon  wren  was  heard  calling
from the rocks above.

Unfortunately, an unknown local attempted to control the fire by
creating  fire  breaks  with  a  tractor  with some sort of blow
blade. This  resulted  in  further  (unnatural)  damage  to  the
reserve with out successfully halting the flames.

The  Forest  Service  reacted  splendidly to the situation. They
showed special sensitivity to the reserve and took pains to  use
existing  trails  and tracks to access the fire. In the air they
were careful to avoid releasing fire retrained over the reserve.
Forest Service staff have offered to restore the burned area  by
seeding  and  raking  the  areas  disturbed by the tractor. B.C.
Parks has asked that no action be taken to avoid further distur-
bance of the reserve and to allow natural revegetation.

BC Parks is evaluating the  damage  now  and  hopes  to  quickly
replace  burned  out  fence posts to protect the area from live-
stock. Further management action to  reduce  the  potential  for
noxious weed invasion is required.

For  further  information  please  contact the BC Parks District
office at 494-0321.
(BEN # 60  26-July-1993)

The wildfire toasted the Haynes Lease  ecological  reserve  (eco
reserve 100) at the north east end of Osoyoos Lake. The burn was
fairly  intense  in  most  of the reserve, burning the grass and
most shrubs. The fences will have to be replaced, too.  It  also
burned  the adjacent grazing reserve and crown land lease, where
we have most of our burrowing owl  burrows,  but  the  fire  was
spotty  and  less  intense there, likely due to less fuel. About
150 continuous hectares were  burned.  Another  50  hectares  of
spotty burns occurred. The cause of the burn is under investiga-
tion;  rumours that a campfire (made by transient fruit pickers)
started it are circulating.

There were no burrowing owls in the area so there was no  direct
impact  on  this  species.  It did melt some of our plastic pipe
burrows, so they will have to be repaired for next year.

Fire is a natural part of the ecosystem and it normally wouldn't
be a big deal to have a burn in the area. Unfortunately, the eco
reserve was one of very  few  places  left  with  that  type  of
habitat  in  a  "relatively  natural"  state.  It should be very
apparent that small isolated reserve areas have a problem,  when
it   comes  to  protecting  representative  habitats.  A  single
catastrophe can change them dramatically for  decades  to  come.
Also,  some  vegetation  management  (small  controlled burns to
reduce ground fuel) might need to be considered to maintain  the
vegetation in the future. The biggest concerns are the potential
encroachment  of  noxious  weeds into cat guards and the cleared
soil, and soil erosion.

On the bright side, it is a good opportunity to understand  more
about  grassland  fires, small protected areas and wildlife use.
It is a very intensively studied area.

Dr. Geoff Scudder has been studying invertebrates there for some
time and has an excellent pre-burn data set.  His  insect  traps
were  not  destroyed by the fire and he has reset them to record
what comes back into the area and how fast.

Chris Shewchuck has over 100 marked snakes in the area and a few
with radio transmitters. He should be  able  to  get  some  good
information on snake habitat selection.

Kelly Chapman and Sara Short have trapped small mammals recently
at the site and could get some comparisons.

Ted  Lea and crew did a few vegetation plots in the area and can
easily monitor vegetation changes.

This was sent to Ted Lea for info.
 Much of the area seemed to have shrubs that  were  burned  into
the  ground. The bunch grasses didn't seem to have done too bad.
I don't think many burned into the ground. Pam found  some  that
had  grown  since  the fire. I didn't cover that much of the eco
reserve from black sage road to the 1st cross fence to the east.
We mostly stayed near the throne. I took a role of slides trying
to document it but I don't  think  they  will  convey  the  burn
intensity  very  well. I asked Alec McLean if they were going to
document the intensity and he said he thought they would be able
to do it roughly from pictures (from helicopter)  and  a  little
ground work. If there are other things that you would like me to
do, let me know. I may be able to do them but can't commit.

The general consensus was

-  MoF will hand rake their cat guards and toss any broken limbs
on the path to reduce wind erosion.
- They will not seed in the ecological reserve.
- They will try to seed hybrid infertile bluebunch in the  areas
west  of the "Throne" [the dominant rocky bluff in the reserve],
not in the ecological reserve. (Pam's suggestion).  I  was  con-
cerned  about introducing external genetics, since we are trying
to treat areas adjacent to the ecological reserve  as  a  buffer
zone with similar values and controls.
-  The idea of pulling knapweed for the next few years also came
- Bob Scheer will provide more comment on the ecological reserve
after he sees the site.

Any comments or suggestions are welcome.

Mike found a toasted skink...the  only  real  evidence  of  dead

He  also located some aboriginal food storage pits. He knew they
were there but the vegetation was burned off making  them  quite

Lark  sparrows  were  singing  from the burned area. Quite a few
beetles were walking through the site. Mike found a black  widow
with  an  egg case still attached (and alive) to rocks with com-
pletely burned vegetation surrounding them. The prairie  falcons
were  still  there.  Swifts  were foraging over the area. A rock
wren was foraging in the burned area on the lower  part  of  the
throne. (The throne seat grassland was not touched by the fire)
(BEN # 60  26-July-1993)
From: Robert T. Ogilvie <>

At  one  of  the  lunch  tables  during the Botany B.C. meetings
someone raised the question about what  is  marsh-gas  and  what
makes  it glow. Deep in my memory- bank I recalled reading about
the glow of will-o'-the-wisps dancing over peat bogs,  and  that
it  was from methane released from peat decomposition. I assumed
that the methane was ignited from the heat of the organic matter
decomposing just as in compost piles.

Back in Victoria, I read the June  19  issue  of  New  Scientist
which  summarises a paper by two Hamburg biochemists (Gassmann &
Glindemann, 1993, Angewandte Chemie, p.  761),  who  have  found
that  some  decomposing  bacteria  can reduce phosphate (PO4) to
diphosphane (P2H4), a gas which burns spontaneously in air.  The
authors  suggest  that  it  is the diphosphane which ignites the
methane gas, producing the  glowing  will-o'-the-wisp  over  the
marshes. These workers also discuss that diphosphane is produced
by anaerobic microbial decomposition in marine sediments, sewage
sludge,  and  the  digestive  tracts  of  animals. They go on to
suggest that the methane gas ignited by  diphosphane  could  ex-
plain the mystery of ghosts floating around graveyards.

Some  of the other old names for this phenomenon are: swamp-gas,
will-with-a-  wisp,  jack-a-lantern,  corpse-candle,  and  Ignis
Fatuus (=fool's-fire).

As  I  confessed at the lunch-table, my source of information is
second-hand at best, since it is based only on the written word.
I have never seen  a  will-o'-  the-wisp  nor  a  corpse-candle.
However,  I  have never walked across a peat bog or a grave-yard
at night.
(BEN # 60  26-July-1993)