Issues #75 to #89 (June to Decemebr 1994)


Our host, old friendly, is closing down and all users,
including  BEN,  got  their  eviction  notices. BEN will move to and  we  are  working  on  setting  up  a
listserv that will handle mailing and subscribing automatically.
All  current BEN subscribers will included on a new mailing list
and you will get more details about the listserv soon.

I would like to thank John Nemeth, the invisible man behind  the  system,  for  all  the help he gave me running BEN. I
enjoyed the way the system was set up, and I greatly appreciated
all the work John Nemeth has done for us. Many, many  thanks.  I
also  relied  on  the  help of Gary Shearman, who will remain in
close contact with BEN as a principal  figure  in  the  Victoria
Freenet Association.

Please,  address  all your mail to
(any submissions to BEN - short or long - are welcome).  Thanks.
- Adolf Ceska
(BEN # 75  6-June-1994)

All   the  back  issues  of  BEN  have  been  stored  on  gopher (as four large ASCII files  -  ca  350  K
each)  and  they  are  WAIS  indexed.  Using this index, you can
search BEN for any key word and you will get  all  the  articles
that  contain  the  key  word.  The  address  of  the  gopher is (in "All the Gopher Servers in the World"
this gopher is listed under "Victoria Freenet Association")  and
when you connect with the freenet gopher, you select
4. Environment and Science Information / 4. Botany.
(BEN # 75  6-June-1994)

The  following  intensive  weeklong  seminars  will be held this
summer on the coast of Maine at  Eagle  Hill  Wildlife  Research
Station,  just  east  of  Acadia  National Park and just west of
Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge. The seminars  are  offered
primarily  for  an  advanced and professional audience, but also
for well-qualified university and college students  and  amateur
naturalists. Two graduate credits are available for each seminar
from  the  University  of  Maine.  For  more information, please
contact ...

     Eagle Hill Wildlife Research Station
     PO Box 99
     Steuben, ME 04680-0099
     207-546-2821, FAX -3042

List of seminars:
Quantitative Sampling of Vegetation (Dr. Ala S. White,  June  5-
Field Ethnobotany (Dr. James A. Duke, June 12-18)
Sedges - Cyperaceae (Dr. Anton A. Reznicek, July 3-9)
Northern  Forest  Workshop:  Insect/Tree  Associations  (Richard
      Dearborn, July 3-9)
Advanced Mycology Foray (Dr. Allen Bessette, July 10-16)
Ecology, Geology, & History of Eastern Maine Salt  Marshes  (Dr.
      Harold  Borns,  Dr. George Jacobsen, Dr. David Smith, July
Marine Botany: The Macroalgae (Dr. Arthur Mathieson, July 17-23)
Advanced Wetlands Ecology (Dr. William A. Niering, July 24-30)
Wetland Identification, Classification, and  Delineation  (Ralph
      Tiner, July 31-August 6)
Aquatic Flowering Plants (Dr. C. Barre Hellquist, August 7-13)
Northern  Forest  Workshop: Soil/Site Relationships (Dr. Russell
      Briggs, August 7-13)
General Lichenology (Dr. Sharon Gowan, August 14-20)
Advanced Natural History Illustration Workshop (Dennis  O'Brien,
      September 4-10)
Mosses and Liverworts. I (Dr. Howard Crum, September 11-17)
Mosses and Liverworts. II (Dr. Howard Crum, September 18-24)
The Science of the Professional Botanical Survey (Jerry Jenkins,
      September 25 - October 1)
Fall Mushroom Foray (Dr. Samuel Ristich, September 25-October 1)
(BEN # 75  6-June-1994)

Pojar,  J. & A. MacKinnon [eds.] 1994. Plants of coastal British
Columbia including Washington, Oregon & Alaska. - B.C.  Ministry
of  Forests, Victoria and Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton. 527 p.
ISBN 1-55105-042-0 [paperback] CDN$ 24.95

This book is a sequel to the very successful  guide  "Plants  of
northern  British Columbia" [see BEN # 31]. It deals with a much
larger area and with many more species than the first book.  The
impressive number (1,100) of colour photographs is almost double
of  that  in  the  first  book. A new feature of this guide is a
large number of distribution maps - the  distribution  is  shown
for  794  taxa.  The guide combines illustrations and 1/2 to one
page write-ups on  featured  species  with  keys,  diagrams  and
comparison tables.

In this book, I missed some comparison tables that were included
in  the first guide: character tables of violets, lilies, poten-
tilla.  ---  Some  keys  are   dangerously   simplified:   Carex
lasiocarpa  will be identified as Carex rossii, Ceratophyllum as
Myriophyllum. --- Problems of synonyms are treated with a phrase
"also known as ...." and no distinction  is  made  between  true
synonyms   (Dodecatheon   pulchellum   is   also   known  as  D.
pauciflorum) and different taxonomic  concepts  (Dryopteris  ex-
pansa is also known as D. assimilis [true synonym], D. austriaca
and  D.  dilatata [different concepts]). I was horrified to read
that Myriophyllum verticillatum "is also known  as  M.  spicatum
var.  spicatum,"  endorsing  a  unique  blunder that was made in
Hitchcock et al. Similarly, Plectritis brachystemon is mentioned
as "P. macrocera,"  Cornus  unalaschkensis  is  treated  as  "C.
canadensis,"  etc.  ---  I  don't  think  that it is politically
correct to segregate  carnivorous,  parasitic,  and  saprophytic
vascular  plants  into  a  group  called Oddballs. Why don't the
Oddballs include Cuscuta or mistletoes? What  about  louseworts,
paintbrushes and other parasitic plants of the Scrophulariaceae?

In  spite  of  this criticism, the guide is a nice piece of work
and it will serve as an excellent learning tool  to  all  people
interested  in  plants  of  the  Pacific Northwest. The authors,
editors, and publishers have done a nice job and the book  fills
a  very  important  niche  in  the botanical literature for this
area. The book includes a wealth of ethnobotanical  information,
and  is  available  in  bookstores,  or if you are interested in
contacting the publisher, Lone Pine Publishing's phone number is
(BEN # 75  6-June-1994)

Douglas, G.W., G.B. Straley & Del Meidinger [eds.].  1994.  Vas-
cular  plants  of  British  Columbia.  Part  4 - Monocotyledons.
Special report series # 4, B.C.  Ministry  of  Forests.  257  p.
[paperback]  ISBN 0-7718-8757-4 (set); ISBN 0-7718-8761-2 (pt.4)
Cost: CDN $26.00 [Available from: Crown Publications  Inc.,  546
Yates  Str.,  Victoria,  B.C.  V8W 1K8 (604) 386-4636 Fax.:(604)

The last volume of the Vascular plants of British Columbia deals
with the monocotyledons. The fourth volume  is  about  twice  as
large  as  any of the previous volumes and besides the treatment
of monocots (keys,  synonymy  and  distribution)  it  gives  the
summary  chapters  to  the  whole set (phytogeographic elements,
number of taxa in each family, etc.).
(BEN # 75  6-June-1994)

Cordillera is to be published twice a year,  initially,  by  the
Federation of British Columbia Naturalists and those working on,
or  interested  in, the natural history of British Columbia. The
first (March 1994) issue started with an  important  article  on
"The  fameflower  (Talinum  sediforme):  Portrait of a Northwest
endemic" by Trevor Goward & Helen Knight and a review article on
serpentine soils by Bert Brink & Kay Fletcher.

Subscription orders (FCBN members CDN  $15.00,  others  and  in-
stitutions  CDN  $20.00) should be sent to Cordillera, Subscrip-
tion Department, Box 473, Vernon, B.C., Canada V1T 6M4;  submis-
sions  should  be  sent to The Editor, Cordillera, Box 625, Kam-
loops, B.C., Canada V2C 5L7.
(BEN # 75  6-June-1994)

MAY 4, 1556: LUCA GHINI dies  at  Bologna,  Italy.  One  of  the
founders  of  modern  botany,  Ghini  was born in Croara d'Imola
around 1490. He studied medicine at the  University  of  Bologna
and  taught  at  Bologna  for  many  years, DEVISING A METHOD OF
Ghini left Bologna in 1544 to take up  a  professorship  at  the
University  of  Pisa,  and he established there one of the first
university botanical gardens. He travelled  extensively  in  the
vicinity of Pisa and Bologna collecting specimens for his garden
and  herbarium,  and  his  scientific  correspondents  sent  him
botanical material from as far away as Egypt. Although  he  pub-
lished little during his life, Ghini numbered among his students
an entire generation of early modern European botanists, includ-
ing  Andrea  Cesalpino,  Ulisse  Aldrovandi,  Luigi  Anguillara,
William Turner, and John Falconer.

MAY 23, 1707: CARL LINNAEUS is born at Sodra,  Smaland,  Sweden.
The son of a country parson, Linnaeus will rise to be one of the
most  prominent  figures in the history of natural history. Fol-
lowing study in medicine and botany at the Universities of  Lund
and  Uppsala,  Linnaeus  will  first  spend  time  travelling in
Lapland, and then will move to Holland where he will receive his
medical degree. While in Leiden he will publish the  first  edi-
tion  of his masterwork, _Systema Naturae_ (1735), which he will
revise and expand many times over the course  of  his  life.  In
1741  Linnaeus  will  be  appointed professor of medicine at Up-
psala, and through his many students and his voluminous writings
on systematics and natural history, his  influence  will  spread
throughout Europe and the world.

Today  in  the  Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an
international network discussion group for professionals in  the
historical sciences. For more information about Darwin-L send
the two-word message INFO DARWIN-L to, or gopher to
[To susbcribe send
   SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L first_name last_name to
LISTSERV@UKANAIX.CC.UKANS.EDU - you should know by now.]

[DARWIN-L  is  an  interesting  list. Its "TODAY IN THE HISTORY"
submissions are great. Interestingly enough, a large portion  of
the  subscribers  are  linguists and their main goal is to prove
that the evolution of  biological  species  and  languages  have
something  in common. Botanists with limited disk space can find
those discussions irritating. - AC]
(BEN # 75  6-June-1994)

A new listserver has been created for all interested in research
in the Quaternary sciences, particularly, but not exclusively in
Canada. This listserver was established through  the  initiative
of  the Canadian Quaternary Association, especially Dana Naldret
and Dave Liverman, with the assistance from the Memorial Univer-
sity of Newfoundland, and the Newfoundland Department  of  Mines
and Energy. We hope that this will be of interest to anyone with
an  interest  in  the  Quaternary  geological  period, including
geologists,       geomorphologists,       soil       scientists,
palaeoenvironmentalists,     archaeologists,    paleontologists,
geochronologists,  palynologists,  geotechnical  engineers,  and

To subscribe, send
   SUBSCRIBE QUATERNARY first_name last_name
-  the list grew astronomically fast and the initial traffic was
heavy. You can put "SET QUATERNARY MAIL DIGEST" (no apostrophes)
as a next line after your "SUBSCRIBE ... "  Submissions  to  the
list  will be collected and sent to you once a day - good way to
handle busy discussion lists.

The list owner is Dave Liverman <>.
(BEN # 75  6-June-1994)
From:  Edward  A  Riedinger  <>
      posted in ECOLOG-L <ECOLOG-L@UMDD.UMD.EDU>

CARL  (Colorado  Alliance  of  Research  Libraries) has for many
years been providing a table of contents service called UnCover.
Such a service gives a user the table of contents of periodicals
as they are issued so that one may decide which articles to read
or quickly survey  current  research  and  publishing  in  one's
field.  CARL  indexes over 17,000 journals world-wide (primarily
English but also many  other  languages),  and  is  the  largest
database of its type.

CARL  has  now  announced that it has begun a new service called
UnCover Reveal. This service will deliver the table of  contents
of  the  journals one chooses, directly to one's e-mail address.
There is no charge for the service, and one is free to share the
information with other individuals.

In addition to the table of contents service, CARL also provides
document delivery. If one finds an article of interest, an order
can be placed and it will be delivered by fax within  24  hours.
For  this  service  there is a base charge of $8.50 per article,
plus any applicable copyright royalty fees or fax surcharges.

In order to initiate the Reveal service,  you  must  access  the
Uncover  database,  establish a profile by supplying information
about yourself (Note: you need not supply any of  the  financial
information  if  you  do not intend to use the document delivery
service), and identify the  journal  titles  you  wish  to  have
forwarded to you.

To access the database, telnet to:

1) At the first screen, enter your terminal type, such as VT100.

2) At the next screen, indicate that you wish to use the Uncover
file,  no.  1.  When you are asked for an access password, press
enter, and you will be given open access.

3) At the following screen, you can create your  profile  (new).
At  the end of this process, you will be given a profile number.
With it, you will be able to mark the  journals  for  which  you
wish  to  receive  the table of contents. These notices are sent
within a few days of the publication of each journal.

4) To mark with your profile number the journals for  which  you
wish  to receive the table of contents, go into the database and
search for the journals by title [use B for BROWSE]. ["REVEAL" -
i.e, put journal on the mailing list - is one of the options  in
the BROWSE mode.]

Should  you  have  a  difficulty  in subscribing, you can send a
message to: .
(BEN # 75  6-June-1994)

Randy  Stoltmann  died  in  a  skiing accident in mountains near
Kitimat, B.C. on May 22, 1994.

"A native of Vancouver,  Randy  Stoltmann  has  an  unquenchable
thirst  for  exploring, photographing and working to protect the
wilderness areas of the  west  coast.  Combining  his  technical
background with his love for wilderness, Stoltmann has measured,
mapped  and  documented  record-sized  trees and ancient forests
since high school more than a decade ago. Much of his spare time
is spent hiking, bushwhacking and ski-mountaineering through the
backcountry of southwestern B.C." [from "About  Author"  in  the
"Hiking guide to big trees of SW B.C."]

Randy  was  the  first person to bring attention to the Carmanah
Valley and started a pleafor its protection. Randy  was  working
as  a  draftsman  and  decrying  the lack of time in his life to
explore such wilderness places when Paul George, of the  Western
Canada  Wilderness  Committee (WC**2) persuaded him to work full
time for WC**2. After about  3-1/2  to  4  years  WC**2  had  to
downsize  and  Randy  worked  independently  for mountain clubs,
advocacy groups and wilderness organizations as an advocate  for

Randy  published  three  books  and  contributed  photographs to
numerous other publications and journal articles.

Stoltmann, R. 1987 & 1991. Hiking guide  to  the  big  trees  of
      southwestern  British  Columbia. Western Canada Wilderness
      Committee, Vancouver B.C., 144 p. - Second Edition, 218 p.

Stoltmann, R. 1993. Guide to the record trees of British  Colum-
      bia.  Western Canada Wilderness Committee, Vancouver, B.C.
      58 p.

Stoltmann, R. 1993. Written by the wind. Orca  Book  Publishers,
      Victoria, B.C. & White Rock, WA. 95 p.

I met Randy only once on a field trip to survey near record-size
western  hemlock  (Tsuga  heterophylla) near Port Alberni [BEN #
36]. I was deeply impressed by his intimate  knowledge  of  "big
trees"  and  their  ecology.  He was a giant human being and his
death is a great loss. - AC
(BEN # 76  24-June-1994)
Sources: Dr. S.N.  Banerjee  (pers.  comm.),  Hospital  Medicine
      (August 1993: 53-64), VERONICA search on "LYME"

Lyme  disease  was first recognized during the 1970s when inves-
tigators analyzed an unusual cluster of  juvenile  arthritis  in
coastal  Connecticut. Erythema migrans (EM) served as a clinical
marker and field studies revealed ixodid ticks to be the vector.
In 1982 Burgdorfer visualized  spirochetes  in  the  midguts  of
these  ticks  and  serum  from  Lyme  disease patients contained
antibodies  to  the  spirochete.  Soon  thereafter,  researchers
recovered  and  cultured  spirochetes from infected humans, then
characterized them morphologically and  biochemically  and  gave
them the name Borrelia burgdorferi.

In  about  60%  of  the  cases,  a characteristic rash or lesion
called erythema migrans develops. It begins a few days to a  few
weeks  after  the  bite  of an infected tick. The rash generally
looks like an expanding red ring with a clear  center,  but  can
vary  from a reddish blotchy appearance to red throughout. Some-
times there are two or more  lesions.  Unfortunately,  in  those
patients  who  never get a rash, the diagnosis can be difficult.
At about the same time that the rash develops, flu-like symptoms
may appear along with headache, stiff neck, fever, muscle  aches
and general malaise.

The  later  complications of Lyme disease are quite severe. Most
common is arthritis, usually of the large joints  (e.g.,  knees,
hips,  shoulders).  Other  complications  include meningitis and
other neurological  problems  such  as  numbness,  tingling  and
burning  sensations  in  the  extremities,  severe pain, loss of
concentration,  memory  loss,  confusion,  loss  of  confidence,
withdrawal,    depression,    fatigue,    (often   extreme   and
incapacitating), and Bell's palsy (loss of control of  one  side
of  the  face).  Cardiac symptoms include heart palpitations and
irregular heart beat. Shortness  of  breath,  dry  mouth,  voice
changes,  and  difficulty  swallowing  can  occur.  Eye symptoms
include conjuctivitis, double vision, and loss of vision. Remem-
ber, some patients do not get the rash and progress directly  to
these  later symptoms. Symptoms, including pain are intermittent
and changing, occurring in any combination and  lasting  from  a
few days to several months and possibly years.

It  is  important  to  seek  medical  attention  if any of these
symptoms appear, especially after being  bitten  by  a  tick  or
visiting  an area where Lyme disease is common. Timely treatment
with antibiotics (within a few days of symptoms appearing)  will
increase  chances of recovery and may lessen the severity of any
later symptoms. If ignored, the early  symptoms  may  disappear,
but  more  serious  problems  can develop months to years later.
Chronic Lyme disease, because of its diverse symptoms,  is  par-
ticularly  difficult  to diagnose. Treatment for later stages is
more difficult and is often less successful, sometimes requiring
several months of intravenous antibiotic therapy.

In  British  Columbia  Borrelia  burgdorferi  was  detected   in
juvenile  ticks  Ixodes  angustus and adults of Ixodes pacificus
collected from Bowen Island, Cultus Lake, Galiano  Island,  Har-
rison,  Hope,  Lasqueti Island, Langley, Metchosin, Nanoose Bay,
Sechelt, and Squamish. According to  Dr.  Banerjee  (pers.  com-
munication)  there  are  about  30 patients with Lyme disease in
British Columbia, 10 of them were most probably infected here in
British Columbia.

Dr. Satyen N. Banerjee studies Lyme disease in British  Columbia
and  is  interested in receiving LIVE ticks and he would like to
scan them for Borrelia spirochete. Ticks  could  be  sent  in  a
small  screw-top  vial  in  which one should add a small ball of
cotton wetted in water. The address to send the ticks is:

   Tick-borne Diseases Research Laboratory
   Provincial Laboratory, B.C. Centre for Disease Control
   828 West 10th Avenue
   Vancouver, B.C.  V5Z 1L8
   (Phone: 604-660-6070)
(BEN # 76  24-June-1994)
From: Novon 4 (1994): 77-79.

In  his  article  on  "New  names  in  North  American  Myosurus
(Ranunculaceae)," A.T. Whittemore is treating Myosurus aristatus
as  conspecific  with  the Chilean species M. apetalus Gay. B.C.
plants belong to a new variety, M. apetalus var. borealis  Whit-
temore  characterized  by  1-nerved  sepals. Another variety, M.
apetalus var. montanus (G.R. Campbell)  Whittemore  (transferred
from  M.  minimus)  occurs in Canada (Saskatchewan), and US (AZ,
MT, CO, NV, ND, OR, UT, WY) and has sepals 3(-5)-nerved.
(BEN # 76  24-June-1994)
From: A. & O. Ceska and Jan Kirkby

In the 1970's and 1980's Harvey Janszen made several collections
of a sedge which he identified as Carex sprengelii  from  Pender
and  Saturna  Islands  (part of Gulf Islands, British Columbia).
T.M.C. Taylor, A. Ceska, and others confirmed Harvey's  original

During a field trip of the Pender Island Naturalists on June 12,
1994,  we  revisited the locality of the sedge in the "Enchanted
Forest" on South Pender Island and realized that  the  sedge  is
NOT  Carex  sprengelii,  but  naturalized European forest sedge,
Carex sylvatica. Consequent examination of the specimens in  the
Royal  British  Columbia  Museum, Victoria, B.C. [V] showed that
all the specimens of "Carex sprengelii" collected  on  Gulf  Is-
lands belong in fact to Carex sylvatica.

Carex  sylvatica  Huds.  is  a  European sedge of mesic alluvial
forests. In North America it is occasionally planted in  gardens
as  an  ornamental  "grass" and was reported naturalized on Long
Island, NY (Mackenzie, K.K. 1940. North American Cariceae,  Vol.
II.).  C.  sylvatica is indeed very similar to C. sprengelii. C.
sylvatica is "aphyllopodic" - it has several short bracts at the
base of the plant, not fully developed leaves  as  "phyllopodic"
C.  sprengelii.  C.  sprengelii  has  a rhizome with conspicuous
fibrous remnants of old leaves.

Two other collections of Carex sprengelii from British  Columbia
in  the  Royal  BC Museum (from Williams Lake and Prince George)
were correctly identified and are C. sprengelii.

Carex sylvatica is the second sedge recently  found  naturalized
in  British  Columbia.  Several  years  ago Richard Martin found
Carex pallescens on Hornby Island. C. pallescens grows there  in
open meadows, along the roads, and in ditches.
(BEN # 76  24-June-1994)

Harding, L.E. & E. McCullum [eds.] 1994. Biodiversity in British
Columbia: Our changing environment. Environment Canada, Canadian
Wildlife  Service, Ottawa. 426 p. ISBN 0-662-20671-1 [paperback]
Cost: CDN $29.95 Available from: Crown  Publications  Inc.,  546
Yates  Str.,  Victoria,  B.C.  V8W 1K8 (604) 386-4636 Fax.:(604)

This is a valuable collection of papers on  various  aspects  of
biodiversity  in  British  Columbia. Thirty chapters are grouped
into four sections:  1)  Introducing  biodiversity,  2)  Species
diversity,  3)  Ecosystem  diversity  , and 4) Prospects for the
future. Botanical topics are well covered  and  the  book  gives
good  discussions on rare algae (M. Hawkes), fungi (S. Redhead),
lichens (T. Goward), bryophytes (W.B. Schofield),  and  vascular
plants  (H. Roemer, G.B. Straley, and G.W. Douglas). Native rare
vascular plants  species  are  listed,  grouped  by  the  status
categories established by the British Columbia Conservation Data
Centre.  Exotic species of animals and plants are discussed as a
threat to biodiversity. (The list of introduced plants is unfor-
tunately restricted to "Introduced Flowers" - no grasses, sedges
or rushes - and even lists as introduced some species  that  are
on   the  Rare  Native  Vascular  Plants  List  -  e.g.  Lupinus
densiflorus.) Chapters on Ecosystem diversity deal with  forests
and  grasslands,  with  urban  ecosystems  and  (mostly  marine)
ecosystems of the Strait of Georgia. British Columbia Ecological
Reserves are listed in the "Prospects for the  future"  together
with an outline of the B.C. Protected Areas Strategy etc.
(BEN # 76  24-June-1994)
From: The European 1-7 July 1994, p. 25 [abbrev.]

Sweden's  timber  industry is launching a campaign against paper
recycling,  after  years  of  effort  to  develop  a   renewable
resource.  In  a letter to Sweden's government, the Swedish pulp
and paper association, Skogsindustrierna, voiced  deep  concerns
about  plans by the country's environmental protection agency to
promote paper recycling, which would mean  a  fall  in  domestic
demand for virgin wood fibres for pulp and paper production.

Sweden already recycles almost half its total yearly consumption
of  1.9  million  tonnes.  A  further  20 per cent is burned for
heating purposes. Only a fifth of the country's total production
of 12 million tonnes of pulp and paper is consumed domestically.
Of the ten million tonnes that are exported, 8.4 million  go  to
EU countries.

Through  its domestic antirecycling campaign, the forestry hopes
that the Swedish government will lower its recycling demands  to
the  proposed  EU levels, thereby protecting its European market
from growing environmental pressure. The government has  already
rejected  the  industry's  plea for broadening the definition of
recycling to include "energy extraction" - that is  incineration
-  as  an accepted form of recycling. If the paper is burned, it
will not compete with virgin fibre as a base  for  pulp  produc-

Over  the  past  five  years, Swedish industry has faced growing
criticism -  domestic  and  international  -  for  impoverishing
biodiversity.  Timber  companies are now changing forestry prac-
tices and trying to market themselves as a "green" industry.

So when Greenpeace Germany managed to reach a  deal  where  four
large  German  paper  consumers buy only "clear-cut free paper",
Sodra, the leading forestry company in southern  Sweden,  rushed
to Hamburg to convince their German customers and their environ-
mentalist  partners  that Swedish forestry has now abandoned its
old methods.
(BEN # 77  10-July-1994)
From: Times-Colonist, July 7, 1994, p. A3 [abbrev.]

British Columbia Premier Mike Harcourt left  for  San  Francisco
where  he  hopes  to convince newsprint buyers that the province
has cleaned up its forestry  practices.  "British  Columbia  has
some  of  the  most  environmentally  sound forest practices and
highest-quality forest products in the  world,"  he  said.  "I'm
hoping  our customers will appreciate the changes we're bringing

Greenpeace has been advocating a California boycott against B.C.
companies that clearcut ancient forests in the province. Such  a
boycott   would  affect  MacMillan  Bloedel  Ltd.,  the  largest
province's most important industry.  Harcourt  also  faces  heat
from  California  state  Senator Tom Hayden who has introduced a
bill in the state legislature to ban the use of  newsprint  made
from old-growth trees. The bill is in the committee stage.

Harcourt  said  he will highlight his government's environmental
record during his trip to California, which buys 30 per cent  of
the  province's newsprint. He will point to the new Forest Prac-
tices Code, and will spotlight the government's plan to increase
protected parkland while retraining forestry  workers  in  tree-
planting, environmental restoration and other green occupations.
(BEN # 77  10-July-1994)
From: conslink <>

CITES-L,  a  list for discussion and postings of issues relating
to the trade in wildlife and  the  Convention  on  International
Trade  in  Endangered Species (CITES), will provide a medium for
discussions on wildlife trade  and  CITES  related  issues.  The
World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC), where the list will
be  maintained,  has  had over 12 years of experience in dealing
with wildlife trade issues  and  maintains  a  database  of  all
reported  trade  in  CITES-listed species on behalf of the CITES
Secretariat. WCMC has regular contact with the CITES Secretariat
in Geneva, which will also be a source  of  up-to-date  informa-
tion. The 9th Conference of the Parties of CITES will be held in
November  of  this  year in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA and we
hope to post decisions and results of discussions as  they  take

Subscribing:  send  a  one  line message to LISTPROC@WCMC.ORG.UK
with the command line (in message body):
e.g. SUBSCRIBE CITES-L Ronald MacDonald

Signing off: send a one  line  message  to  LISTPROC@WCMC.ORG.UK
with the command line (in message body):

Caution:  replying  to  a  message  from  the list will reply to
EVERYONE on the list unless you take precautions  to  make  sure
that does not happen.

If  you  have  any  questions  please  direct  them  to the list
Helen Corrigan
Wildlife Trade Monitoring Unit
World Conservation Monitoring Centre
219 Huntingdon Road
Cambridge CB3 0DL, U.K.
(BEN # 77  10-July-1994)

In  1991,  following  rigorous  host  specificity testing, North
American  federal  governments  approved  the  introduction   of
natural  agents  to  attack purple loosestrife. The three agents
approved  for  release  in  Canada  are  a  root-feeding  beetle
(Hylobius   transversovittatus)  and  two  leaf-feeding  beetles
(Galerucella calamariensis and Galerucella pusilla).

The initial B.C. release of G. calamariensis took place in June,
1993 at the Canadian Wildlife Service property  on  Westham  Is-
land.  Subsequent  releases  were  made  to Jericho Park in Van-
couver, Burnaby Lake, the Vedder wetlands at  Chilliwack,  Cheam
Lake and at the Okanagan Drainage Canal at Penticton. Monitoring
has  proven successful establishment at most locations evidenced
by presence of adults, larvae, eggs and feeding  damage  on  the

Releases  of  G. calamariensis continued this spring with intro-
ductions to the Fraser River shoreline in east Richmond,  Bound-
ary  Bay,  Penticton  and Kootenay Lake. The second leaf-feeding
agent, Galerucella pusilla was introduced to Campbell River  and
the  Kelowna area in June. The Hylobius root beetle was released
to Iona Beach Regional Park in Richmond in July.  All  bioagents
have  been  supplied  from  propagation  facilities  managed  by
Agriculture Canada at Lethbridge,  Alberta.  Agencies  currently
involved  in  releasing loosestrife bioagents include the Minis-
tries of Agriculture, Forests and Environment, U.B.C.,  City  of
Burnaby,  Okanagan-Similkameen,  Greater  Vancouver  and Fraser-
Cheam Regional Districts and the Chilliwack, North Cowichan  and
Okanagan Naturalist Clubs.

Monitoring  to  determine survival and impact of all agents will
occur over the next several years. The purpose for these initial
introductions is to establish large colonies of insects that can
be  used  for  collection  sites  for  eventual   redistribution
throughout the B.C. range of purple loosestrife.

In  its  native  European habitat, purple loosestrife is rapidly
controlled by  natural  insect  agents.  Once  the  insects  ac-
climatize and begin reproducing, there is a high probability for
successful  reduction  of  British  Columbia's increasing purple
loosestrife populations.

Roy Cranston
Provincial Weed Specialist
B.C. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food
(BEN # 78  2-September-1994)
From: Flora of North America Newsletter 8(3):21. [abbrev.]

Many useful Flora of North America files are  now  available  on
the  Missouri  Botanical  Garden  gopher  ( In
addition to all taxonomic information from Volume 2, and several
sample illustration images, chapters from Volume 1 have been put
up and can be searched for words or word strings.

The gopher files are also available via the World Wide Web (WWW)
server. The URL (Universal  Record  Locator)  for  the  Missouri
Botanical Garden WWW home page is:

http://straylight.tamu edu/MoBot/welcome.html
(BEN # 78  2-September-1994)
From: R.T. Ogilvie, Royal B.C. Museum, Victoria, B.C.

The  newest  volume  of the Intermountain Flora, the Asteraceae,
has just come out in July this year. The author, of  course,  is
Arthur  Cronquist,  the  high-priest  of the Asteraceae in North
America. In one sense this book is a memorial volume  to  Arthur
Cronquist  since  he  died in March 1992 while he was making the
finishing touches to this manuscript. But since then  a  lot  of
editing and other work has taken place to bring this volume into

The Intermountain Flora is very relevant to botanists in British
Columbia.  Often  one can gain a better understanding of a local
species from its features and behaviour in other  parts  of  its
geographic  range.  We are at the northern extremity of both the
Pacific Northwest region and also the Intermountain region.  The
Intermountain  region  is  the arid area lying between the Rocky
Mountains and the  Cascade-Sierra  Nevada  Mountains,  and  with
vegetation  largely dominated by sagebrush and chenopods such as
shadscale, greasewood,  and  winterfat.  Although  the  northern
boundary of coverage of the Flora runs along southeastern Oregon
and  southern Idaho, members of this arid flora extend well into
the  dry  interior  of  British  Columbia  along  the   southern
Similkameen, Okanagan, Thompson, Kettle, and Kootenay Valleys.

The  Intermountain region is the centre of species diversity for
several genera and families, for  example:  Astragalus  has  156
species,  Penstemon  has  104 species, Phacelia with 50 species,
Eriogonum with ca. 70 species, and Gilia with  33  species.  The
Asteraceae is the largest family, with 130 genera; Artemisia has
27   species,  Chrysothamnus  has  17  species,  Haplopappus  35
species, Erigeron 71 species, and Townsendia with 15 species.

The book is not arranged alphabetically by genus and species  as
in  the  Vascular  Plants  of  the  Pacific Northwest. The Aster
Family is divided into seven Tribes, and within each  Tribe  the
genera  are  grouped into Subtribes, and the species are ordered
within the genera by morphological similarity. This makes  sense
morphologically   and  taxonomically;  plants  like  Tragopogon,
Sonchus, Hieracium, Crepis, and  Taraxacum  are  found  together
rather  than  being  separated by the alphabet. But if you don't
know that these plants are closely related and are in the  Tribe
Lactuceae, then they may be hard to find in the book. There is a
key  to  the  Tribes,  and  within  each Tribe there are keys to
Subtribes and genera; there is also  an  artificial  key  to  go
directly  to genus. The index is essential if one wants to find,
for example, Artemisia to key out a specimen, or if one wants to
go to Artemisia cana to find its distribution range.

Cronquist's taxonomic concepts will  be  familiar  to  users  of
Vascular  Plants  of the Pacific Northwest. His genera are broad
and conventional and so are his species. In  general  there  are
few  changes  from  his  1955  treatment in Volume 5 of Vascular
Plants of the Pacific Northwest.  Chrysopsis  villosa  is  main-
tained separate from Heterotheca, and Chrysanthemum leucanthemum
is  maintained  for oxeye-daisy instead of splitting it off into
the perennial Leucanthemum.  But  Solidago  is  segregated  into
Euthamia  (for  E.  graminifolia,  E.  occidentalis).  Aster  is
segregated into Machaeranthera (for  M.  canescens),  but  other
Aster-segregate genera are not used, such as Lasallea falcata or
Virgulus for the pansus-ericoides-campestris complex.

The  variety  rank  is  used  for morphological variation within
species  correlated  with  different   habitats   or   different
geographic  ranges.  For example, Chrysothamnus nauseosus has 20
regional or ecological varieties.  Cronquist  occasionally  uses
both  subspecies  and  varieties  to  deal  with  the pattern of
variability in complex species. For the common subalpine-daisy -
Erigeron peregrinus,  the  Intermountain  populations  are  sub-
species  callianthemus consisting of variety callianthemus, var.
scaposus, var. angustifolius (the Coastal populations  are  sub-
species  peregrinus,  consisting  of  variety  peregrinus,  var.
thompsonii, var. dawsonii). A similar infraspecific hierarchy is
used for the pattern of variation in Artemisia ludoviciana:  the
northern  populations  are subspecies ludoviciana, consisting of
variety ludoviciana, var. latiloba, var. incompta; the  southern
populations  are  subspecies  mexicana  variety  mexicana,  var.
albula (and 2 other varieties further south).

Some patterns of species variation, especially  those  involving
apomixis and polyploid complexes, are not given taxonomic recog-
nition.  This  is  the situation in several species-complexes in
Antennaria and also Taraxacum. According to Cronquist there  are
only  2  native species of Taraxacum in the Intermountain Region
and the Pacific Northwest (T.  ceratophorum,  T.  lyratum);  all
other  native  species  reported  for these areas are reduced to
synonyms under these two species. Populations  with  other  dif-
ferences in achene morphology, involucre bracts, and leaf-lobing
are   not  recognised.  As  a  consequence  much  taxonomic  and
phytogeographic information is lost by reducing all this  diver-
sity  to  2  species. There has been recent detailed research on
the circumpolar and northern European  Taraxaca,  in  which  the
multitude  of  apomictic and polyploid microspecies are combined
into a manageable number of related Species Groups, and these in
turn are grouped into a small number of Sections. This  approach
has  been  successfully applied to the arctic and polar Taraxaca
of North America; it should  be  used  in  the  cordilleran  and
intermountain floras.

The  printing  quality  of  the Intermountain Flora is very high
standard, as is true for all of the New  York  Botanical  Garden
publications.  The  Asterales  book  is  big, 500 pages. Several
botanical artists prepared the plant illustrations: John  Rumely
who  did all of the illustrations for the Asteraceae of the Vol.
5 of Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest, and  all  of  the
new  illustrations  were  drawn by Bobbi Angell, Anthony Salazar
and Robin Jess. The art work is  very  fine,  but  the  printing
quality  of some of the new illustrations is disappointing: some
of the fine details of the bracts, achenes and pappus  are  lost
through  fading  or blurring. A lot of additional work went into
bringing Cronquist's manuscript into print:  besides  the  three
additional  artists,  Noel  H. Holmgren and Patricia K. Holmgren
added 48 new synonyms and a list of 20 new taxa, and  a  lot  of
editorial work was done by a number of botanists.

This  big,  handsome  book  on  the Compositae is an appropriate
memorial to Arthur Cronquist; it will be used by  botanists  for
years to come.

The  following is the information for the published parts of the
Intermountain Flora:

Volume 1: Geological and  botanical  History,  Plant  Geography,
Vascular  Cryptogams,  gymnosperms,  Glossary.  By A. Cronquist,
A.H. Holmgren, N.H. Holmgren, and J.L. Reveal. 1972. 270  pages.

Volume  3,  Part  B:  Fabales. By R.C. Barneby. 1989. 292 pages.

Volume 4:  The  Asteridae  Except  the  Asterales  (Gentianales,
Solanales,      Lamiales,     Callitrichales,     Plantaginales,
Scrophulariales,  Campanulales,  Rubiales,  Dipsacales).  By  A.
Cronquist,  A.H.  Holmgren, N.H. Holmgren, J.L. Reveal, and P.K.
Holmgren. 1984. 573 pages. $75.00.

Volume 5: Asterales. By A. Cronquist. 1994. 506 pages. $75.00.

Volume 6: The Monocotyledons. By A.  Cronquist,  A.H.  Holmgren,
N.H.  Holmgren, J.L. Reveal, and P.K. Holmgren. 1977. 584 pages.

Published by: the New York Botanical Garden,  Bronx,  New  York.
10458-5126.  [A  25%  discount is given when ordering all 5 pub-
lished volumes of the flora: $210.00].

The parts of the flora remaining to be published are:
Volume 2:  The  Magnoliidae,  Hamamelidae,  Caryophyllidae,  and
Dilleniidae. Key to the families of dicotyledons, and Comprehen-
sive Index for the six volumes.
Volume 3, Part A: The Rosidae.
(BEN # 78  2-September-1994)
From: Evelyn Hamilton <>

A  broom  removal event is scheduled for Mt Tzuhalem Eco Reserve
(near Duncan) for Sept 24 and  OTHER  WEEKENDS  UP  TO  OCT  12.
Please  spread the word and contact me (387-3650) for more info.
Joel Ussery BCFN is the coordinator, his phone is 474-4105.

We should meet for car pooling at Helmken Park and ride at  9:30
a.m. Bring gloves, pruners, clippers , lunch. BC Parks is hoping
to get a big turnout to generate media interest.

The intent of the  project  is  to  remove  the  broom  that  is
threatening  native  species  and  increasing  the  risk of fire
hazard in the reserve. The project is a cooperative one  between
Cowichan  Valley  Naturalists,  FBCN,  BC  Parks,  District of N
Cowichan, Friends of ER,  and  the  developer  of  the  property
adjacent to the eco reserve, to minimize negative effects of the
development.  Therefore funding from the developer and others to
remove broom from the reserve is being solicited.  BC  Parks  is
funding  helicopter  removal  of the cut broom on October 12, so
the plan is to cut as much as  possible  before  then,  starting
Sept  24.  A  number  of schools, institutions and volunteer or-
ganizations as well as BC PArks and District of N  Cowichan  are
providing labour for the broom removal. Come join the fun!! Long
term follow up is also planned.
(BEN # 79  19-September-1994)

Sept.  20,  1994 (Tuesday): The authors of the Plants of Coastal
      British Columbia, Andy MacKinnon, Nancy Turner and  others
      will discuss their popular field guide. Royal B.C. Museum,
      Classroom,  7:30  p.m.  (Botany  Night,  Victoria  Natural
      History Society)

Sept. 21, 1994  (Wednesday):  Syd  Cannings,  Conservation  Data
      Centre:  "What we're all about?" - University of Victoria,
      Biology Seminar, Elliott 060, 3:00 p.m.

Sept. 24, 1994 (Saturday): A broom removal  event  is  scheduled
      for  Mt Tzuhalem Eco Reserve (near Duncan) for Sept 24 and
      other weekends up to Oct 12. Please spread  the  word  and
      contact  Evelyn  Hamilton  (387-3650)  for more info. [See
      Volunteers needed !]

Oct. 7-10, 1994. Schmok Foray 1994, organized by  the  Vancouver
      Mycological Society and South Vancouver Island Mycological
      Society  will  be at the Blue Lake Resort between Hope and
      Lillooet, off Highway 1 near the Stein  Valley.  Cost  CDN
      $135.00  or  US  $115.00  per  person.  The  deadline  for
      registration Sept. 21, 1994.  For  more  information  call
      Hannah Nadel (604) 544-1386.
(BEN # 79  19-September-1994)
From: Terry Taylor c/o <>

In the beginning of July,  we  took  a  holiday  around  central
Washington,  and  found  an  interesting plant at Walla Walla. I
tentatively identified it as Bryonia alba. It forms long  vines,
with  tendrils, hanging from the trees in Lewis and Clark Trails
State Park, east of Walla Walla. The leaves are  lobed,  and  it
has  black  berries  with flattened white seeds. The flowers are
yellow with green veins. We saw what is probably the same  plant
at  the Whitman Mission, but those ones were sterile. The plants
at Lewis and Clark Trails Park looked identical  to  B.  dioica,
which  I  have  seen in England, except for the black fruits. No
Bryonia is shown in Hitchcock, but  B.  dioica  is  in  the  new
Jepson Manual.

[Note:  Terry Taylor did not collect a voucher specimen for this
report, thus the question mark in the title of this report.  Can
somebody  from  the  area  collect  a  specimen to document this
report? Do you have any friends in Walla Walla ?- AC]
(BEN # 79  19-September-1994)
From: Federal Register Vol. 59, No. 89, Tuesday, May  10,  1994,
      page 24106-24111.

The  U.S.  Fish  and  Wildlife  Service  proposed to list Golden
Paintbrush  (Castilleja  levisecta  -  Scrophulariaceae)  as   a
threatened species. This species once occurred from Oregon north
to  Vancouver  Island  in  British  Columbia.  Only  10 disjunct
populations of this plant now exist, in open grasslands  ranging
from  south of Olympia, Washington north through the Puget Sound
to Southwest British Columbia, Canada. The proposal published in
the Federal Register gives valuable information on the  species,
its distribution and problems with its protection.
(BEN # 79  19-September-1994)
From: California Native Plant Society Press Release [abbrev.]

The  new  fifth  edition of the INVENTORY OF RARE AND ENDANGERED
VASCULAR PLANTS OF CALIFORNIA, edited by  Mark  W.  Skinner  and
Bruce Pavlik, (California Native Plant Society, 1994) lists 1742
types of California native plants that are now rare, threatened,
or  endangered  in  California and elsewhere. This number repre-
sents nearly 28% of California's 6,300 native plants.

This summary of the latest information on the state's  rare  and
endangered  vascular  plants  includes ferns, fern allies, cone-
bearing  seed  plants  and  flowering  plants.   Land   resource
managers,  conservationists,  field biologists, consultants, and
botanical researchers will find the new INVENTORY  an  indispen-
sable   reference   for  identifying,  protecting  and  managing
California's rarest botanical resources.

CNPS has simultaneously published an  ELECTRONIC  INVENTORY  for
MS-DOS  personal computers. Using the state-of-the-art Microsoft
Fox-Pro(tm) database,  this  application  provides  instant  and
simplified  access  to the detailed information contained in the
print version. Users of the ELECTRONIC INVENTORY can search  for
plants  based  on  hundreds  of  specific  criteria,  using pre-
existing  or  customized  report  formats.  The  self-installing
program  requires  no additional hardware or software, and takes
up 8 megabytes of hard disk space. The ELECTRONIC INVENTORY will
be updated regularly and will replace the print edition  as  the
most  up-to-date  compilation of rare, threatened and endangered
California plants.  Purchasers  are  required  to  update  their
program every 18 months

Among  the  1742  special  status  plants in California, the new
INVENTORY lists 857 species, subspecies and varieties  that  are
"rare,  threatened,  or endangered in California and elsewhere",
nearly 14% of the flora. This is an increase of  27%  --  a  net
increase  of  182  plants -- since the fourth INVENTORY was pub-
lished in 1988. 34 plants that occurred in  California  are  now
extinct  here.  Since  the  last edition was published 13 plants
thought to be extinct in California were  rediscovered,  however
11 other new plants are now presumed to be extinct.

The  book is the result of three years of intensive research and
review. Mark Skinner is  the  California  Native  Plant  Society
Botanist  and  Bruce  Pavlik  is Associate Professor of Biology,
Mills College.

Ordering information:

Mark W. Skinner & Bruce M. Pavlik  [eds.].  1994.  Inventory  of
rare  and  endangered  vascular  plants  of  California, 5th ed.
California Native Plant Society,  Sacramento.  336  p.  
ISBN  0-943460-18-2 [softcover]; retail price: US$22.95

Electronic  inventory  ISBN: 0-943460-19-0; includes MS-DOS dis-
kettes and manual; price US$195.- program update (required after
18 mos): US$95.-

Order from: CNPS, 1722 J St., Ste. 17, Sacramento, Ca 95814.
Phone: 916/447-2677; FAX: 916/447-2727
(BEN # 79  19-September-1994)
From: Marilyn Light <>
   [compiled from <>]

Epipactis  helleborine  is  a European orchid that, since it was
first reported at Syracuse, New York  in  1879,  has  spread  to
appropriate  habitat  from coast to coast. This orchid was first
reported in Illinois by Julian Steyermark in 1954. More  details
may  be found in "An Introduction to the Ecology of the Illinois
Orchidaceae" by Charles Sheviak (Illinois State  Museum.  Scien-
tific  Papers  XIV,  1974).  Wasps  (Vespidae)  were reported as
pollinators of Epipactis helleborine in Europe by Darwin 1877 in
"The various contrivances by which  orchids  are  fertilized  by
insects."  William Judd reported four species of wasp feeding at
flowers of  E.  helleborine  in  "Wasps  (Vespidae)  pollinating
Helleborine,  Epipactis  helleborine  (L.) Crantz at Owen Sound,
Ontario" (Proceedings of the Entomological  Society  of  Ontario
(1971)  102:115-119).  The  species  were  Vespula  arenaria, V.
consobrina and V. vidua. He also observed  a  Polistes  fuscatus
worker feeding in the flowers.

I  study  native  orchids  including  their population dynamics,
inter- and intra-clonal reproductive  compatibility  and  mycor-
rhizal associations. I work primarily with Epipactis helleborine
and  Cypripedium  calceolus  var.  pubescens.  I  also have some
interest in the reproductive strategies of Platanthera psycodes.
Recent studies have  included  tracking  the  movement  of  pol-
linators  (Vespula  sp.)  by colouring the pollen with a dye and
looking for dyed pollen on the stigmas of other nearby  flowers.
I  have found that there is a higher incidence of visits between
flowers on the same inflorescence than between  plants.  Another
investigation  has employed ultra-violet reflectance photography
as a technique to determine whether or not  a  flower  has  been
pollinated.  Pollinated  stigmas  of  E. helleborine become par-
tially UV reflective within 15 minutes post-pollination, totally
UV absorptive within 30 minutes. Investigations of  pollen  ger-
minability  with  this  species  suggest  a good case for pollen

While I have never seen Polistes feeding in the flowers, I  have
observed  Vespula  visits.  The  orchid  flower has two pollinia
attached to a sticky projection (viscidium). These pollinia  are
fragile  sacs which fragment fairly readily after they are taken
from the flower. The wasp alights, bends forward to  lap  nectar
from  the  flower  lip, and while doing so brushes the viscidium
with the head. When the wasp backs out of the flower, it carries
the pollinia on its head. Wasps can collect quite a few pollinia
over time. Each time a pollen-carrying  wasp  visits  a  flower,
pollen  is  left on the stigma. Occasionally an entire pollinium
is deposited intact.

Wasps visit flowers repeatedly, whether or not the flowers  have
been  previously  visited/pollinated.  Visits  normally last 2-5
seconds although they can be considerably longer  if  the  wasps
get  'drunk' on the nectar. On August 9 I observed a wasp carry-
ing one pair of pollinia enter a virgin flower, leave  then  re-
enter  the  same flower a few seconds later. It then visited two
other previously pollinated flowers on the same stem.  The  same
wasp  then  moved  to  another  plant  25 cm distant and visited
Flowers 8,6,5,8,1,3,2, all of which  had  been  previously  pol-
linated.  It  then left the site. (Flowers are numbered from the
base of an upright inflorescence.)  This  inflorescence  had  42
buds/flowers,  11 of which were open. I had just self-pollinated
Flower 11 approximately five minutes  prior  to  the  pollinator
visit and had removed Flower 10 for photographic record.

I  have  observed  some anomalies which may be of interest. Most
orchids such as E. helleborine produce pollen in tetrads. I have
observed some plants producing monads interspersed  amongst  the
tetrads.  These  monads  are essentially giant undivided grains.
They do not germinate in vitro. Another plant  produced  tetrads
with  two  of the four elements shriveled. In this instance, all
the tetrads were similarly affected. Normal  elements  germinate
in  vitro.  Any  suggestions  as  to  what might be causing such
anomalies would be appreciated.

Marilyn Light
University of Ottawa Chairman, Conservation Committee,  Canadian
Orchid Congress
(BEN # 80  24-October-1994)
From: "Jo Bohanan" <>
(Natural Resources Library, North Carolina State University)

We  have  the  following  issues  of the journal Madrono (A West
American Journal of Botany published by the California Botanical
Society) available to anyone who would like to have them:
Jan. 1957-Jan. 1973.

If interested, please send e-mail to
(BEN # 80  24-October-1994)
From: Mary Piper <piper@U.WASHINGTON.EDU>

The Department of Botany invites  applications  and  nominations
for  a tenure-track position at the assistant professor level in
systematics of higher plants.

The successful candidate  must  be  qualified  to  teach  under-
graduate  and  graduate  courses in plant systematics, develop a
rigorous     research     program     in     molecular     plant
systematics/phylogeny/evolution,  and  curate a major Herbarium.
There is extensive opportunity to develop collaborations  within
the  Department of Botany and with other units on campus as well
as the potential to attract  graduate  students  in  systematics
through departmental fellowships.

A  Ph.D.  in  Botany or a related area is required. Postdoctoral
experience is desirable. Candidates should exhibit potential for
independent and innovative research and teaching, and a willing-
ness to cooperate with a broad spectrum of biologists on campus.

Salary: Commensurate with education and experience.

Position available: September 16, 1995 but may  be  extended  if
suitable candidates are not found.

To  apply: Send a letter of application with a statement of your
teaching and research experience and interests, curriculum vitae
and a list of publications (up to three  reprints  may  also  be
sent),  and  arrange  to  have  three  letters of recommendation
forwarded to: Dr. E. Van Volkenburgh,  Chair  Search  Committee,
Department  of  Botany,  KB-15, University of Washington, KB-15,
Seattle, WA 98195.

Phone:  206-543-1942,  FAX  206-685-1728,  e-mail  Mary   Piper,

Priority  will  be given to applications received by 30 November

The University of Washington is building  a  culturally  diverse
faculty  and  strongly  encourages  applications  from women and
minority candidates.
(BEN # 80  24-October-1994)

Goward, Trevor, Bruce McCune, & Del Meidinger. 1994. THE LICHENS
SQUAMULOSE  SPECIES.  Special Report Series No. 8, B.C. Ministry
of Forests, Victoria,  B.C.  181  p.  ISBN  0-7726-2194-2  [soft
Available  from  Crown  Publications Inc., 521 Fort Street, Vic-
toria, B.C. V8W 1E7, Phone: (604) 386-4636, Fax: (604) 386-0221,
Price: CDN$ 32.00

Hurd, Emerenciana G., Goodrich, Sherel, & Nancy L.  Shaw.  1994.
Ogden UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Inter-
mountain Research Station. 56 p.
Abstract. This  guide  provides  technical  descriptions  of  23
Intermountain  rushes  (Juncus  spp.),  including the common and
several less abundant species. Line drawings and color or  black
and  white  photos illustrate diagnostic characteristics of each
species. An illustrated morphology and a glossary  acquaint  the
layperson  with  the  terminology  used  to classify rushes. The
guide is intended as a tool to aid in classification; it is  not

Greuter,  W.,  J.  McNeill,  et  al. 1994. INTERNATIONAL CODE OF
BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE (TOKYO CODE) 1994. Adopted  by  the  Fif-
teenth   International  Botanical  Congress,  Yokohama,  August-
September 1993. Regnum Vegetabile Vol.  131.  Koeltz  Scientific
Books, Koenigstein. 389 p.
Available from: Koeltz Scientific Books, P.O. Box 13 60, D-61453
Koenigstein,   Germany.  Phone:  (+49)  0617493720,  Fax:  (+49)
06174937240, Price DM 60.00
(BEN # 80  24-October-1994)
From: Vladimir J. Korelus, Victoria, B.C., Canada

On  June  1,  1994,  the  urns containing the ashes of Prof. Dr.
Vladimir J.  Krajina  and  his  wife  Marie  were  ceremoniously
deposited  in the Vysehrad Cemetery in Prague, Czech Republic --
their  homeland.  The  day  marked  the  first  anniversary   of
Krajina's death, and the third year after his wife's departure.

Prof.  Krajina's  family and friends, and representatives of the
President of the  Czech  Republic,  the  Czech  Government,  the
Charles  University,  and  the Canadian Embassy assembled in the
newly restored church of St. Peter and St. Paul.

The urns -- covered with the Canadian  flag  --  were  displayed
together with Krajina's many decorations, including the Order of
Canada  and  the Czechoslovak Order of the White Lion. While Boy
Scouts kept the guard of honour, four  ministers  celebrated  an
Ecumenical  Mass. The Canadian anthem was played as the Canadian
flag was being lifted, and the former  Czechoslovak  anthem  was
played  while  the  Czechoslovak flag was put in its place. This
symbolized  the  formal  return  of  Krajinas'  ashes  to  their

The  celebration  continued with speakers recollecting Krajinas'
lives and deeds. The poem of Frana Sramek "If I were a keeper of
horses" ("Kdybych byl pastevcem  koni"),  and  an  excerpt  from
Dostoyevsky's  "The  brothers  Karamazov"  were  read. Then, the
procession with the urns left for the cemetery only to  assemble
again  in front of the church to listen to more eulogies by some
members  of  Krajina's  former  political  party.  Finally,  the
procession  reached  the  memorial  of  Dr.  Milada  Horakova, a
fighter against fascism, and a victim of the  communist  regime.
At  the  memorial,  the urns were deposited among those of other
national heroes.

Several days before the ceremony, on the occasion of the release
of Krajina's book of memoirs called "High Game" ("Vysoka  hra"),
there  was a press conference held in the Botanical Institute of
the Charles University. The book deals mostly with his political
life, and his fight against totalitarian regimes.  On  Krajina's
request,  the  book  was edited by Jiri Dolezal and published in
Czech in Prague by the publishing house EVA.

So a life circle was closed of one  brave  man,  and  woman  who
influenced  the  lives  of  so many, both  in the former Czecho-
slovakia and in Canada.
(BEN # 81  13-November-1994)
From: ASTP Newsletter Oct. 1994

Dr. Roy L. Taylor has accepted the position of Executive  Direc-
tor  of the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, Claremont, CA, USA.
He assumed his new duties on 1 November  1994.  Dr.  Taylor  was
currently  President and Chief Executive Officer for the Chicago
Horticultural Society and Director of The Chicago  Botanic  Gar-

Born  in  Alberta,  Canada,  Dr. Taylor received a BS in Biology
from Sir George Williams University,  Montreal,  Quebec,  Canada
and  a PhD from the University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
Prior to his appointment in Chicago in 1985, he was Director  of
the  Botanical  Garden and Professor of Botany at the University
of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia,  Canada.  From
1965  to  1968  he was Chief of the Taxonomy and Economic Botany
Section for Canada Agriculture in Ottawa,  Ontario.  Dr.  Taylor
has published extensively on plant taxonomy and horticulture and
was  co-author  with  James  A. Calder of the Flora of the Queen
Charlotte Islands (1968).
(BEN # 81  13-November-1994)
From: Andy MacKinnon <>

From the latest edition of "Super,  Natural  Islands"  from  the
B.C. Tourism Association:

Saturna Island (things to do)

"Plan  a  picnic  and  a hike up Mount Warburton Pike to see the
feral goats on the ecological reserve at the top."
(BEN # 81  13-November-1994)
From: Alan Batten <>

The  University  of Alaska Museum, the Department of Biology and
Wildlife and the Institute of Arctic Biology at  the  University
of Alaska Fairbanks invite applications for a full-time, tenure-
track  position  in  plant evolutionary biology and systematics.
The successful candidate is expected  to  curate  the  botanical
collection  at  the  UA  Museum, establish an active, externally
funded research program using modern methods of molecular  biol-
ogy,  teach  one course per year and participate in graduate and
undergraduate training in the areas  of  plant  systematics  and
collection curation.

Rank: Assistant Professor

Salary: Up to $40,000 (9-month basis)

Qualifications:  Ph.D.  or  equivalent in Biology or closely re-
lated field. Museum  curatorial,  postdoctoral,  and  university
teaching  experience  or  demonstrated  potential for university
teaching experience preferred.

Resources available: The successful applicant will  be  provided
with  research  space  and  start-up  in the Institute of Arctic
Biology, access to the recently acquired automated  DNA  sequen-
cer,  and a curatorial assistant. The herbarium has over 160,000
Alaska and holarctic specimens and is a regional resource center
for floristic and biogeographic studies.

Position available: Fall 1995.

To apply: Send  curriculum  vitae,  statement  of  research  and
teaching  interests, copies of reprints, and have at least three
letters of reference sent to: Dr. Gerald F. Shields  (907)  474-
7656,  Molecular  Plant  Systematist Search, Institute of Arctic
Biology,  University  of  Alaska  Fairbanks,  Fairbanks,  Alaska

Closing date: December 15, 1994
(BEN # 82  29-November-1994)
From: Adolf Ceska <>

As a result of Terry Taylor's note on Bryonia alba in the  Lewis
&  Clark  State  Park  in  Walla  Walla,  Washington, I received
several specimens collected by Nancy Berlier of the Walla  Walla
Ranger  District  office.  The plant is indeed Bryonia alba L. -

In her accompanying letter Nancy Berlier wrote:
"In talking to the caretaker he  said  that  Walt  Gary  of  the
Extension  Office  had sent a specimen to WSU for identification
several years ago. He could not remember the  common  or  scien-
tific  name,  but  did  say  he  recalled  the  family  name  as
"In wandering through the northside of the park,  we  found  the
habitat  to  be very overgrown with vines and shrubs amongst the
conifers and cottonwoods. ... This vine grows from the ground up
each spring to many feet into shrubs, hardwoods and conifers  by
fall. The caretaker said it dies back in the fall as soon as the
weather   cools   off  to  45  degrees  F  or  so  (rather  than
freezing)... "

Two species of Bryonia - B. dioica L. and B. alba  Jacq.  -  are
listed in Kartesz 1994 "A Synonymized list of the vascular flora
of  the  United  States  ..." (2nd Edition). Both are introduced
from Europe.

Distinguishing characters:

Bryonia alba: Plants  monoecious;  calyx  as  long  as  corolla;
      stigmas glabrous; ripe fruits black.
Bryonia  dioica:  Plants  dioecious; calyx about 1/2 of corolla;
      stigmas with short hairs; ripe fruits red.

Lit.: Jeffrey, C.  1969.  A  review  of  the  genus  Bryonia  L.
      (Cucurbitaceae). Kew Bulletin 23: 441-461.

P.S. The Cucurbitaceae Newsletter is published twice a year by
The Cucurbit Network, P.O.Box 560494, Miami, Florida 33256.
Subscription is US$10/year.
(BEN # 82  29-November-1994)
From: Vancouver Sun, November 16, 1994, p. A3

Two unrelated cases of kidney failure were reported in Vancouver
and  attributed  to ingestion of Amanita smithiana, mistaken for
pine mushroom - matsutake  (Armillaria  ponderosa  =  Tricholoma
magnevelare). Both victims were gourmet mushroom pickers.
(BEN # 82  29-November-1994)
From : Terry Taylor c/o <>

On August 25, 1994 I collected Eriophorum virginicum L. from the
northeastern  part  of  Burns  Bog, not far from River Road. The
collection  came  from  a  field-like  area  containing  several
thousand  heads.  I first collected it on Aug. 16, 1992 from the
western part of the bog, and I put this collection in  UBC.  The
plants  are  scattered  sporadically in this area, but are still
readily apparent, as the brownish heads are easily seen for some
distance. Don de Mille, who is very  knowledgeable  about  Burns
Bog  believes  they  were  probably  introduced with cranberries
(Oxycoccus macrocarpus) from the east, as  cranberry  farms  are
located  along  the  north  edge of the bog. I have not found E.
virginicum in the central, undisturbed part of Burns Bog, or  in
the  southern  part. Oxycoccus macrocarpus is a common exotic in
the bog. Frank Lomer collected E. virginicum previously in south
Richmond. On August 25 I also collected moss  Campylopus  intro-
flexus  (Hedw.) Brid., probably also introduced from the eastern
US. It  formed  large,  beautiful  populations.  Wilf  Schofield
believes it may be the first report of this moss for Canada.
(BEN # 82  29-November-1994)
From: Peter Scott <>

telnet LIBRISC.NYBG.ORG (or telnet
login: library
(BEN # 82  29-November-1994)

Busch,  H. & B. Silver. 1994. Why cats paint: A theory of feline
aesthetics. 10 Speed Press Berkeley, CA 96 p. ISBN 0-89815-612-2
[paperback] US$ 14.95

The  publishers  of  David  Arora's  Mushrooms   demystified   -
10 Speed Press - came with another obvious bestseller.
"In  this  lavishly  illustrated and thoroughly researched book,
Heather Busch and  Burton  Silver  outline  the  many  different
aspects of feline creativity and offer a detailed examination of
representative  works from the best-known cat artists around the
(BEN # 82  29-November-1994)
From: Mike Gleason <>

The  Department  of  Biological  Sciences  is  seeking to hire a
tenure-track  biologist  at  the  level  of  assistant/associate
professor to teach and conduct research in botany and genetics.

Duties and Responsibilities: The successful candidate will share
responsibilities  for  teaching  general botany, plant taxonomy,
genetics, evolution, and general biology, and may  be  asked  to
teach other courses in her/his specialty area. Additionally, the
successful  candidate  will  curate a teaching herbarium, advise
biology undergraduates, and serve on Departmental and University
committees. The successful candidate will also  be  expected  to
engage in scholarly activity and participate in the Department's
Masters degree program.

Qualifications:  Ph.D.,  by  start date, in a related biological
field is required. Applicants must have experience in  teaching;
and  research  experience  in  molecular aspects of systematics,
phylogeny, or evolution. Preference will be given to  candidates
with  specialization  in areas complementary to the needs of the

Starting Date: 15 September 1995. This position is contingent on
University funding.

To Apply: Send a  cover  letter  describing  qualifications  and
experience  in  teaching  and  research, a statement of teaching
philosophy and research interests,  curriculum  vitae,  (unoffi-
cial)  college  transcripts,  and  the names, addresses, and the
telephone  numbers  of  three  references  to:  Dr.  Michael  L.
Gleason,  Chair,  Plant Systematist Hiring Committee, Department
of  Biological  Sciences,  Central  Washington  University,  El-
lensburg,  WA 98926-7537. Screening will begin on 6 January 1995
and continue until a suitable candidate is found.

Central Washington University is located in Ellensburg,  a  city
of  about  13,000.  A two hour drive from Seattle, Ellensburg is
located on the east slope of the Cascade Mountains  in  Kittitas
Valley and offers a fine living environment. CWU is a comprehen-
sive  state university which serves approximately 7,000 students
by offering  undergraduate  and  graduate  degrees  through  the
colleges  of  Letters,  Arts and Sciences; Professional Studies;
and Business and Economics.
(BEN # 83  6-December-1994)
From: Adolf Ceska <>

I released the last BEN one day too soon. I was still  searching
for  more  information  on  the  distribution of Bryonia alba in
North America after BEN was sent out, and I  contacted  (through
e-mail)  several  Cucurbitaceae experts and Dr. John T. Kartesz,
author of the "Synonymized checklist of the  vascular  flora  of
the  United States ... etc." Many of you still did not even have
BEN # 82 in your mail box when I  got  a  phone  call  from  Dr.
Kartesz.  He  told  me  that he had records of Bryonia alba from
Montana, Idaho, Utah, and Washington. He also  told  me  that  I
should read a paper on Bryonia alba published in Madrono 1993. I
did, and I was shocked. To speak about the "confirmation" of the
occurrence  of  Bryonia  alba as I did in BEN # 82, was slightly

The article by Laferriere et al. (1993) in Madrono  lists  about
18  localities of the plant from Idaho and Washington, including
the 1985 collection of Bryonia alba from Lewis and  Clark  State
Park  in  Walla  Walla  Co. The earliest collection cited by the
authors was one  from  1972  from  near  Turner,  Columbia  Co.,
Washington  State.  One  of the authors, Jodi L. Engle, wrote an
M.Sc. Thesis on "The spread and effect of the vine Bryonia  alba
in  Whitman  County,  Washington" in 1988 (Department of Botany,
Washington State University, Pullman). The article gives a  very
good  description  of the plant, and a key to the identification
of  the  genus  Bryonia  within  the  Cucurbitaceae  family.   I
apologize to BEN readers for this oversight.

Lit.: Laferriere, J.F., J.D. Mastrogiuseppe, J.L. Engle, & R. R.
      Old.  1993.  Noteworthy  Collections: - Idaho, Montana and
      Washington - Bryonia alba L. (Cucurbitaceae). Madrono  40:
(BEN # 83  6-December-1994)
From:  Carol  Mozell   <cmozell@ACPUB.DUKE.EDU>   

On  November  23,  a fire razed the central buildings of the Las
Cruces Biological Station in San Vito, Costa Rica, site  of  the
Robert  and  Catherine  Wilson Botanical Garden. The fire, which
began around 7:00 p.m. in a downstairs apartment, swept  through
the  Stanley Smith Science Building and the adjacent laboratory.
Lost are the  living  quarters  for  researchers,  students  and
natural  history  visitors  and  the  kitchen,  dining hall, and

At the time of the fire three Costa Rican students were  staying
in the facility. However, station director Luis Diego Gomez said
that  no  one  was  injured. In addition, Gomez reports that the
garden's extensive plant collections,  one  of  the  richest  in
Central  America,  were  not  affected.  Las Cruces is owned and
operated by the Organization for Tropical Studies, a  non-profit
consortium of 50 universities and research institutions. Charles
Schnell, the head of OTS in Costa Rica, estimates the loss to be
approximately  $500,000,  of  which  insurance will cover only a
fraction of the replacement value.

Schnell reports that the station's operations will continue  and
that  commitments will be met. "Living quarters for researchers,
students, and guests are being improvised in the former home  of
Robert  and  Catherine  Wilson,"  said  Schnell.  "We expect Las
Cruces to continue as a major education and research site and as
an important locale for birders and  natural  history  visitors,
though temporarily with fewer amenities and services."

OTS  Executive Director Donald Stone has issued an urgent appeal
for emergency funds to sustain the  Garden's  operations.  Stone
notes, "The potential loss of the station as an important center
for  research  impacting  La  Amistad  National Park, one of the
largest parks in Central America, and for graduate  training  in
conservation  biology  and  the wise use of natural resources is
devastating." Contributions  should  be  sent  to  OTS/Save  the
Garden Fund, Duke University, Box 90630, Durham, NC 27708-0630.
(BEN # 83  6-December-1994)
From:  Dr. Pamela  Munn  <>  
          via B-Mail (Bee Newsletter)

A nationwide campaign to  encourage  gardeners  to  grow  trees,
shrubs and flowers which are food sources for Britain's wildlife
was launched recently at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.

This  move  in  nature  conservation commenced with thousands of
'Flora for fauna' labels, placards, posters and  booklets  being
distributed to selected garden centres throughout Britain. Plans
are already under way for this British project to be extended to
France and Germany, as after 1 January it will run parallel with
European  Conservation  Year - ENCY 95. It is being supported by
some of the most prestigious  conservation  and  scientific  or-
ganizations  in  Britain,  as  well  as the Horticultural Trades

The first stage of 'Flora for fauna'  is  providing  information
about  what  plants  are hospitable for wildlife. Already 25,000
plant labels covering 25 species have been  attached  to  plants
from  the  north of Scotland to south Cornwall as part of a six-
month pilot scheme. The information has been extracted from  the
introductory  'Flora  for  fauna'  database which highlights the
preferred plants for wildlife in  British  gardens.  It  details
what birds, butterflies, frogs, bats and other forms of wildlife
eat;  what  eats  them; what is needed for nests and homes; what
special plants relate to different forms of wildlife; and  which
cultivars  of  a  species  still  have  a good nectar and pollen

The next stage is further development  of  the  database,  which
will  be  launched  in a comprehensive version in December 1995.
Bees have a good mention in the introductory publicity, and  key
plants  that  are useful nectar and pollen sources will be high-
lighted in the database.

Details of the 'Flora for fauna' database disk and  accompanying
booklet  are  available  from:  The Duchess of Hamilton, c/o The
Linnean Society of London, Burlington House, Piccadilly,  London
W1V 0LQ, UK. Orders: phone (+44) 171-351-4266, fax 171-352-5655,
(BEN # 83  6-December-1994)
From : Ted Lea <>

I  finally got around to completing the writeup on Botany BC for
BEN. ... Sorry this took so long.

BOTANY BC took place June 20 to June 25, 1994 in the Haida Gwaii
(the Queen Charlotte Islands) and was one of the finest meetings
ever, comparable to the earlier Bamfield meeting  of  1989.  The
organizing  committee of Ros Pojar, Jim Pojar, Trudy Chatwin and
Evelyn Hamilton should be congratulated for a well organized and
excellent program of both botanical and non-botanical activities

Highlights included:

A short morning session  of  informative  talks  by  Jim  Pojar,
Leslie  Goertzen,  Alvin  Yanchuk,  and Mike Hawkes, followed by
field tours of tidal wetlands, coastal forests and  sand  dunes.
The expertise of Jim Pojar, Hans Roemer, Wilf Schofield and many
others  was greatly utilized by participants. We saw some inter-
esting sand dune plants: beach  peavine  (Lathyrus  littoralis),
beach  lupine  (Lupinus  littoralis),  seashore  bluegrass  (Poa
douglasii   var.   macrantha)   and   beach   glehnia   (Glehnia
littoralis).  An  evening  salmon feast in the sun at Tlell, was
followed by Woodhenge on the beach, celebrating summer solstice.
The site was blessed by an eagle feather which assured  no  rain
for the remaining days. This was also the scene for a variety of
bizarre  botanical  rituals. Some botanists also took the oppor-
tunity to visit the famed Golden Spruce.

The following day consisted of field tours visiting  an  amazing
array  of  bogs,  including  the blanket bogs with their sundew,
yellow waterlily, and natural  bonsai  of  hemlock  and  yellow-
cedar,  as  well  walks  up  Tow Hill and to the blow hole. That
evening incredible Hors d'oeuvres in Masset were followed  by  a
Haida  feast in Old Masset (Haida) where botanical and piscerian
products were consumed with great relish. This was  followed  by
native  dancing,  including  a  male  only  dance  for botanical

A highlight  of  the  whole  tour  was  the  boat  trip  through
Skidegate  Inlet to the west coast aboard the Anvil Cove, hosted
by Barbara and Keith Rowsell. Meals were again to high standard-
s, and camping in the forest was a wonderful experience  without
the usual Queen Charlotte rain. Early morning sessions on marine
plants by Mike Hawkes led to the search for the elusive Sea Palm
(never found). Tidal pools teamed with interesting sea life such
as,  sea  cucumbers,  sea  anemones,  starfish,  many species of
marine algae and much, much more.

Unfortunately, the helicopter trip to the alpine limestone areas
and endemics, was cancelled due to low  cloud,  however,  hearty
souls  hiked  as  close  as  they  could get and were treated by
seeing filmy fern, Mecodium wrightii  and  the  Queen  Charlotte
endemics:   Newcombe's  butterweed  (Senecio  newcombei),  Queen
Charlotte butterweed (S. moresbiensis), curly-hair  moss-heather
(Cassiope  lycopodioides  ssp.  crista-pilosa),  Queen Charlotte
violet (Viola biflora subsp. carlotae), Calder's lovage  (Ligus-
ticum  calderi) and Taylor's saxifrage (Saxifraga taylori). Many
people took the boat tour to Gudal Bay, and Marble Island to see
the Horned Puffin nesting sites and the speedy Peregrine Falcon.
No whales were seen, assuring a return to the Misty Isles in the

The new book Plants of Coastal British Columbia was put to  many
uses  during  the field sessions. Many keen botanist were busily
seen keying out plants, while others were seen  using  it  as  a
fine seat cushion or sun block.

For  those who missed this year's BOTANY B.C., many of the magi-
cal moments were recorded by John Parminter on his camcorder and
will be shown at next year's 10th annual meeting which  will  be
held in the Chilcotin area.
(BEN # 84  9-December-1994)
From: Amy Rossman
      (originally  posted  on  the Biological Conservation News-
      letter No. 138 - distributed by CONSLINK@SIVM.SI.EDU)

The number of fungal species estimated  to  exist  on  earth  is
approximately  1.5  million, yet little is known about the rela-
tive abundance of these  species,  or  if  any  are  endangered.
Nevertheless,  many  species  of fungi appear to be declining in
Europe and in the Netherlands. Eef  Arnolds  points  to  nitrate
deposition  as  being responsible for the decline of many mycor-
rhizal species, which are necessary for the health of their tree
hosts. Some mycologists are also concerned about the effects  of
mushroom  harvest  on  fungal  populations. The decline of these
fungi could directly  affect  the  health  of  the  forest,  and
Europeans   are   taking   steps  to  safeguard  populations  of
threatened fungal species by creating "red lists,"  which  regu-
late the collection of selected species.

There  are no "red lists" for fungi in North America, but recent
reports indicate that  many  fungi  may  be  endangered  in  the
Pacific  Northwest  due  to  habitat  loss. The Forest Ecosystem
Management Assessment Team (FEMAT),  commissioned  by  President
Clinton  to examine forestry practices in the Pacific Northwest,
lists 527 fungal species which are closely associated with  late
successional  forest  ecosystems.  Of these, 80 are endemic, and
destruction of their habitat could result in  their  extinction.
One  example  is  Oxyporus  nobilissimus,  which  is  a polypore
restricted to old growth Abies; it is known from only  12  loca-
tions.  A  less  dramatic  but  equally notable example is Tuber
rufum, a truffle which has a  beneficial  association  with  the
roots  of oak. Western oak habitat is being lost to agricultural
and residential development, and as the oak goes,  so  goes  the
truffle.  The FEMAT report calls for inventory and monitoring of
western oak habitat.

The inclusion of fungi in federal  ecosystem  assessments  is  a
landmark in the history of mycology and conservation. Management
agencies  are  starting  to  acknowledge  that  good stewardship
includes consideration of all species, and that microbes such as
fungi occupy important ecosystem niches and require protection.

The FEMAT report can be obtained by calling (503) 326-2877.
(BEN # 84  9-December-1994)
From: Craig MacConnell <>

February 23 & 24, 1995
Everett, WA

A conference focusing on nitrogen in our environment:

        What role does it play ?
        What are the health concerns ?
        How do we manage it successfully ?

Nitrogen, Environment, and People is a two-day conference focus-
ing on the effects and management of nitrogen  in  our  environ-
ment. The conference is intended to provide a comprehensive view
of  nitrogen  to  gain a better and broader understanding of its
effect on our natural resources - particularly water.

Conference topics will  include  the  sources  and  movement  of
nitrogen  in  our  environment,  potential  health concerns, and
successful management tools for reducing nitrate  contamination.
The  goal: to provide the tools and understanding needed to help
achieve sustainability of our natural resources.

The conference  will  provide  valuable  information  to  anyone
dealing  with  resource sustainability issues - health officers,
land use planners, public policy makers, agricultural  commodity
groups,  environmental organizations, Tribes, local governments,
conservation  districts,  and  agriculture  and  water   quality
professionals.  Those  who see nitrogen as a pollutant and those
who see it as a benefit will want to attend this  conference  to
learn more.

The  conference is designed with three concurrent sessions under
the broad categories of:

                        Big Picture
                        Physical Processes

The conference has scheduled 74 speakers  on  a  wide  range  of

Registration   is   $80  before  January  10,  1995.  Conference
registration includes: Continental breakfast, refreshments,  and
lunch  both  days  plus  all  conference  proceedings (including

For a complete electronic version of the conference brochure and
registration form send an e-mail request to:

Craig MacConnell
Washington State University Cooperative Extension
Whatcom County, Bellingham, WA
(BEN # 84  9-December-1994)

Dr.  Edwin  Moyer Hagmeier, known as Ted to most of us, was born
on March 24, 1924 in Kitchener, Ontario. He studied  at  Queen's
University  in  Kingston  (B.A.  1950)  and at the University of
British Columbia in Vancouver (M.A. in 1952 and Ph.D. in  1955).
He  taught  at  the  University of New Brusnwick from 1955-1961,
contributing to the herbarium there, and in 1961 he came to  the
University  of  Victoria  as  an Associate Professor, and taught
Ecology, Biogeography and Limnology. He retired from the Univer-
sity of  Victoria  in  1987.  His  major  contribution  was  the
biogeography  of North American mammals. Older graduates of UVIC
know him as an author of a nifty computer  program  for  cluster
analysis,  and accidently, he was the first person who explained
to me what "nifty" meant. His many interests  included  zoology,
botany,  and  fishing.  He was a warm and reliable friend to all
UVIC biology students.
(BEN # 85   15-December-1994)
From: R.T. Ogilvie <>

Pierre Bourque was elected Mayor of  Montreal  in  the  November
civic  election.  Pierre  Bourque  was  director of the Montreal
Botanical Garden, and had a  major  role  with  the  Garden  for
25 years.  Bourque  was a very dynamic and creative director and
has been  called  the  major  successor  to  Marie-Victorin  the
original  founder  of  the  botanical garden in 1931. During his
directorship there have been many  innovations:  the  Arboretum,
Japanese  Garden,  the  Insectarium,  Chinese  Garden, Ericaceae
Garden, Streamside Garden, and Rose Garden, and the Biodome -  a
museum  of  world  ecosystems.  Annual visitors to the Botanical
Gardens are now more than one million. The Institute of  Botany,
a partnership between the University of Montreal and the Botani-
cal  Garden, was strengthened and new research laboratories were
opened. A high quality journal of botany  and  horticulture  was
started,  called  "Quatre-Temps"  (which  is the Quebec name for
Cornus canadensis).
(BEN # 85   15-December-1994)
From: Phillip Hoover <phoover@SOL.UVIC.CA>

A trial DELTA (DEscription Language for TAxonomy)  users  e-mail
discussion  list  is being established in December of 1994 using
the listserver at the University of Victoria (British  Columbia,
Canada).  The  list will be of a temporary nature, running until
April 1994.

The purpose of this list is to allow  discussion  regarding  the
use  of  the  DELTA system for its users and those interested in
learning the use of the  system.  It  could  allow  posting  an-
nouncements of new upgrades and additional programs for use with
the DELTA system and meetings and workshops of interest to DELTA
users. We are setting it up for the education of our students in
a final year undergraduate course: Taxonomy and Biodiversity.

To    subscribe,    send    a    message   to   the   listserver
in the text saying:

subscribe DELTA-L your name

The subject line should be left blank.

Questions  regarding  the  list  can  be sent to the list manger
Phillip Hoover (
(BEN # 85   15-December-1994)
From: "R. M. Bourke" <rmbourke@COOMBS.ANU.EDU.AU>

[The following article was written for Tropical  Forest  Manage-
ment  Update,  published  by  the  International Tropical Timber
organisation and posted on the New Crops electronic forum.]

Numerous indigenous tree species bear edible nuts in  the  South
Pacific.  There  are  over  40  nut bearing species in Papua New
Guinea alone, many self-sown in lowland forest.  Some  of  these
have  high quality kernels which have considerable potential for
commercial development in domestic South  Pacific  and  overseas

In 1989 commercial development of canarium nuts commenced in the
Solomon Islands where they were marketed under the name "Solomon
nuts"  (Evans 1993). Canarium nut oil has also been exported for
use in personal care products by the UK based Body Shop Interna-
tional. Since then, interest in these nut species has  increased
rapidly  and  small  industries  have  also  been established in
Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea.

South Pacific Indigenous Nuts Workshop

This commercial development has received further impetus through
a recent workshop held in October in Port Vila, the  capital  of
Vanuatu. The South Pacific Indigenous Nuts Workshop was attended
by  55  people  from  the  South  Pacific countries of Fiji, New
Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and  West-
ern  Samoa,  as  well  as  from non-island countries (Australia,
Philippines, UK and USA). Participants came from a wide range of
backgrounds, with people involved in commercial  development  of
these nuts well represented.

Over  a  five  day period, 22 papers were presented; and working
groups on production, processing and marketing nuts met on three
occasions. Participants  saw  a  demonstration  of  a  prototype
mechanical  commercial  nut  cracker  developed  by a Ni-Vanuatu
engineer at the University of Hawaii; they  visited  local  vil-
lages  where  nuts  were  growing; and they also sampled locally
produced nuts at Mr. Charles Long Wah's 'Kava Store'.

The workshop was sponsored by the US  Agency  for  International
Development,  Australian  International  Development  Assistance
Bureau, Australian Centre  for  International  Agricultural  Re-
search and the Institute for Research, Extension and Training in
Agriculture  at the University of the South Pacific Apia campus.
A workshop proceedings will be published by ACIAR.

Nut species

Most interest to date has been on  canarium  species.  Pili  nut
(Canarium  ovatum  [Burseraceae])  is  sold  in the Philippines.
Canarium  vulgare  nuts  are  processed  and  sold  locally   in
Suluwesi,  Ambon  and  other islands in East Indonesia. Canarium
indicum  is  the  most  important  species  in  the   Melanesian
countries  of Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Its
natural distribution also includes eastern  Indonesia.  Canarium
occurs  as self-sown forest trees and planted or protected trees
in woody regrowth and village areas.

A number of Terminalia species [Combretaceae] bear high  quality
nuts.  Terminalia  catappa  is  the  very widely distributed sea
almond. This grows on beaches and nearby areas. As well  as  the
South Pacific, sea almond is widely grown in South East Asia and
other regions such as the West Indies.

Terminalia  kaernbachii  produces a very high quality nut, some-
what similar to the almond. Its natural distribution is confined
mainly to the south side of the island of New  Guinea  and  some
other  islands. It bears poorly near the ocean, but does well in
inland locations from very low altitudes up to  an  altitude  of
1100 m.

Cut-nuts (Barringtonia procera, B. edulis and B. novae-hiberniae
[Lecythidaceae]) are distributed from New Guinea to Fiji. Unlike
canarium   species   and  Terminalia  kaernbachii,  Barringtonia
procera is not a forest species.  It  is  planted  in  disturbed
sites  or  in  villages. B. novae-hiberniae is a forest species.
The Barringtonias are quick  bearing  trees  and  produces  nuts
within  three  years  of  planting, They contrasts with Canarium
indicum and Terminalia kaernbachii which do not bear until about
seven years. The compact habit of the Barringtonias is  also  an
advantage when they are planted with other trees. Market accept-
ance of cut-nuts has been very good in Vanuatu where it is being
processed and sold in Port Vila.

The  Polynesian  chestnut  (Inocarpus  fagifer  [Fabaceae]) is a
widely  distributed  nut  tree  throughout  most  of  the  South
Pacific.  It  has  not been developed commercially in any of the
island countries and market prospects are poorer  than  for  the
other species.

Karuka  nut  (Pandanus  julianettii [Pandanaceae]) grows only at
high altitude locations (1800 to 2600 metres) on the  island  of
New  Guinea.  It  has  not  been developed commercially to date.
However, the nut is very popular in the Papua New  Guinea  High-
lands and is sold in large numbers during the harvesting season.
If it was to be developed commercially in Papua New Guinea or in
other countries, it is likely to be well accepted.

Country strategies

Different  approaches  are  being pursued in the different South
Pacific countries. Commercial  development  of  indigenous  nuts
commenced  in  the  Solomon Islands with exploitation of natural
stands of Canarium indicum and C.  harveyi.  After  a  promising
start,  the  industry  has seen little expansion. Processing and
sales are done through the Department of  Agricultural  and  the
government-run Commodities Export Marketing Authority.

In  Vanuatu a local businessman, Charles Long Wah, has commenced
buying and processing three local nuts. These are canarium  nuts
(C. indicum and C. harveyi) cut-nuts (Barringtonia spp.) and sea
almond (Terminalia catappa). Processed nuts are sold only in the
small  national capital Port Vila where demand outstrips present
supply and production continues to expand  from  a  small  base.
Because  of the significance of the tourist industry in Vanuatu,
future expansion will be targeted at the tourist market.

There are three developments in Papua New Guinea, all commencing
in 1994. Okari Eco-Enterprises is selling  small  quantities  of
fresh okari nuts (T. kaernbachii) through a supermarket chain in
Port  Moresby.  On New Britain, two organisations started to buy
canarium nuts (C. indicum) in 1994. One is an  Australian-funded
rural  development  project  in the Kandrian and Gloucester Dis-
tricts of West New Britain.  The  other  is  a  local  NGO,  the
Pacific  Heritage  Foundation,  based  near  Kokopo  in East New
Britain. organisers in both locations were  agreeably  surprised
at  the  ease with which they could buy large quantities of nuts
harvested from planted and self-sown  trees  in  local  forests.
Both  organisations  are  seeking  alternative non-timber forest
products to generate income for local villagers. Processing  and
sale  will commence in early 1995. Sales will be targeted at the
domestic Papua New Guinea market. Demand is expected to be  good
because  of  the relatively large urban population (500,000) and
the proportion of PNG population who live in the highlands where
lowland nuts cannot be grown.

There has been no development of indigenous nuts in Fiji to date
but following the South Pacific Indigenous Nuts Workshop, inter-
est is focussed on two species. These are cut-nut  (Barringtonia
spp.) and candle nut (Aleurites moluccana [Euphorbiaceae]).

The future

Processing and sale of South Pacific indigenous nut species is a
very  new  industry and only very small quantities are currently
being produced for local sales. However, some of  the  nuts  are
high quality ones and have appeal outside the islands. Prospects
for  further  rapid  expansion  are  good  for sales locally, to
tourists and eventually as export crops. Labour inputs  are  low
compared  with annual horticultural crops. The nuts have a rela-
tively high value and can absorb high freight costs. They  offer
the  prospect  of  providing sustainable incomes to villagers in
remote locations.

Lit.: Evans, B. 1993. Canarium nuts--a new  cash  crop  for  the
      Solomon   Islands.   Tropical   Forest  Management  Update

R. Michael Bourke, Visiting Fellow, Department  of  Human  Geog-
raphy,  Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian
National  University,  Canberra  ACT  0200   AUSTRALIA   E-mail: - Fax: 61-6-2494896

[Pili  nuts  -  Canarium  ovatum - are available in Vancouver in
De Azur Grocery, 18-1472 Commercial Drive.]
(BEN # 85   15-December-1994)
From: Ken Hill <Ken_Hill@RBGSYD.GOV.AU>

A  small stand of trees that are considered to represent a third
living genus of Araucariaceae was discovered by New South  Wales
National  Parks  and  Wildlife  officers in late 1994. This, now
known as the "Wollemi Pine", occurs in a deep, very wet and very
sheltered gorge in the Wollemi National Park, in a rugged  moun-
tainous  area  within  200  km  north-west  of Sydney in eastern
Australia. With only about 20 adult trees in a single stand,  it
is  one  of  the  rarest trees in Australia. Of the other extant
Araucariaceae, it appears closest to Agathis, but  it  has  many
features  in  common  with  Cretaceous and early Tertiary fossil
groups such as Araucarioides. Staff of the  Royal  Botanic  Gar-
dens,  Sydney,  in conjunction with National Parks officers plan
to describe and name the new genus and species in  1995  in  the
journal  "Telopea".  Studies  of DNA and detailed morphology are
also in progress at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney,  together
with investigation of vegetative and tissue culture propagation.
It  is,  however,  unlikely that plants will become available in
less than two years.

[See the good article on it in the Thursday, 15  Dec.  New  York
Times.  Only  39  individuals (23 adults, some are large trees).
Illustrations show trunk,  distichous  "fernlike"  foliage,  and

Another   recent   exciting  news  was  that  Gilbert's  Potoroo
(Potorous gilberti) was rediscovered  in  Western  Australia.  A
zoology  Ph.D.  student  trapped  one at Two Peoples Bay on WA's
south coast. They haven't been seen for over 100 years and  were
thought  long extinct. Two Peoples Bay is where the Noisy Scrub-
bird was rediscovered in the 1960s  again  after  being  thought
extinct.  Gilbert's  Potoroo  is  a  relative  of the Long-Nosed
Potoroo (Potorous tridactylus) which still exists in  reasonable
numbers  in eastern Australia. (Potoroos are small kangaroo-like
marsupials). Andrew Taylor
(BEN # 86   28-December-1994)
From: (Don)

Anyone reading this is invited to  join  the  carnivorous  plant
listserve. To join, send the message:

sub cp First_name Last_name

Send this to the address:

By  the  way, south-west Australia has the largest concentration
of Drosera species in the world. Some people in  our  group  are
working  on  in-vitro  cultivation  of  Drosera. Anyone with ex-
perience in this area is invited to join  our  group.  There  is
also  a society, the International Carnivorous Plant Society. We
are always looking for people to write articles  for  the  quar-
terly  bulletin  and  to  supply seeds (especially Nepenthes and
Heliamphora) to our seed exchange.

If anyone wants to  join  the  International  Carnivorous  Plant
Society,  the  dues  are  $15  (U.S. dollars) per year for those
living in the USA or Canada; and $20 per year for  others.  Send
this to:

International Carnivorous Plant Society
Fullerton Arboretum
California State University, Fullerton
Fullerton, CA  92634

To supply extra carnivorous plant seed to our seed exchange, the
address is:

Gordon Snelling
300 West Carter Dr.
Glendora, CA  91740-5915
(BEN # 86   28-December-1994)
From: Dan Freidus <>

A  new  list on Biological Control have been set recently. It is
running from a listserver in Brazil, and even so  the  presenta-
tion  message  is  in  portuguese,  I don't believe will exclude
messages written in English or Spanish.

Subscription to this list can be done by sending the message

SUBSCRIBE BIOCONTROL-L Your_First_name Your_Last_name

The owner of the list is Sidnei de Souza <> or Dr.
Luiz Alexandre Nogueira de Sa' at
C.P. 69
13.820-000 - JAGUARIUNA - SP
(BEN # 86   28-December-1994)
From: Brother Eric Vogel <>

I am in the process  of  producing  a  CD-ROM  containing  2,000
pictures  of  665  species  of native wildflowers of California.
This is from a collection of 20,000 slides collected by  Brother
Alfred  Brousseau over his lifetime. It takes the form of super-
card stacks, a stack for each alphabetical (latin name) group of
flowers. The material has been sent out  to  a  commercial  disk
producer  and  I  am in the process of checking the "one off" CD
before having multiple disks stamped out. You need  a  Macintosh
with a minimum of 4 MB and 256 color capability.

I  have  available  a  sample (one card, with one flower) that I
could e-mail you. It is contained in a self extracting file  and
since  I  use  Eudora as an internet interface, Eudora "binhexs"
everything it sends out. If you are using Eudora, it will  auto-
matically  "binhex"  it back to the original form, otherwise you
need something like the program BINHEX4. The file  that  results
is  a  .sea  file  which  self expands upon clicking, yielding a
standalone super card stack which is viewed by  double-clicking.
The  file  is  about  650K  hence takes some time unless you are
directly connected to internet. I will gladly  send  it  to  you
upon  request. The CD-ROM should be available early January. The
CD results from a project whose purpose  is  to  distribute  the
work of Brother Alfred, and is non-profit, hence I am asking for
a $35.00 donation for the CD.

Brother Eric Vogel
Saint Mary's College
POB 5150, Moraga, Ca.  94575
(BEN # 86   28-December-1994)
From: Vic Ramey <>

[For BEN, and thanks very much for thinking of us:]

For  almost  15  years,  the  Center  for  Aquatic Plants (IFAS,
University of Florida) has been building a computerized  library
and  database about freshwater aquatic plants: the Aquatic Plant
Information Retrieval System (APIRS). The  APIRS  database  con-
tains  more  than  40,000  articles and reports from hundreds of
journals and research institutions around the world.  APIRS  can
be  searched  by  topics,  species,  authors,  keywords, and any
combinations thereof. Use of APIRS is free of charge to  anyone,
in  exchange  for  contributions  of articles, reports and other
items to the database.

As of now the APIRS database is  not  on-line.  We  are  working
toward  that  end  and expect to make an announcement within the

APIRS also produces the newsletter AQUAPHYTE,  a  semi-technical
16-pager  which informs of meetings, research projects and other
topics of interest to more than 5,000 researchers,  institutions
and  government  personnel in more than 80 countries. It is free
of charge for the asking.

In addition, the APIRS office produces various  products  having
to  do with aquatic plants including a full-color 2' X 3' poster
and copyright-free line drawings for  educational  and  research

APIRS  also  maintains an educational videotape production unit.
We have produced about 30 programs on various aspects of aquatic
ecosystem functioning and management. Some videos are  more  for
aquatics  manager  training, and some are more for public educa-
tion purposes (such as lakeside homeowners associations).

Among the videos are seven  tapes  which  comprise  the  aquatic
plant  identification  series.  In ordinary (non-botanical) lan-
guage, 115 plants are treated in  2-minute  identification  seg-
ments.  These, and all of our videotape  programs, are available
for sale or for borrowing.

For more information  about  APIRS,  the  database,  newsletter,
drawings and videotapes, contact Victor Ramey or Karen Brown at:
Information  Office,  Center  for  Aquatic Plants, University of
Florida, 7922 NW 71 ST, Gainesville, FL 32653.  Voice:  904/392-
1799 Fax: 904/392-3462 E-mail:
(BEN # 87   5-January-1995)
From: Paul West <> via bionet.plants

Unravelling the Mystery of Pacific Madrone

Why  is  pacific  madrone  declining  around  Seattle? Can it be
resurrected in the urban landscape?  A  day-long  symposium  en-
titled  "The  Decline  of  Pacific Madrone: current theories and
research directions" will be held Friday, April  28th,  1995  at
the University of Washington's Center for Urban Horticulture.

The Symposium is intended to galvanize new research on the topic
of madrones (Arbutus menziesii). Topics to be addressed include:
natural   ecology,   pathology,  soil  and  hydrologic  factors,
landscape performance, and propagation.

For more information, contact Paul West at the  Seattle  Depart-
ment  of  Parks  and Recreation at phone 206-684- 4122, fax 206-
684-4126, or e-mail Valerie  Cholvin  of  Save
Magnolia's   Madrones   can  be  contacted  at  206-283-8643  or

Those interested in presenting a topic with a paper for publica-
tion in symposium proceedings should contact Dr.  Clem  Hamilton
at  the  Center for Urban Horticulture at 206-543-8616, fax 206-
685-2692, or e-mail by March 15, 1995.
(BEN # 87   5-January-1995)
From: Clecio Fernando Klitzke <>
         via ECOLOG-L

To attend people interested  in  CHEMICAL  ECOLOGY,  we  created
CHEMECOL, a discussion list in this area. 

To subscribe this list send  a  mail  to 
with the message: 
subscribe chemecol your name 

After this any mail to  CHEMECOL  list should be sent to

        Clecio Fernando Klitzke
        chemecol list owner
(BEN # 87   5-January-1995)
From: "Pamela E. Burns-Balogh" <>

Koeltz Scientific Books is now on the internet
telnet to
sign in as "visitor" (no apostrophes)
at command prompt type  "go koeltz" (no apostrophes)
(BEN # 87   5-January-1995)
From: Jim Erckmann <erckmann@CYBERSPACE.COM> [abbrev.]

Supervise  and  lead biology professionals to plan and implement
programs in forest and watershed ecology  for  City  of  Seattle
Water  Department.  Develop  cooperative  research  programs and
environmental  plans  with  universities,  Indian  tribes,   and
agencies.  Work  with  multidisciplinary  staff to design timber
sales and create long-term programs  to  protect,  rehabilitate,
and restore aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

Requires  a  B.S. in natural sciences plus 5 years of experience
in a related field involving developing, conducting, and  super-
vising  field  monitoring,  research,  and habitat management in
wildlife biology, fisheries, or ecology. Related M.S.  or  Ph.D.
involving  research  is preferred and may substitute for 3 years
of experience. Salary $3,787/month. Send your resume by  January
24, 1995, to S. Bergstrand, Seattle Personnel Dept., 1292 Dexter
Horton Building, Seattle, WA, U.S.A., 98104-1793. AA/EOE.
(BEN # 88   13-January-1995)
From: TRAFFIC Bulletin 13(2): 68-72.
        (Article by Jane C. MacKnight & Vonda Frantz - abbrev.)

The  Venus Flytrap is a sole representative of the genus Dionaea
(its Latin  name  is  D.  muscipula  Ellis),  a  member  of  the
Droseraceae  family  which  contains  Sundew (Drosera - about 80
spp.), Waterwheel (Aldrovanda - 1 sp.),  and  Portuguese  Sundew
(Drosophyllum - 1 sp.).

Dionaea  muscipula is endemic to a 320-km strip of coastal plain
in southeastern North Carolina and northeastern  South  Carolina
where  the  sandy-peaty,  acidic, low-nutrient soils remain wet.
Populations decline rapidly when overgrown by shrubs and  taller
plants.  Periodic  fires  are  characteristic  of  Venus Flytrap
habitat.  Unless  other  management  techniques  are   employed,
drainage  or  suppression of fires will cause extirpation of the
habitat and Venus Flytrap populations.

The Venus Flytrap is traded as a novelty plant in North America,
Europe and Asia. In Germany, the  plants  are  also  used  in  a
medicine,  Carnivora,  which  is  sold  as  a claimed remedy for
cancer and AIDS (Ref.: Walker, M. 1991. The Carnivora  cure  for
cancer,  AIDS,  and other pathologies. - Townsend Newsletter for
Doctors. Stamford, CT, June).

The Venus Flytrap is propagated in  both  the  USA  and  Europe.
Methods  of propagation - by division, tissue culture, leaf-base
culture, from leaf blades or by seeds - are relatively easy  and
require  between  one  and three years for the plants to reach a
marketable size.

No commercial propagation or trade in Venus  Flytrap  was  iden-
tified in South Carolina. Nine nurseries in North Carolina found
to  trade  in  Venus  Flytrap  were  visited  or  interviewed by
telephone. Only one nursery was found to conduct true artificial
propagation, while  others  either  propagate  by  division  and
continually replenish stock with wild plants or rely entirely on
wild-collected plants.

Both South and North Carolina have taken measures to protect the
species.  The  laws  prohibit  collection  of Venus Flytrap from
public lands, or from private lands without  the  permission  of
the  landowner. The listing of the Venus Flytrap in CITES Appen-
dix II became effective on 11 June 1992 and requires  documenta-
tion  for  all  international  exports and re-exports. All wild-
collected plants destined for export require export permits  and
artificially-propagated  plants require a certificate of artifi-
cial propagation.

Small-scale collecting may occur in South Carolina,  but  it  is
not believed to be a serious problem. Illegal collection of wild
plants  in  North  Carolina  is  frequent, widespread and large-
scale. The volume of Venus Flytraps collected annually in  North
Carolina may be as high as several hundred thousand plants. When
the habitat of Venus Flytrap was abundant, the impact of collec-
tion  was  probably negligible. But the effects of development -
bulldozing and paving of habitat, drainage of large  tracks  for
timber  extraction,  and  fire suppression - have diminished the
amount of habitat, and the impact of  collection  is  magnified.
The  decrease  in collecting sites causes each remaining site to
be more heavily collected.

The  long-term  preservation of the Venus Flytrap  will require 
a series of measures:
1) Reduce and control collection of wild plants.
2) Enforce state regulations and CITES.
3) Establish more protected areas.
(BEN # 88   13-January-1995)
From:  Dr. Rudolf W. Becking, Research Consultant, 1415 Virginia
      Way, Arcata, CA 95521-6855. Phone/FAX: (707) 822-1649

[Copyright R.W. Becking. Released with permission of the  author
to  the  users of BEN on Internet. For any questions, additional
information or potential applications of Plenterung contact  the
author directly.]

The  earliest  protocols  regulating  harvest of trees date from
1200-1300 A.D. in Central  Europe.  These  regulations  dictated
tree  harvest  at  specific  locations  in the communal forests,
specified quantities or volumes to be removed  and  the  harvest
times  under  supervision  of an elected official, the forester!
The original harvest method was  selective  or  individual  tree
harvest,  named  Plenterung.  In  medieval times, these communal
forests played a vital role in local rural economies by  supply-
ing  fuel  wood  that  was used daily for cooking meals, heating
homes, and  for  the  manufacturing  and  processing  of  forest
products  and  foods.  The population explosion caused the emer-
gence of commerce, the industrial  revolution  and  urbanization
around  1600.  During  1600--1800, Central Europe was ravaged by
religious and feudal wars resulting in  concentrating  political
powers  in large industrial cities, with a capitalistic economic
control over the  lands  and  their  natural  resources.  Forest
resources   were   rapidly   depleted   and  logging  activities
encroached deep into the valleys and mountains. All the European
forests would have disappeared, except the last remnant  forests
were  saved  by  the  discovery of new energy sources like coal,
oil, gas, and electricity to fuel the industrial plants.

The   remaining   heavily   degraded   forest,   the   so-called
"Mittelwald",  was  an  open forest dominated by a few overstory
trees and a dense  coppice  of  repeatedly-cut  and  resprouting
hardwoods  to  be  used  as  a  fuel wood. The conifers, lacking
sprouting ability, mostly disappeared. The age-old  conservative
Plenterung  system was effectively destroyed. In the 1870's, the
new  science  of  forestry  was  born  in  Germany  and  France,
primarily   to  remedy  these  degraded  forest  wastelands  for
economic reasons. The initial  techniques  were  to  remove  the
entire  Mittelwald  and  start replanting the cleared areas with
conifers, notably Norway spruce (Picea abies), white fir  (Abies
alba), and Scots pine (Pinus silvestris). Thus, even-aged forest
management  was  born,  and  with  it silviculture, mensuration,
forest economics, forest engineering and  forest  genetics.  Im-
provements  were made in thinning and harvesting schedules, soil
amendments, insect and pest controls, and trees  were  projected
as  unsawn planks with $ returns! In spite of vigorous political
control efforts, Plenterung  survived  in  isolated  mountainous
communities of the Alps.

During  the  20th century with an unprecedented world population
explosion, the long-term  global  effects  of  the  capitalistic
even-aged  forest  management  system created international con-
cerns and  controls  about  global  warming,  preserving  global
biodiversity  and  gene pools, threatened or endangered species,
clearcutting tropical and temperate  rainforests,  and  loss  of
top-soil and soil fertility by erosion and monocultures.

Plenterung  emerges  today as an alternative method to even-aged
forest management. Its science was perfected by Adolphe Gurnaud,
Henri Biolley and others around 1875,  but  its  acceptance  and
publication  was severely limited. Plenterung is the only proven
silvicultural system regarding the forest  as  an  ecosystem  in
which  all  its  components closely interact with the site, soil
and climate. Plenterung is also  the  unique  forest  management
system  to  maintain  constantly a dynamic all-aged stand struc-
ture, volume and area controls. Plenterung relies  heavily  upon
local   natural  regeneration,  intensive  100%  inventories  to
monitor stand growth in all size (age) classes every 5-7  years,
and  harvesting  trees only upon complete inventories to control
all its stand  variables.  Individual  trees  are  selected  for
harvest to improve spacing, growth, stand composition, diversity
in  age  and  species, and the maintenance of the top canopy in-
fluence. Plenterung requires a  permanent  intensive  road  net,
with major haul roads and skid roads adapted to directional tree
felling,  no  landings,  and  no  heavy equipment entry into the
stands. All the stand treatments are carried out  simultaneously
every  5-7  years  within the same permanent compartment. Before
any stand treatment, 100% inventories  monitor  the  effects  of
past treatments and adjust to maintain constancy of stand struc-
ture,  volume  and  growth.  Only  the  volume that can be grown
within the harvest intervals may  be  removed.  Stand  treatment
consists  of maintaining a constant stand structure curve cover-
ing the entire range of 2-inch DBH-classes. Harvesting  is  done
on those trees in excess of the desired stand structure over the
entire  DBH  range.  Stand  growth is precisely calculated using
repeated inventories including  stand  ingrowth  and  mortality.
Using  dual  inventories, stand growth can account precisely for
intermediate windstorm or insect losses on a tree-by-tree basis!
Plenterung will automatically  adjust  to  long-term  cumulative
impacts  and  stand  changes  with  its  built-in most intensive
monitoring  of  stand  performance  and  the  significant  stand
parameters.  One  of  the  unique features of Plenterung is that
time is no factor at all in the decision-making or stand invest-
ment. Economically it has proven to be a very stable and  secure
investment  with  steady periodic returns while maintaining full
sustainability! This implies the total abandonment of  even-aged
concepts including clearcutting.

Plenterung  strives  for maintaining natural processes on a com-
partment basis and, by extrapolation over all the  compartments,
on  a  landscape  basis.  Another incalculable advantage is that
niches and natural habitats within the managed compartment  will
be  rotated  among gaps and preserved within the same unit area.
This preserves natural biodiversity and gene pools.

Applications of Plenterung within  the  US  have  been  hampered
because  current  stand conditions in a severely depleted forest
would require a lengthy period of  restoration  and  investment.
Long  time  is  needed to attain a suitable and profitable stand
structure of a mature late seral forest to implement and  manage
for  a  dynamic  and constant multi-storied and all-species/all-
aged stand structure. The current  controversies  over  policies
implementing   the  preservation  of  the  endangered/threatened
species like the Spotted Owl, Marbled Murrelet and Coho  Salmon,
coupled  with the re-enactments of the Clear Air and Clean Water
Acts, may provide a strong impetus to apply and  practice  Plen-
terung  on  a  broad commercial scale, at least on public lands,
within the Pacific Northwest and the Redwood Region of  Califor-
nia.  Elsewhere,  Plenterung  has wide applications. The natural
forest types of the Cascades, Sierra Nevada and Rocky  Mountains
are  ideally  suited  for Plenterung application before they are
clear-cut. The Eastside forests of  ponderosa  pines  and  their
mixtures  in  the  interior of the West are naturally structured
for Plenterung applications. Similarly, the mixed oak  and  con-
ifer  forests  of the eastern United States, including the Smoky
Mountains, have been observed to have a  well  defined  Plenter-
structure  in  their  original state. At the present, Plenterung
remains unknown to many foresters or is misunderstood.
(BEN # 89   15-January-1995)