Issues #90 to #100 (January to April 1995)


An  article  published  in Novon featured a description of Doug-
lasia beringensis, a new species from the  Seward  Peninsula  in
the  Bering  Strait  region  of Alaska. Douglasia beringensis is
most similar to Douglasia montana (from Montana, Idaho,  Wyoming
and British Columbia). The paper also deals with the Russian and
North American concepts of the genus Douglasia and Androsace and
gives  a  key  to all nine species of Douglasia known from North

Ref.: Kelso, S., B.A. Yurtsev &  D.F.  Murray.  1994.  Douglasia
      beringensis (Primulaceae): A new species from northwestern
      Alaska. - Novon 4: 381-385.
(BEN # 90  28-January-1995)


Geiser,  L.H.,  K.L. Dillman, C.C. Deer, & M.C. Stensvold. 1994.
      Lichens of  southeastern  Alaska:  An  inventory.  -  USDA
      Forest Service, Alaska Region, R10-TB-45, Tongass National
      Forest, Petersburg, Alaska. 145 p. [78 bibl.ref.]

This  inventory  includes  453 lichens from southeastern Alaska,
and is the most comprehensive lichen inventory of that region to
date. Most of the occurrence documented here are from 258  plots
that  were  established  on  the Tongass National Forest between
1989 and 1993.

The introductory parts of the book describe southeastern Alaska,
most of which is in the Tongass  National  Forest;  and  discuss
inventory  methodology  and  results.  The  bulk  of the book is
comprised of descriptive entries for each of  the  453  lichens.
Each  entry  includes a distribution map of southeastern Alaska,
description of habitat, range, abundance in southeastern Alaska,
abundance in North America, and  sensitivity  to  air  pollution
(when  known). Special notes are included for some taxa to high-
light range extensions or unusual collections.

The 49 fine pen and ink illustrations of selected  lichens  were
drawn  by  Alexander  Mikulin, a visiting lichenologist from the
Russian Academy of Sciences.

The book can be obtained, at no cost,  from  Everett  Kissinger,
Stikine  Area,  Tongass  National  Forest,  Box 309, Petersburg,
Alaska 99833, or Mary  Stensvold,  Sitka  Ranger  District,  201
Katlian Street, Suite 109, Sitka, Alaska 99835.
(BEN # 90  28-January-1995)

Beaudoin, A.B. & F.D. Reintjes. 1994. Late Quaternary studies in
      Beringia and beyond, 1950-1993: An annotated bibliography.
      - Archeological Survey Occasional Paper no. 35, Provincial
      Museum  of  Alberta,  Edmonton.  386 p. ISBN 0-7732-1387-2
      [soft cover], CDN $ 14.95.

The bibliography includes references to research papers,  books,
monographs,  short  notes,  theses,  conference  abstracts, con-
ference reports, popular articles,  and  commentaries  published
between  1950-1993.  The  citations deal with surficial geology,
glacial history, climate  history,  palaeontology,  archaeology,
and  palaeoenvironments  in  Beringia  between  about 50,000 and
10,000 years ago. References include abstracts, where available.
The bibliography comprises 1001 citations, annotated  by  topic,
geographic  area  and  library location, and is accompanied by a
comprehensive index. Beringia is defined as the  northern  hemi-
sphere region centred on Siberia and Alaska-Yukon and bounded by
the  Lena River to the west and the Mackenzie River to the east.
Other areas covered in this bibliography include western Siberia
between Lena and Yenisey Rivers,  northeastern  China,  northern
Korea  and  Japan.  It  also  covers the portion of the northern
Pacific Ocean and offshore continental  shelf  that  would  have
been terrestrial during the Late Pleistocene full-glacial.

[Available  from:  The Museum Shop, c/o The Provincial Museum of
Alberta, 12845-102nd Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T5N  0M6,
Tel.:  (406) 453-9108 (Publications); FAX: (403) 454-6629. Major
credit cards accepted.]
(BEN # 90  28-January-1995)
From:  Margriet  Wetherwax   <margriet@UCJEPS.HERB.BERKELEY.EDU>

Have  you  found  any  typographical errors or minor substantive
errors in The Jepson Manual: Higher  Plants  of  California  (J.
Hickman,  ed.)?  If  so, the Jepson editors would be grateful to
receive your input before April 1, 1995 to aid in production  of
the  next  printing of the The Jepson Manual (1st edition). Cor-
rections that change pagination cannot be considered for  incor-
poration  in  the next printing (but see below). Any substantive
corrections that require editorial judgement  should  be  accom-
panied   with   documentation   (e.g.,   literature  or  voucher
citation).  Please  send  your  corrections  to  Bruce  Baldwin,
Curator of the Jepson Herbarium, 1001 Valley Life Sciences Bldg.
#2465, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-2465. e-mail
communication    of    your   corrections   can   be   sent   to Thank you!!

In preparation for production of a more extensively revised  2nd
edition  of  The  Jepson  Manual,  the Jepson editors would also
greatly appreciate any documented corrections of  more  substan-
tial  errors  or  problems  in  the Manual. All corrections that
would change pagination of the Manual fall under this  category.
To aid editorial procedures, please segregate any corrections of
this  type  under  separate heading from typographical and other
minor corrections discussed in  the  previous  paragraph.  These
corrections can be sent to the same address given above.
(BEN # 90  28-January-1995)

All issues of BEN are stored on the gopher .
You can access them by typing
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All  issues  of BEN are WAIS indexed and you can search them for
any word or name you want (item 1 on the menu above).

You can set up bookmarks to BEN on your  home  gopher  (see  BEN
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pointer in your gopher's menu.  Give  them  the  following  Link

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(BEN # 90  28-January-1995)
From: "Hugues B. Massicotte" <>

The  Faculty  of  Natural Resources and Environmental Studies of
the new University of Northern British Columbia  offers  3  main
B.Sc.  options  for the scientifically and biologically inclined
candidate. The B.Sc.  in  Natural  Resource  Management  can  be
accomplished   with  4  different  majors  (Forestry,  Wildlife,
Fisheries, Recreation & Tourism). The recognition  that  manage-
ment  of  any  natural  resource  has implications for all other
natural resources is a primary  driving  factor  in  the  under-
graduate  curriculum  for  this  degree.  The  Forestry major is
designed  to  meet   national   and   provincial   accreditation

The  B.Sc.  in  biology  offers  4  different  majors  (Biology,
Fisheries, Plant Science, Wildlife) and this program is designed
to present the major concepts of  contemporary  biology  at  the
molecular,   cellular,   organismic,  population  and  community

A third B.Sc. program in Environmental  Science  also  offers  a
broad-based curriculum to help candidates deal with contemporary
complex environmental questions and issues.

At  present,  a  M.Sc.  program  is  already available and it is
anticipated that a Ph.D. program should be in place by 1996.

For more specific information on these  programmes,  one  should
contact the office of the registrar at UNBC at (604) 960-5555.


Dr. Josef  Ackerman,  bio-fluid mechanics related to the ecology
      and evolution of plants and animals, and  implications  of
      these processes in environmental systems.
Dr. Lito  Arocena,  geochemistry  of  natural  processes in ter-
      restrial environment (cation balance in forest ecosystems,
      soil mineralogy and  chemistry,  acid  mine  drainage  and
      industrial wastes.
Dr. Max  Blouw,  ecological  genetics and behavioural ecology of
      fishes and shellfish.
Dr. Darwyn Coxson, plant environmental physiologist  (functional
      diversity, plant survival strategies, nutrient cycling).
Dr. Keith  Egger,  molecular  approaches  to the study of fungal
      biodiversity, particularly forest mycorrhizal  communities
      and population genetic structure.
Dr. Arthur Fredeen, plant ecophysiology (acclimation and adapta-
      tion  of  understory  plants to light, stomatal physiology
      and photosynthesis in boreal forest species.
Dr. Fred Gilbert, management, habitat requirement and impacts of
      human activities on wildlife populations.
Dr. Michael Gillingham, population and wildlife ecology, modell-
      ing, plant-herbivore interactions and behavioural ecology.
Dr. Allen Gottesfeld, surfacial ecology of Northern BC,  fluvial
      geomorphology, terrain analysis, watershed processes.
Dr. Kevin  Hall,  periglacial  processes, glacial sedimentology,
      Quaternary environments.
Dr. Alex Hawley, animal and human interaction with the  environ-
Dr. Daniel  Heath,  molecular approaches to address questions in
      the evolution and ecology of fishes.
Dr. Peter Jackson, atmospheric science including mesoscale  wind
      flow,    micrometeorological   measurements,   atmospheric
Dr. Winifred Kessler, ecological studies to  support  integrated
      land and resource management.
Dr. Kathy  Lewis,  role  of  disease  in  natural disturbance of
      ecosystems, disease epidemiology, population  genetics  of
      root disease fungi.
Dr. Staffan  Lindgren, chemical ecology of forest insects, espe-
      cially bark beetles, forest pest management.
Dr. Hugues Massicotte, botany, forest and microbial ecology with
      emphasis on structure and function of mycorrhizal associa-
      tions and rhizosphere organisms.
Dr. Katherine Parker, wildlife biology  especially  plant-animal
      interactions,  nutritional  and physiological ecology, and
Dr. Ellen  Petticrew,  aquatic  science  especially   limnology,
      hydrology and sedimentology.
Dr. Michael  Walters, ecological and ecophysiological aspects of
      northern and montane  forests,  shortgrass  prairies,  oak
      savannas and tropical forest systems.
Roger  Wheate,  cartography,  GIS,  remote  sensing  and digital
Jane Young, plant adaptation in aquatic  ecosystems,  functional
      morphology and anatomy.
(BEN # 91  11-February-1995)

Bolli, R. 1994. Revision of the genus Sambucus. - Dissertationes
      Botanicae,  Band  223, J. Cramer in der Gebruder Borntrae-
      ger, Berlin - Stuttgart. 227 p. + 29 plates.  ISBN  3-443-
      64135-0 [soft cover]

The taxa recognized in the new classification of the genus are 9
species,  8  subspecies  and  2  varieties. Richard Bolli treats
North American elderberries, Sambucus canadensis and S.  cerulea
as  subspecies  of Sambucus nigra (subsp. nigra and subsp. ceru-
lea). North American members of Sambucus  racemosa  complex  are
all  treated  as  Sambucus racemosa var. melanocarpa. The author
suggests the North American origin of Sambucus racemosa from  an
ancestor  of  S.  nigra subsp. canadensis and advocates treating
Sambucaceae, Viburnaceae and  Adoxaceae  as  separate  families.
[Sambucaceae  and  Viburnaceae are traditionally considered as a
part of Caprifoliaceae.]

The publication can be ordered (no price given) from

   Institut fur Systematische Botanik
   Universitat Zurich
   Richard Bolli
   Zollikerstrasse 107
   CH-8008 Zurich
(BEN # 91  11-February-1995)
From: Terje Vold <>

The 6th interagency US National Wilderness Conference  was  held
in  Santa  Fe,  New  Mexico last November, 1994. The conference,
whose theme was "The Spirit Lives," also  marked  the  30th  an-
niversary  of  the 1964 US Wilderness Act. One of the objectives
of the conference was to develop an interagency  strategic  wil-
derness  action  plan; this plan should be completed in the next
few months.

The conference was co-sponsored by  the  four  US  agencies  who
manage  designated  wilderness areas: the US National Park Serv-
ice, the US Forest Service, the Bureau of Land  Management,  and
the  US  Fish  and  Wildlife  Service;  and also by the National
Biological Service and the Society of American Foresters.  About
750 people attended the conference (over 1000 wanted to but many
could not due to space limitations).

British  Columbia  participants  included  Dennis Moffatt, Brian
Dyck and Kris Kennett from BC Parks,  and  myself  (Terje  Vold)
from  the BC Forest Service. Brian presented a joint BC Parks/BC
Forest Service paper, and a poster display was set  up  on  BC's
Protected Areas Strategy.

The conference covered many themes including:

-the role  of  wilderness as core areas in maintaining biodiver-
      sity,  and  in  the  ecological   management   of   larger
      bioregions (like ecoregions or ecosections)
-the importance of the recently passed California Desert Protec-
      tion  Act  which  increases  protected areas in 25% of the
      state from 2.5 million ha to about 5.7 million  ha  (about
      45%  of  the  overall  desert area) - a 3.2 million ha in-
      crease. By comparison, there has been a  2.2.  million  ha
      increase  in  BC  over the last 2 years. The Act creates 3
      large parks and  designates  69  smaller  Bureau  of  Land
      Management and US Forest Service wilderness areas.

Some of the keynote presentations:
Stewart Udall,  writer  and conservationist, former US Secretary
      of the Interior, provided  an  introductory  talk  to  the
      conference on "Why are we here?"
Max Peterson,  former  Chief  Forester of the US Forest Service,
      now VP with the  International  Association  of  Fish  and
      Wildlife  Agencies,  provided  a  "Wilderness Perspective"
      since the first National Interagency Wilderness Conference
      in 1983.
David Brower, well-known conservationists, previously  with  the
      Sierra Club, spoke on "Wilderness Stewardship - How are we
Gaylord Nelson,  a  former  US senator, now a counselor with the
      Wilderness Society, talked about  "Environment-Population-
      Sustainable Development".
Ed Grumbine,  Director  of  the  Sierra  Institute and author of
      "Ghost Bears"  discussed  "Future  Trends"  in  wilderness
Roger Kennedy,  Director  of  US National Park Service, gave his
      vision of wilderness preservation within the national park
Joe Feller, a law professor at Arizona State  University,  spoke
      about "Grazing and Wilderness in Conflict"
Jerry Asher,  a  Bureau  of Land Management resource specialist,
      spoke about invasive alien plants and how this can  "Crush
      the Wilderness Spirit".
Ron Pulliam,  Director  with  the  National  Biological  Survey,
      discussed how  the  NBS  intends  to  provide  information
      needed to manage and conserve biological resources.
Ed Zahniser,  writer  with the National Park Service, and son of
      the author of the 1964 US Wilderness Act, Howard Zahniser,
      gave  a  personal  first-hand  account  of  his   father's
      struggles in getting the Act passed 30 years ago.
John Roush,  president  of  the  Wilderness Society, spoke about
      "The Biological Values of Wilderness".
Bruce Vento, congressman who chairs the subcommittee on national
      parks, forests and public lands,  spoke  on  "Barriers  to
      Wilderness Preservation".
There  were  many more speakers at the conference as well, and I
can provide a summary of talks I attended to anyone wanting more
(BEN # 91  11-February-1995)
From: Charles Halpern <>

DESCRIPTION: Field crew and crew leader positions are  available
to  assist  with  ecological  studies  of alternative methods of
forest harvest in the Gifford Pinchot  (Washington)  and  Umpqua
(Oregon)  National  Forests.  Tasks  will  include  establishing
permanent  plots,  sampling  understory  vegetation,   measuring
trees, assessing site characteristics, quantifying amounts/types
of  coarse  woody debris, and additional measurements to charac-
terize vegetation composition and structure.  The  locations  of
the  study  sites  and the nature of the field work will require
extended periods of camping near field sites or  in  staying  in
bunkhouses. We will work 8-day periods with 5 days off.

QUALIFICATIONS: Familiarity with the flora of western Oregon and
Washington;  previous  experience  in sampling forest understory
vegetation or coursework  in  botany  and  ecology;  ability  to
identify  plants  and  collect/catalog  specimens;  attention to
detail and legible handwriting; ability and willingness to  work
long hours under harsh field conditions.

SALARY:   $1400/month  or  more,  depending  on  experience  and

DURATION: 12 June through early- to mid- September 1995

CLOSING DATE: 21 March 1995. We will continue to accept applica-
tions after that date only if positions remain open.

TO APPLY: Send HANDWRITTEN letter of interest; resume; copies of
either college transcripts or professional work products; and  2
letters of reference to one of us:

MELORA GEYER  (for work in Oregon)
Department of Forest Science
Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR  97331
E-mail:    Phone: 503-737-6105
Phone days and hours: 2:00-5:00 pm

SHELLEY EVANS  (for work in Washington)
Division of Ecosystem Science and Conservation,
College of Forest Resources, AR-10
University of Washington, Seattle, WA  98195
E-mail:    Phone: 206-685-9553
Phone days and hours: 7:30-9:30 am (Tu), 11:30-1:30 (W), 
       5:30- 7:30 pm (Th)
(BEN # 91  11-February-1995)
From: Bryological Times 81 <>

A Cryptogamic expedition in China with the north-western part of
the  Yunnan  Province as its main object was made from September
to October in 1994. This is the fourth expedition  organized  by
the National Science Museum, Tokyo, and the Kunming Institute of
Botany, Academia Sinica, during 1993 and 1994. As bryologists we
participated  in  the field trip. The investigated area includes
Dali, Lijiang, Zhongdian, Degen, Weixi and their neighbourhoods.
Especially, it was the first time for  botanists  to  visit  the
southern  part  of  Mt.  Meilixueshan,  situated at the boundary
between Tibet and Yunnan.

The first author found both antheridial plants  and  sporophytes
of  Takakia ceratophylla in Mt. Meilixueshan. This is the second
locality for sporophytes of Takakia, besides Atka Island in  the
central  Aleutian  district.  This  suggests  that Takakia has a
higher frequency of  sexual  reproduction  than  was  considered

Authors of the original note in Bryological Times 81:
Masanobu Higuchi, National Science Museum, Tokyo, Japan
Dacheng Zhang, Academia Sinica, Kunming, Yunnan, China.
(BEN # 92  17-February-1995)
From: Dr. Wilf B. Schofield <>

[Genus  Takakia  was described in 1958 and contains two species.
Its taxonomic position is unclear; most often, it was placed  in
the liverworts. Originally, only female gametophytes were known,
until  1990  when sporophytes were found on Takakia ceratophylla
from the Aleutian Islands;  sporophytes  are  still  unknown  in
Takakia  lepidozioides.  Here  is  Dr.  Schofield's answer to my
question "What is Takakia." - AC]

Takakia is clearly a bryophyte and is not a liverwort, at  least
in  the  accepted  sense.  If  it must be forced into a familiar
category, it would be placed with the mosses, but, like Sphagnum
(of the Sphagnopsida, not the Bryopsida), has no close relatives
in the mosses. The Class Takakiopsida is  available,  originally
proposed by M. Mizutani, and seems a more reasonable categoriza-
tion.  Sporophyte  characters  are  moss-like:  seta  elongating
before sporangium differentiation, conducting  strand  in  seta,
photosynthetic seta and sporangium, columella present, etc.

Gametophytic  features are unusual, and many are also moss-like:
sex organs, for example, but the  leaf  units,  the  absence  of
perichaetia  and  perigonial  leaves,  the  absence of rhizoids,
etc., are very telling and there are some  other  characters  as

In North America T. lepidozioides is widely scattered in coastal
British  Columbia  and  adjacent  Alaska,  while T. ceratophylla
appears in the  Aleutian  Islands,  where  sporophytes  and  an-
theridia have been found on Adak and Atka Islands, at least, and
are  likely  to  be found elsewhere. T lepidozioides has neither
sporophytes nor antheridia reported, and appears not to be  very
closely related to T ceratophylla. Both species are found in the
Himalayas, and T lepidozioides is in Japan and Borneo.

Research  will  soon  be published concerning T ceratophylla, at
least, especially the  beautiful  studies  of  K.  Renzaglia  in
collaboration  with  D. Smith, K. Macfarlard and P Davison. Fur-
ther researches are  in  progress  by  B.  Crandall-Stotler,  B.
Murray, R.M. Schuster and W.B. Schofield. In future, it is hoped
that  molecular  information  will become available from the re-
searches  of  B.  Mishler.  Cytological  information  has   been
reported  by  K.  Inoue  and Tatuno [very low number n=4, lowest
among bryophytes]  while  phytochemistry  has  been  treated  by
Markham and Porter.
(BEN # 92  17-February-1995)
From:  Chris  Wilson  "Oui,  but  can you eat it?" (The European
      MagAZine, 3-9 February 1995, p. 16 - abbrev.)

With truffles at $560 a kilo, you  might  have  thought  that  a
machine  to  find  them  more  reliably  than dogs or pigs would
interest truffle hunters. But surprisingly, the  new  technology
had a frosty response in southwest France this week.

The  portable  truffle-finder,  which  goes on sale this year at
$950, uses the latest aroma-detection  technology  to  recognize
the unique scent of the precious underground fungus. The machine
brings  scientific  rigour  to  the  hunt. It looks like a metal
detector and its network  of  sensors  are  held  close  to  the
ground. When the truffle odour is recognized, the machine beeps.

French  farmers,  however,  are resistant to new ideas: "Finding
the truffle is an act of respect and it should be  done  with  a
dog  or  a  pig not a machine. Done like that, it lacks poetry."
Expert trufflres have always used pigs and trained dogs  but  it
is  estimated that the animals may miss 20 per cent of truffles.
"Look at it this way" said another truffler. "I have a  farm.  I
keep  pigs.  Each  year  I  buy  a  pig for $90. It searches for
truffles naturally and it finds me 40-50 kilos a season. After a
year I eat it, and you can't do that with a machine, can you?"
(BEN # 92  17-February-1995)

The  Native  Vegetation Committee of the Vancouver Island Public
Interest Group (VIPIRG) presents their Second Native  Vegetation
Workshop,  Saturday  March 11, 1995, 9:00 am. to 4:00 pm. at the
University of Victoria, Elliot Lecture Wing.

There will be  information  booths,  displays,  guest  speakers,
native  plant sales and I.D. tables. Mini workshops on propagat-
ing native plants, enhancing Garry oak habitat,  gardening  with
native  plants,  walks through the UVIC Native Plant Garden, and
more will be held throughout the day. Bring your mug for  mulled
cider, Labrador tea and coffee.

Tickets at the door: $10.00 adults, $8.00 seniors/students.
Proceeds  will go to the Native Plant Garden on the UVIC campus.
For further information call Jenny Eastman  (479-8382)  or  Hana
Masata (744-4315).
(BEN # 93  23-February-1995)

From: Thomas Kaye <>

The Native Plant Society of Oregon will sponsor

A  Symposium  on  the  Conservation  and  Management of Oregon's
Native Flora

LaSells Stewart  Center,  Oregon  State  University,  Corvallis,
Oregon, November 15-17, 1995.

The  symposium  will  cover research and current work concerning
the conservation and management of Oregon's diverse native plant
species and communities.  Symposium  presentations  and  posters
will be organized under the following themes:

"Ecology,  Management,  and  Conservation of Oregon's Rare Plant
      Species" Keynote Speaker: Reed Noss (tentative)
"Bringing Back  the  Natives:  Restoration  of  Oregon's  Native
      Plants  and  Communities"  Keynote  Speaker: Linda McMahan
"Plant Systematics, Ecology and Biogeography of Oregon's  Native
      Plants  and  Communities"  Keynote  Speaker:  Ken Chambers
"The 'Lower' World of Oregon's Floral  Diversity  -  Bryophytes,
      Lichens,  and  Fungi" Keynote Speaker: Dave Wagner (tenta-

Persons interested in  participating  in  the  symposium  should
submit an abstract and preferred session to the address below no
later  than  May  1,  1995. Speakers will be notified by June 1,
1995. Anyone is encouraged to submit abstracts  for  papers  and
posters  related  to  the  four  themes  listed above. Abstracts
should be submitted on a 3.5" computer disk, in Wordperfect  5.0
or  higher,  along  with three paper copies. Abstracts should be
200 words or less using 1.5 inch margins. Please provide a short
biography. Contributors will be asked to  bring  manuscripts  of
their  presentations for inclusion in a proceedings volume to be
published later. Indicate whether you prefer to present  a  con-
tributed  paper  or  poster  and if you need any equipment other
than a slide or overhead projector.  Submit  abstracts  to:  Tom
Kaye,  Dept.  of  Botany  and Plant Pathology, OSU, Cordley Hall
2082, Corvallis, OR 97331-2902. Phone 503-737-2346, Fax 503-737-
3573, email:

A registration fee of $40 for NPSO  members  and  $50  for  non-
members is due prior to October 1, 1995. Registration fees after
this  date will be $50 for NPSO members and $60 for non-members.
Direct inquiries regarding the  symposium  and  registration  to
Bruce Rittenhouse, 1300 Airport Lane, North Bend, OR 97459-2000,
503-756-0100 (phone), 503-756-9303 (Fax).
(BEN # 93  23-February-1995)

From: Brother Eric Vogel <>

This  CD  is  for the MacIntosh base (one for the IBM base is in
the process) and contains  2,000  pictures  of  665  species  of
wildflowers of California, indexed and classified.
["This  is  from  a  collection  of  20,000  slides collected by
Brother Alfred Brousseau over his lifetime. It takes the form of
super-card stacks, a stack for each  alphabetical  (latin  name)
group of flowers." - BEN # 86]

Contact  Brother Eric Vogel ( (Snail mail:
St. Mary's College, 1928 St. Mary's Road, Moraga, Ca.  94575)  A
donation  of  $35.00  is  requested for this non-profit project.
Make checks payable to: Brothers Community.
(BEN # 93  23-February-1995)

From: Elisabeth Harmon,  North  American  Rock  Garden  Society,
      1994-1995 Seed List. Important Notes.

"In  the  next  few  years,  we  shall see increasingly stricter
legislation enacted to control the importation of plants of  all
kinds.  The  federal  government and several states already have
compiled a list of banned plants. For  example,  giant  hogweed,
Heracleum  mantegazzianum  [Apiaceae - Umbeliferae], a favourite
of some gardeners, is now listed under the Federal Noxious  Weed
Act  of 1992. It is illegal to import or distribute it in inter-
state commerce, and in Washington State, those  who  are  caught
growing  it  can be fined $750 for the first offense." 
[See also BEN # 67.]
(BEN # 93  23-February-1995)

From: Dr. Meindert de Jong <>

Report  on  my  visit  to  the University of Massachusetts Field
Station, Island of Nantucket (November 11-20, 1994).

I visited Dr. Wesley Tiffney, Director of the Field  Station  in
Nantucket  <wtiffney@AOL.COM> During the first days of my visit,
I was guided all over the island. I could  see  the  problem  of
successional  scrub  oak  (Quercus ilicifolia) overgrowing heath
vegetation engendered by a long history of grazing, now ceased.

At the same time I observed several salt marshes and the  native
New  England  plants  growing  on  them.  With  the exception of
Limonium, the plants are different from  those  in  The  Nether-
lands, although the basic ecology is quite similar.

The  original  purpose  of  this visit was the organization of a
biocontrol trial of scrub oak. It was intended to inoculate some
just cut stubs  of  scrub  oak  with  Chondrostereum  purpureum,
silver leaf fungus, to suppress oak resprouting. Fungal prepara-
tions were to be provided by labs in Canada and The Netherlands.

Preliminary  field  results  performed  in  The  Netherlands had
already proved that the silver leaf fungus is an  highly  effec-
tive  controller of resprouting in "American oak" (Q. rubra) and
many other hardwoods. However, it quickly became clear that this
purpose had to be changed since we were not allowed to import  a
foreign  fungus  into  this island. So I decided to provide some
information about possibilities of biological control using 'my'
mycoherbicide (using the fungus C. purpureum  as  if  it  was  a
herbicide). Through a field survey, we would try to show natural
occurrence of this cosmopolitan fungus on Nantucket. sp Together
with  Dr.  Tiffney  and  Nantucket conservation land managers we
looked for the purple crusts (basidiocarps of C. purpureum)  all
across  the  island.  We  finally found these crusts on piles of
firewood, imported from central Massachusetts, in the yard of  a
Nantucket  fuel  merchant.  Dr.  Tiffney  put samples in a moist
chambers in his lab.

This summer, students at the Field Station will seek to document
natural occurrence of C. purpureum on Nantucket  island.  If  it
can be shown that the species is native there, then field trials
of  the  fungus used as a mycoherbicide for control of scrub oak
resprouting can be carried out.

This research was sponsored by Landbouw Export Bureau  (Wagenin-
gen,   NL).   University   of   Massachusetts  provided  lodging
facilities and other in-kind compensation.
(BEN # 94  4-March-1995)

The Journal of Vegetation  Science,  vol.  5(1994)  published  a
Special  Feature  issue  on  Circumpolar  Arctic Vegetation. The
issue was based on contributions presented at the  International
Workshop  on  Classification  of  Arctic  Vegetation held at the
Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado,
Boulder, CO, 5-9 March 1992.

Table of contents:

Walker, M.D., Daniels, F.J.A. & van der Maarel, E.:  Circumpolar
      arctic vegetation - Introduction and perspective.
Yurtsev, B.A.: Floristic division of the Arctic.
Murray,  D.F.:  Floristics, systematics, and the study of arctic
      vegetation a commentary.
Daniels, F.J.A.: Vegetation classification in Greenland.
Elvebakk, A.: A survey of plan associations and  alliances  from
Koroleva,  N.E.:  Phytosociological survey of the tundra vegeta-
      tion of the Kola Peninsula, Russia.
Matyeva, N.V.: Floristic classification and  ecology  of  tundra
      vegetation of the Taymyr Peninsula, northern Siberia.
Razzhivin, V.Yu.: Snowbed vegetation of far northeastern Asia.
Walker,  M.D.,  Walker, D.A. & Auerbach, N.A.: Plant communities
      of  a  tussock  tundra  landscape  in  the  Brooks   Range
      Foothills, Alaska.
Talbot,  S.S.  &  Talbot,  S.L.: Numerical classification of the
      coastal  vegetation  of  Attu  Island,  Aleutian  Islands,
Forbes, B.C.: The importance of bryophytes in the classification
      of human-disturbed high arctic vegetation.
Sumina,  O.I.:  Plant communities on anthropogenically disturbed
      sites on the Chukotka Peninsula, Russia.
Lloyd, A.H., Armbruster, W.S. &  Edwards,  M.E.:  Ecology  of  a
      steppe-tundra gradient in interior Alaska.
Odasz,  A.M.:  Nitrate reductase activity in vegetation below an
      arctic bird cliff, Svalbard, Norway.

The  issue  is  being  published  separately  under  the  series
"Special  Features  in  Vegetation Science." The price is around
300 SEK and it can be ordered from Opulus Press AB, Box 25  137,
750 25 Uppsala, Sweden.
(BEN # 94  4-March-1995)

From: Carey Yeager <>, originally
      posted on CONSLINK <>

The   Rainforest   Conservation   Biology  Group  announces  the
availability of new housing facilities at its field  station  in
Kalimantan  Tengah,  Indonesia.  The field station is located at
Natai Lengkuas on the black water Sekonyer Kiri river in Tanjung
Puting National Park. Facilities include motor boats, two 10 m x
12 m buildings for housing and lab work, two 6 m x 6m houses for
permanent staff, a kitchen,  four  vegetation  plots  containing
over  2000  tagged trees and a trail system. The site contains a
combination of fresh water peat swamp, heath  (kerangas)  forest
and  lowland dipterocarp forest. We have nine primate species in
the park (orangutan, gibbon, proboscis monkey,  red  leaf-eating
monkey,  silver  leaf-eating  monkey, long-tailed macaques, pig-
tailed macaque, slow loris  and,  supposedly,  tarsiers),  mouse
deer,  barking  deer, civets, short-nosed fruit bats, false vam-
pire bats, binturang, false gavials, monitor lizards,  Malaysian
sun  bear,  hornbills, kingfishers, storm's stork, arawana, etc.
Current research being conducted at  the  site  focuses  on  the
impact  of  habitat  degradation on primate group size, composi-
tion, ranging and feeding behavior, phytochemical differences in
food resources as predictors of  food  preferences,  inter-group
communication,  vegetation ecology and swamp forest restoration.
The field station works in close  collaboration  with  the  park
management  on  conservation  issues  and  is  run  through  the
auspices of Universitas Indonesia. All research is conducted  in
accordance with Indonesian regulations. Research permits must be
obtained  from  LIPI (Indonesian Institute of Sciences) and PHPA
(Indonesian Department of  Forest  Conservation)  and  take  ap-
proximately six months to obtain. Permission to work at the site
itself is made by the site operating committee and is contingent
upon  housing  availability.  For  more  information  concerning
research opportunities contact:

Before March 8, 1995 and after Sept. 1, 1995
Carey P. Yeager, Ph.D.
Director (U.S.) Rainforest Conservation Biology Group
Calder Center of Fordham University
Box K, 53 Whippoorwill Road
Phone: (914) 273-3078
Fax: (914) 273-6346

Between March 20, 1995 and August 9, 1995
Carey P. Yeager, Ph.D.
Rainforest Conservation Biology Group
D/A Losmen Abadi
Pangkalan Bun  74114
Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia
Fax: (62)(532) 21923 or 21919
(commercial - often turned off at night - a fax will take 3 days
to one week to reach the station)
(BEN # 94  4-March-1995)

From:  Interior  Columbia  Basin  Ecosystem  Management  Project
      (ICBEMP),  112  E. Poplar Street, Walla Walla, Washington.
      Phone: 509-522-4030. ICBEMP Electronic  Library:  509-522-

The following reports are currently available:

Chatterton,  N.  Jerry, Deane Harrison, Richard Page and Michael
      Curto. 1994. Introduced Forage Grasses. (77 pages)
Clark, Patrick  E.  1994.  Livestock-Big  Game  Interactions:  A
      Selected  Review  with  Emphasis  on  Literature  from the
      Interior Pacific Northwest. (109 pages)
Eversman, Sharon. 1994. Lichens of  the  Yellowstone  Ecosystem.
      (102 pages)
Hammer, Samuel. 1995. The Biogeography and Ecology of Species in
      the Lichen Genus Cladonia in the Columbia River Basin. (77
Hammond,  Paul C. 1994. Rare Butterfly Assessment for the Colum-
      bia River Basin in the Pacific Northwest. (15 pages)
Hammond, Paul C. 1995. Butterflies and Their  Larval  Foodplants
      as  Bioindicators  for Ecosystem Monitoring in the Pacific
      Northwest. (38 pages)
Ingham, E. R. 1995. Soil Organisms, Bacteria,  Fungi,  Protozoa,
      Nematodes and Rotifers. (93 pages)
Kaltenecker,  Julie.  1994. Microbiotic Soil Crusts in Sagebrush
      Habitats of Southern Idaho. (60 pages)
Kemp,  William  P.  1994.  Rangeland  Grasshoppers  (Orthoptera:
      Acrididae)  of Concern to Management of the Columbia River
      Basin. (51 pages)
Lattin, John D. 1995. The Hemiptera:Heteroptera of the  Columbia
      River Basin, Western United States. (57 pages)
McCune, Bruce. 1994. Lichen Species Groups in the Columbia Basin
      Ecosystem Functions and Indicator Values. (52 pages)
McCune, Bruce. 1994. Lichen Species Groups in the Columbia Basin
      Ecosystem Functions and Indicator Values. Appendix: Lichen
      Database Listing for Columbia Basin. (209 pages)
McIver,  James, J. R. LaBonte and R. Crawford. 1994. Terrestrial
      Invertebrate Predators of the  Columbia  River  Basin:  An
      Assessment. (74 pages)
McNeal, Dale W. 1995. Report on Allium Columbia Basin Scientific
      Assessment Project. (25 pages)
Miller,  Jeffrey  C.  1994.  Assessment  of Invertebrates of the
      Columbia River Basin: Understory Herbivores (Lepidoptera).
      (42 pages)
Muehlchen,  Andrea  M.  1994.  Eastside   Ecosystem   Management
      Project: Functional Groups of Bacteria. (53 pages)
Rasmussen, Christine. 1994. Riparian Community and Bank Response
      to  Management: A Comparison of Old and New Surveys in the
      Prineville District, BLM. (41 pages)
Ross, Darrell W. 1995. Report on Bole and Branch Herbivores. (86
Schowalter, Timothy D. 1994. Coarse Woody Debris Chewers in  the
      Columbia River Basin. (12 pages)
Sheley,  Roger  L.,  ed. 1994. The Identification, Distribution,
      Impacts,  Biology  and  Management  of  Noxious  Rangeland
      Weeds. (368 pages)
Wagner,  Michael R. and Joel D. McMillin. 1994. Eastside Ecosys-
      tem Assessment Project: Role of  Canopy  Herbivores.  (197
Wicklow-Howard,  Marcia C. 1994. Fungi from the Owyhee Region of
      Southern Idaho and Eastern Oregon. (40 pages)
Wicklow-Howard, Marcia C. 1994. Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae
      from Sagebrush Steppe Habitat in Western Idaho  and  Parts
      of Eastern and Central Oregon. (37 pages)
Williams, John D. 1994. Microbiotic Crusts: A Review. (63 pages)

Reports are available from:

Walla Walla Xerographic
2 E. Rose Street, Walla Walla, WA 99362
Attn: ICBEMP Request
Phone: 509-522-5401

Verbal  and written requests for processing will be assessed the
following costs when applicable:

   Cost for duplication is $0.06 per page;
   Tax is 7.8%;
   Handling cost is $1.00; and
   Shipping charges will vary depending on weight of materials.

Payment may be made by check,  Visa  or  Mastercard  payable  to
"Walla Walla Xerographic".
(BEN # 94  4-March-1995)

From: Dennis Lloyd <>

We are looking for colour slides of the following plants for the
Plants of the interior British Columbia:
   Apocynum cannabinum           hemp dogbane
   Arnica parryi                 Parry's arnica
   Hackelia micrantha            blue stickseed
   Kobresia myosuroides          Bellard's kobresia
   Lactuca serriola              prickly letuce
   Luzula piperi                 Piper's woodrush
   Myriophyllum verticillatum    whorled water-milfoil
   Saxifraga cernua              nodding saxifrage
   Senecio indecorus             rayless mountain butterweed
   Senecio pseudaureus           streambank butterweed
   Vulpia octoflora              six-weeks fescue
Should you have any of these, please give me a call at
(604) 828-4129 or FAX at (604) 828-4154. Many thanks.
(BEN # 95  16-March-1995)


A group of scientists associated with the Botanical Institute
of the Czech Academy of Sciences in Trebon, Czech Republic,
designed a unique roof solar collector. The key element of the
collector is a glass linear Fresnel lens that concentrates the
direct part of solar radiation to a narrow strip. This strips
lies in the focal plane of the lens, at a distance
approximately 40 cm. Concentrated sun radiation is converted to
heat energy in absorbers, situated in the focal plane. The heat
is taken away with the flowing water to a hot water storage

The heat collector is also an ideal skylight. The direct part
of radiation is used for heating the water. The space under the
collector, on the other hand, is not overheated and is evenly
lighted by diffused sun light because the optical system
separates and absorbs the direct part of sun radiation.

The most basic function of this type of collector is hot water
preparation, but the system is also ideal for the construction
of winter gardens and greenhouses. The standard panel is 4.2 m
wide and 2.36 m high and consists of six linear Fresnel lenses
(0.75 x 2.0 m). The system was developed and is distributed by

   SOLARGLAS s.r.o
   nam. Ceskeho povstani 228
   161 00 Praha 6 -  Czech Republic
   tel./fax: 02/316 32 34

(BEN # 95  16-March-1995)

From: Adolf Ceska <>

When I wrote the treatment of Luzula (Woodrush) for the Vascular
Plants  of British Columbia IV (Douglas, et. al., 1994 - see BEN
# 75), I was unable to solve taxonomic problems  in  the  Luzula
campestris-multiflora  complex  and  I  treated it as one single
species. I was aware of the complicated situation and  need  for
more serious taxonomic studies.

I  contacted  my Czech colleague Dr. Jan Kirschner, a specialist
in this group, and we would like to have a closer  look  at  the
Pacific  Northwest  plants  of this species complex. I have been
collecting Woodrush and have  amassed  a  good  collection  from
coastal  British  Columbia,  but  we would like to have material
from wider area of the Pacific Northwest and beyond.  I  wonder,
if  BEN  readers  could  help  us  to  get  more  well collected
specimens of Luzula, especially those belonging  to  the  Luzula
campestris-multiflora complex.

Collecting instructions (after Kirschner 1982):
Collect  plants  with underground parts and pay attention to the
formation and length of rhizomes. Specimens  that  are  in  full
bloom  are  best for identification (with exception of some taxa
such as European L. sudetica). More experience is  required  for
identification  of  plants  with  ripe  fruits.  It is extremely
difficult to identify plants that are past flowering, but  whose
fruits are not yet fully developed. When you collect plants with
ripe seeds, shake out some seeds from capsules directly to small
envelopes  or  paper packets: herbarium specimens are often con-
taminated with seeds from other sheets and mix-up  of  seeds  is
often  the  cause  of  misidentification.  Habitat data are also
important and should be recorded.

Specimens should be dried, but the drying temperature should not
be set too high. Seeds of this species complex remain viable for
a relatively long time (up to nine years) and we would  like  to
get  some  chromosome  counts.  If  you get any material for us,
please, send it to me - my address is:
Adolf Ceska, P.O.Box 8546, Victoria, B.C., Canada V8W 3S2

Ref.: Kirschner, J. 1982. Notes  on  the  determination  of  the
      members  of  the  Luzula campestris-multiflora complex (L.
      campestris  agg.)  in  Czechoslovakia.  -  Zpravy   Cesko-
      slovenske Botanicke Spolecnosti, Praha 17: 25-37. [Czech]

(BEN # 95  16-March-1995)

From: Dr. Victor Kuzevanov <>

About 130 of over 1800 higher plants were recognized as rare and
endangered  species  for  the  area  of  famous Baikal Lake. The
project for the conservation of genetic fond of the  unique  and
fragile  flora  around  Lake  Baikal  was started in 1993 at the
Botanic Garden of the Irkutsk  State  University,  Irkutsk.  The
Botanic  Garden  of the Irkutsk State University created in 1941
today  occupies  27  hectares,  including  pine  forest,  within
Irkutsk city (70 kilometers west of the Lake Baikal).

The primary objectives of the project:
 1. to  preserve  plant  genetic  fond and biodiversity near the
    Lake Baikal - World Heritage Site;
 2. to involve the people of Baikal  area  in  rational  use  of
    plant genetic resources;
 3. to  expand  international  collaboration/cooperation between
    scientists, non-governmental organizations and all levels of

Project includes:
 1. expeditions around Lake Baikal for seed collecting in  July-
    September on foot, car, and boat;
 2. seed banking;
 3. living  field  collections  of  rare and endangered Siberian
 4. propagation, repatriation and introduction of plants;
 5. computerized database of  plant  genetic  resources  of  the
    Baikal  Lake area with texts accompanied by scanned pictures
    and maps to be included in USENET services (bilingual,  both
    Russian and English);
 6. reference herbarium;
 7. collection of educational videos and slides;
 8. educational  programs  for  school  children,  students, the
    general public, and administration; and
 9. free of charge international seed exchange.

In 1994, the project was partly sponsored by the Chicago Botanic
Garden, Betchart Expedition,Inc. of the American Association for
the Advancement of Science, REAP International,  Fanny  and  Leo
Charitable  Trust,  E.F.F. Shumacher Society, as well as by USIA
and American Association of Museums. The project has  a  limited
support  from  the  Irkutsk  Oblast Governor Administration, the
Irkutsk Environmental Protection Agency, and the  Irkutsk  State

In  1994,  scientists from the Botanic Garden, the Irkutsk State
University, and  several  research  institutes  of  the  Russian
Academy  of  Sciences  has prepared a special report "Concept of
Organization of  Plant  Gene  Banking  of  Irkutsk  Oblast"  for
regional Environmental Protection Agency. Seeds of 42 rare plant
species  have  been included in the seed bank and over 40 living
plant specimens were planted at the display bed for  propagation
and educational purposes.

The  list  of Latin and Russian names of rare and endemic plants
is available on request.

Scientists at the Botanic Garden of the University would like to
discuss with interested foreign  colleagues  an  opportunity  to
arrange  it  as  the  long-term International Plant Conservation
Project for the Baikal Lake  Area.  Relative  institutions,  en-
vironmental  organizations,  volunteers,  and individual profes-
sionals are kindly invited to take part. Any help or sponsorship
would be greatly appreciated.

   Dr. Victor Kuzevanov, Director <>
   BOTANIC GARDEN of Irkutsk State University,
   P.O.Box 1457, 93 Koltsov Street,
   Irkutsk, 664039, RUSSIA
   Phone: +7(3952)435836 - Fax: +7(3952)332238

(BEN # 95  16-March-1995)

In 1993, 34,544 kg of western yew bark  (dry  weight)  was  har-
vested  in  British  Columbia  for taxol production. In the same
year the mushroom pickers harvested 125,290 kg of pine mushrooms
and received $3,800,000 for them.

These  and  other  "Botanical  forest   products"   ["non-timber
products" would be more precise!] are covered in the B.C. Minis-
try  of  Forests report written by Nelly de Geus and released in
January 1995. The report provides an overview of more  than  200
botanical  forest  products  harvested  in British Columbia. The
report summarizes resource issues associated with the  botanical
products  industry  (and  also  looks at the similar problems in
neighbouring Washington State and the  Pacific  Northwest),  and
makes  recommendations  on  how  the  Ministry of Forests should
proceed with the management of these products.

de Geus, P.M.J.  1995.  Botanical  forest  products  in  British
      Columbia:  An  overview.  -  Integrated  Resources  Policy
      Branch, B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria. 51 p. ISBN  0-
      7726-2328-7 [softcover]

The report is available from:

   British Columbia Ministry of Forests
   Integrated Resource Policy Branch
   1450 Government Street, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8Y 3E7
   General inquiries: (604) 356-5384  -  FAX: (604) 387-6751

(BEN # 95  16-March-1995)
From: (Reveal Pricing Correspondence)
      Brenda K. Bailey, Marketing and Client Liaison

A new enhancement to the UnCover Reveal service will be released
on  April  3.  This  feature  will  enable users to store search
strategies (e.g. searches by topic or by author name) which will
be  run  weekly  against  new  articles  added  to  the  UnCover
database.  The  results  of  these  searches will be sent to the
Internet e-mail address stored in your UnCover Profile.

The UnCover Company will begin charging for the Reveal  service,
which has been free to individuals for the past year. The charge
is  $20  per  year  for  each  individual profile. This fee will
permit users to select up to 50 titles  from  which  to  receive
tables of contents, and to store up to 25 search strategies.

The  $20 annual fee may be paid online by credit card or UnCover
Deposit or Billing account. You may also call the UnCover office
at 800-787-7979 (outside the US at 303-758-3030).

   Reveal Service, The UnCover Company
   3801 E. Florida Avenue, Suite 200
   Denver, CO 80210  -  FAX: 303-758-5946

If you have any questions about the new Reveal services  or  the
fee,   please   reply   to  this  message,  or  send  e-mail  to or phone our office at 800-787-7979 (outside the
US at 303-758-3030).

[To access the database, telnet to: and follow  the
menus. - Note: your terminal is most probably VT100.
For more on Carl's UnCover and Reveal see BEN # 75.]
(BEN # 95  16-March-1995)
From: "Gross, Eric {co-op}" <>

I  am  working  on my honours thesis, winter bird communities in
urban Garry Oak (Quercus garryana) fragments and have  had  some
difficulty  finding literature incorporating Garry Oak and other
West  Coast  habitats  (e.g.,  Douglas  Fir)  and  winter  birds
(presence/absence and abundance/density). If anyone knows of any
research  that has been published dealing with this subject area
or summer birds and oak/other West Coast habitats  I  would  ap-
preciate if you could direct me to them.

   Eric Gross
   1811 Teakwood Rd.
   Victoria  B.C. Canada
   V8N 1E4

(BEN # 96  27-March-1995)

Botrychium  lineare  W.H.  Wagner  -  New species of a Moonwort,
known from Oregon (type locality), Idaho,  Montana,  California,
Colorado,  Quebec,  and  New  Brunswick. Related to B. campestre
from  which  it  differs  by  having  linear  segments  of   the
trophophore,  branched in larger forms. Habitat: grassy areas in
the subalpine zone. (Wagner, W.H.,  Jr.  &  F.S.  Wagner.  1995.
Another widely disjunct, rare and local North American Moonwort.
Amer. Fern J. 84(1): 5-10.)

Franklin's Sedge, Carex franklinii, cannot be distinguished from
Carex  petricosa  and  Carex petricosa var. petricosa should in-
clude C. franklinii as a synonym. C.  petricosa  var.  petricosa
occurs  in  the  western part, C. petricosa var. misandroides in
the eastern part of North America.  (Ball,  P.W.  &  M.  Zoladz.
1994.  The  taxonomy of Carex petricosa [Cyperaceae] and related
species in North America. Rhodora 96: 295-310.)

Cabomba    caroliniana    (Cabombaceae),    Murdannia     keisak
(Commelinaceae),  and  Lastenia  minor (Asteraceae) reported new
for Washington, Acorus calamus (Araceae),  Cabomba  caroliniana,
and  Mimulus ringens (Scrophulariaceae) reported new for Oregon.
(Madrono 41(4): 330-333. 1994)
(BEN # 96  27-March-1995)

by C.J. Yorath & H.W.  Nasmith  (1995)  was  published  for  the
Geological  Association  of Canada, Pacific Section by Orca Book
Publishers, P.O. Box 5626, Station "B", Victoria,  B.C.,  Canada
V8R 6S4. 172 p. ISBN 1 55143-032-0 [paperback] CDN$14.95
(BEN # 96  27-March-1995)
From:  Mike Dallwitz <miked@ENTO.CSIRO.AU>, originally posted on

I don't have a comprehensive list, but here are a few.  Many  of
them  are  commercial (i.e. not shareware or freeware). Some are
available only with data  sets,  that  is,  you  can't  buy  the
program  and  construct  your own package - you must produce the
package in collaboration with the software supplier.

Fred Rhoades, Biology Department, Western Washington University,
Bellingham, WA 98225, USA. Email:

Ian White, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon  OX10  8DE,  UK.
Phone: +44 491 83 2111, Fax: +44 491 83 3508

Eirene  Williams,  Seale-Hayne  Dept  of Land Use, University of
Plymouth, Newton Abbot, Devon TQ12 6NQ, UK. Fax: +44 626 32 5605

Shareware, available (with  several  data  sets)  by  gopher  or
anonymous ftp from the following Internet hosts. (directory: /pub/delta) (directory: /delta)
Mike  Dallwitz,  CSIRO  Division  of  Entomology,  GPO Box 1700,
Canberra ACT 2601,  Australia.  Fax:  +61  6  246  4000,  Email:

ETI, University of Amsterdam, Mauritskade 61, NL 1092 AD Amster-
dam,   The   Netherlands.   Fax:   +31   20   525  7238,  Email:

Christopher Meacham, MEACHAM@VIOLET.BERKELEY.EDU, Museum  Infor-
matics  Project,  501  Banway  Building,  Univ.  of  California,
Berkeley, CA 94720 USA

Richard J. Pankhurst, Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh  EH3  5LR,
UK. Fax: +44 31 552 0382, Email:

Christine Leon, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9
3AB, England

Trevor  Whiffin,  Department  of  Botany,  La  Trobe University,
Bundoora, Vic 3083, Australia

(Iteractive identification directly from DELTA format and Binary
format <ddproc.exe for DOS available from the net>)
Eric Gouda, Jungfrau 107, NL-3524 WJ Utrecht,  The  Netherlands.
Email: [Added by E. Gouda]

XID  Services, Inc., Post Office Box 272, Pullman, WA 99163, USA
- Phone/Fax: (509)332-2989 [Added by AC]

Jacques Lebbe, Service de Me'decine  Nucle'aire,  Hoital  Brous-
sais, 93 rue Didot, 75014 Paris, France
(BEN # 96  27-March-1995)
From:  Jim  Croft  <jrc@ANBG.GOV.AU>, originally also on TAXACOM

Not really an application for a home PC (although I suppose  you
could  cram  it  in),  but you might be interested in the smarts
developed    by    Andrew    Taylor    (, at the University of NSW.

Andrew, a computer science engineer rather than a botanist, took
some  English  language  botanical  descriptions (Eucalyptus and
Angophora from the Flora of Australia), minced them through some
clever natural  language  processing  algorithms,  and  reversed
engineered a more or less recognizable DELTA dataset.

He  made  the dataset queryable on the WWW with clients/browsers
with forms cabability (Mosaic, Netscape, etc.) both as a set  of
independent menus and a set of check boxes.

Using  some nifty lateral thinking, he figured one could use the
same algorithm to parse an arbitrary description of a plant, and
then match the result of this description  against  the  already
parsed  dataset. The result is a dialog box in which you write a
natural language description of the plant  and  let  the  server
find the best matches for you.

You can find this application on:

This  is  research in progress at a computer engineering school,
and the server is often under a lot of strain and not available,
but it is worth having a look at the outline and the interfaces.
(BEN # 96  27-March-1995)

Angell, D. & B. Heslop. 1994.  The  Elements  of  E-mail  Style:
      Communicate  Effectively  via  Electronic  Mail.  Addison-
      Wesley Publishing Co., New York. 157 p. US$ 12.95 ISBN  0-
      201-62709-4 [paperback]

 ...."is  the  first  practical guide to written electronic com-
munication.  It  simplifies  and  summarizes  essential  writing
techniques  so  you can upgrade your writing skills and see your
e-mail make maximum impact in minimal time."
(BEN # 96  27-March-1995)

ALPINE-L is an Electronic Mailing List on Rock Gardening,  Dwarf
and Alpine Plants, and Their Botany

To subscribe, send to


the following message:

   subscribe alpine-l Firstname Lastname City Hardiness-zone

For example:

   subscribe alpine-L Reginald Farrar WashingtonDC Zone7a

First  published, daily, electronically, by Harry Dewey, Feb. 6-
17, 1995, as: RGJ, the Rock Gardening Journal

Listowner (Netherlands):
   Eric Gouda, curator, Botanic Gardens,  University of Utrecht.
   Jungfrau 107                   OR      Botanic Gardens
   NL-3524WJ Utrecht                      University of Utrecht
   The Netherlands                        P. O. Box 80.162
                                          NL-3508TD Utrecht
                                          The Netherlands

Listowner (United States):
Harry Dewey, editor, Patowmack Papers, newsletter of the Potomac
   Chapter of the North American Rock Garden Society.
   4605 Brandon Lane, Beltsville MD 20705-2624 USA          Alpine-L@nic.surfnet.NL
   Tel.: 301 937-1446
   Fax: 301 595-5468 (by appointment)

(BEN # 96  27-March-1995)

The B.C.  Ministry  of  Agriculture,  Fisheries  and  Food,  and
University College of the Cariboo in Kamloops, B.C., invite your
participation in PANAX -- a discussion group for people involved
in the production, processing and use of Panax spp. and Siberian
ginseng.  We  look  forward  to  an  exchange  of information on
primary and value-added  production  as  well  as  research  and

To sign on to PANAX, address an email message to:

In the body of the message, type the one-line command:

        subscribe panax Firstname Lastname

To communicate with the group, address your messages to:

For further information, contact:

   Al Oliver, BSA, P.Ag.

   Ron Smith, Ph.D.

(BEN # 96  27-March-1995)

Le  Chatelier's Principle: "Complex systems tend to oppose their
      own proper functions."

In the field of human organizations,  probably  the  outstanding
example  of  this Le Chatelier's Principle occurs in connections
with the Goals and Objectives Mania, a specialized manifestation
of  a  very  ancient  and   widespread   phenomenon   known   as
Administrative Encirclement.

Let  us  take  an  example  the case of Lionel Trillium, a young
Assistant Professor in the  Department  of  Botany  at  Hollyoak
College.  Trillium's  Department  Head,  Baneberry, has for some
years now failed to  initiate  new  and  interesting  hypotheses
about  the  behaviour  of  the  Slime  Molds, his chosen area of
specialization. Paralleling  this  decline  of  scientific  pro-
ductivity, he has exhibited increasing interest in improving the
"efficiency"  of  his Department. Baneberry has actually gone to
the extreme of checking out of the library  some  recent  publi-
cations  on management science, and his mind is now buzzing with
the terminology of  Information  Retrieval  Systems,  etc.,  and
above  all,  Management  by Goals and Objectives. He fires off a
memo to the staff of his Department requiring them to submit  to
him,  in  triplicate,  by Monday next, statements of their Goals
and Objectives.

This demand catches Trillium at  a  bad  time.  His  studies  of
angiosperms  are at a critical point. Nevertheless, he must take
time out to consider his Goals and Objectives, as the wording of
the memo leaves little doubt of the consequences of  failure  to
comply.  Trillium doesn't want to think about his real goals and
objectives. He only knows he likes Botany.

But he can't just reply in one line, "I like botany and want  to
keep  studying  it." No, indeed! What is expected is a good deal
more formal, more organized, than that. It should fill at  least
three  typewritten  sheets, singlespaced, and should list Objec-
tives and Subobjectives in order of priority,  each  being  jus-
tified  in  relation  to  the Overall Goal and having appended a
time-frame for completion  and  some  criteria  for  determining
whether  they have been achieved. Ideally, each paragraph should
contain at least one reference to  DNA.  Trillium  goes  into  a
depression  just  thinking  about  it. He puts it off as long as
possible, but still it interferes with his study of  angiosperm.
He  can't  concentrate.  Finally he gives up his research, stays
home three days, and writes the damned thing.

But now he is committed in writing to a  program,  in  terms  of
which his "success" can be objectively assessed by his Chief. If
he  states  that  one  objective for the coming year is to write
three papers on angiosperms and he actually writes only two,  he
is  only 67 percent "successful," even if each of the two papers
is a substantial contribution  to  his  field.  His  failure  to
achieve  his  stated  objectives  is  demonstrable  in black and

The next step is even more catastrophic.  Because  Trillium  has
clearly stated his Goals and Objectives, it is now possible with
rigorous  logic how he should spend his waking and working hours
in order to achieve them most  efficiently.  No  more  pottering
around  pursuing spontaneous impulses and temporary enthusiasms!
No more happy hours in the Departmental greenhouse!  Just  as  a
straight line is the shortest distance between two points, so an
efficient worker will move from Subobjective A to Subobjective B
in  logical  pursuit  of Objective K, which leads in turn toward
the Overall Goal.

Trillium can be graded, not only on  his  achievements  for  the
year, but also on the efficiency with which he moves toward each
objective.  He  has  become  administratively encircled. The ad-
ministrators, whose original purpose was to keep track of  writ-
ing supplies for the professors, now have the upper hand and sit
in judgement on their former masters.

Only  one  step  remains to complete Trillium's shackling in the
chains he himself has helped to forge. On advice of the  Univer-
sity  administrators,  the legislators of his State establish by
law the number of hours a Professor of Botany must spend on each
phase of his professional activities. Trillium may feel impelled
to protest, but how can he? The lawmakers are  only  formalizing
what  he himself has told them, through his Goals and Objectives
statements, he wants to  do!  Objectives,  designed  to  improve
Trillium's efficiency and measure his performance as a botanist,
has  gotten  in the way, kicked back, and opposed its own proper
function. Once more the universal  validity  of  Le  Chatelier's
Principle has been demonstrated.

Abbreviated  from:  Gall,  John. 1975. Systemantics: How systems
      work and especially how they fail. Quadrangle/The New York
      Times Book Co., New York. 111 p.
(BEN # 97  1-April-1995)
From: LUCO - British Columbia Government, unnamed document,
      page 2.

ALIC     ADM's Land Information Council
CLIB     Common Land Information Base
CLISP    Corporate Land Information Strategic Plan
CORE     Commission on Resources and Environment
CRII     Corporate Resources Inventory Initiative
FRDA     Forest Resources Development Agreement
GIS      Geographic Information System
GLIDE    Government Land Information Data Exchange
LICC     Land Information Coordination Committee
LII      Land Information Infrastructure
LIMF     Land Information Management Framework
LIS      Land Information System
LISC     Land Information Strategic Council
LRMP     Land and Resource Management Plan
LUCO     Land Use Coordination Office
PAS      Protected Areas Strategy
RIC      Resource Inventory Committee
TRIM     Terrain Resource Information Management Program

(BEN # 97  1-April-1995)

A protracted winter reduces the amount of barley  available  for
Hoca's  donkey.  So, Hoca gradually cuts down on the barley with
which he feeds his donkey: There is less from  one  day  to  the
next. And then he feeds the donkey once every two or three days.
What  should  he see when he enters the barn one day: The donkey
is dead.

"Pity!" mumbles Hoca. "Just as he was getting  used  to  it,  he

>From  "The  Tales of Nasrettin Hoca." Told by Aziz Nesin, Retold
      in English by  Talat  Halman.  DOST  Yayinlari,  Istanbul.

(BEN # 97  1-April-1995)

It  is  approximately  sixteen  years  ago [Goethe wrote this in
1820, when he was 71 years old] that Professor Schelver, curator
of the Grand-ducal Immediate Botanical Garden  under  my  direc-
tion,  disclosed  to  me  in  strictest confidence, in that very
garden on the same paths where I still take my  walks,  that  he
had  long had his doubts about the theory ascribing two sexes to
plants and that he was now fully convinced of its  untenability.
[Schelver's  book,  "Critique  of the Theory of the Sexuality in
Plants," appeared in 1812.]

In my nature studies I had religiously  accepted  the  dogma  of
sexuality  in plants and was, therefore, taken aback now to hear
a concept directly opposed to my own. Yet I could  not  consider
the  new  theory  wholly  heretical ... Now his brilliant theory
takes on substance through Henschel's monumentous study ["On the
Sexuality of Plants" published in 1820]; it is earnestly demand-
ing its place in science, although one cannot fortell  how  that
place will be found.

For  the instruction of young persons and ladies this new theory
will be extremely welcome and suitable. In the past the  teacher
of  botany  has been placed in a most embarrassing position, and
when innocent young souls took textbook in hand to advance their
studies in private, they were unable to conceal  their  outraged
moral  feelings.  Eternal  nuptials  going  on  and on, with the
monogamy basic to our morals, laws and  religion  disintegrating
into loose concupiscence - these must remain forever intolerable
to the pure-minded! ... Indeed, we recall having seen arabesques
in  which the sexual relations within a flower calyx were repre-
sented in an extremely graphic way.

Ref.: Goethe's botanical writings. Translated by Bertha Mueller.
      Ox Bow Press, Woodridge, CT. 1989.

(BEN # 97  1-April-1995)

I asked my Japanese friend:

>Can you tell me what "ben" means in Japanese?
>I read somewhere that it means convenient, or useful?

Here is his answer:

You know, Japanese use the Chinese  characters.  The  characters
are ideograms or ideographic characters and we cannot understand
the  exact  meaning of a certain sound without hearing the whole

Several things come to my mind  with  the  "ben"  sound:  valve,
petal (Ka-ben in Japanese), speech, dialect (Kansai-ben = kansai
accent),  convenience,  and  excreta (Dai-ben = feces or stool).
These words are usually distinguished by Chinese characters.

The same Chinese character is used for "ben" of both  benri  and
benri = convenience
benjo = lavatory or W.C. (ben is convenience and jo is a place)

Another  my  Japanese  friend  confirms that excreta, Dai-ben (=
feces or stool), are the first thing that comes to his mind when
he hears "ben" [or "BEN" ?].
(BEN # 97  1-April-1995)
BILL VAN DIEREN (1930 - 1995)

Bill  van  Dieren lost his short fight with lung cancer on March
26, 1995. He was born in Holland in 1930, worked shortly in  New
Zealand,  and  in  1956 he emigrated to Canada. He lived in Van-
couver till 1980, when he moved to Port Alberni.  With  his  en-
gineering  background  he  worked  in the oil industry, designed
water supply systems, and in Port Alberni worked on  technologi-
cal changes of the MacMillan-Bloedel paper mill.

Bill  was  an exemplary amateur botanist. He was a keen observer
and was incredibly meticulous in everything he did. After moving
to Port Alberni he started a long-term study of  the  flora  and
vegetation  of  the  Somass  River  estuary and wrote a detailed
report (1982) on this for the Athabasca  University.  His  study
served  as  a  base for the ecological reserve proposal. In 1984
Port Alberni Museum mounted a large  exhibition  on  the  Somass
River  Delta  based  on  Bill's collection and photographs. Bill
supported all records by herbarium voucher specimens. He donated
to the Royal British Columbia Museum close  to  2,000  specimens
and a collection of about 5,000 photographic slides. He actively
promoted  conservation  issues  within his community and natural
history clubs and  shared  his  botanical  knowledge  with  both
laypeople and professional botanists.

The  profile  of  Bill  van Dieren would not be complete without
mentioning his work among the First Nation's people of the  west
coast  of  Vancouver Island. He organized book drives and estab-
lished libraries in villages in Ucluelet, Ahousat, Hesquiat, and
Kyuquot and worked as a lay missionary. The pinnacle of his work
within First Nation's communities was  a  thorough  genealogical
research on several west coast families.

He  will  be  missed by his wife Dorothy, who was his partner in
botanical trips and in his work within the  First  Nation's,  by
his  two children, three grandchildren, and by many other people
who were honoured to be his friends. -- Adolf Ceska
(BEN # 98  7-April-1995)

Funding for the Washington Natural  Heritage  Program  has  been
eliminated from the Washington state budget. Senate amendment to
the  budget stated that the Program should be supported from the
Department of Natural Resources budget, but at this time  it  is
not  clear  if  the Natural Heritage Program will indeed get the
amount it needs to perform its function. Since the  Nature  Con-
servancy funding of the Program is done on a matching basis, the
funds  the  Program  gets from the Nature Conservancy may be cut
back as well.
(BEN # 98  7-April-1995)

Pavlick, Leon E. 1995. Bromus L. of North America. Royal British
      Columbia Museum, Victoria. 160 p. ISBN 0-7718-9417-1 [soft
      cover] Cost: CDN$19.95

"This taxonomic work is the  first  comprehensive  treatment  of
North American bromegrasses since 1900. Leon E. Pavlick presents
his  extensive  research of the genus Bromus occurring in Canada
and the United States in a comprehensive and accessible  format.
This  book  contains  keys to species, descriptions with habitat
information   and   distribution   maps,   synonyms,   glossary,
references  and index. Of the 51 species described, 30 are newly
illustrated [by Elizabeth J. Stephen and Peggy Frank].
(BEN # 98  7-April-1995)

Douglas, George W. 1995. The sunflower  family  (Asteraceae)  of
      British  Columbia:  Volume  II  -  Astereae,  Anthemideae,
      Eupatorieae and Inuleae. Royal  British  Columbia  Museum,
      Victoria.  393  p.  ISBN 0-07726-2161-6 [soft cover] Cost:

This is volume 2 of a three-volume work by George W. Douglas. It
includes keys to tribes and genera, species  descriptions,  dis-
tribution   maps,   illustrations  [by  Elizabeth  J.  Stephen],
synonymies, a glossary, a bibliography and an index.
(BEN # 98  7-April-1995)

You can order Bromus, Asteraceae Vol. 2, and other Museum publi-
cations in the following outlets:

Individuals order from The Royal Museum Shop at  675  Belleville
Street, Victoria, BC, V8V 1X4, Phone: (604) 356-0505, Fax: (604)
356-8197. Major credit cards, purchase orders, personal cheques,
money orders accepted.

Resale  outlets  and institutions order from CROWN Publications,
Inc., 521 Fort Street, Victoria, B.C. V8W 1E7, Phone: (604) 386-
4636, Fax: (604) 386-0221. Major credit cards, purchase  orders,
personal cheques, money orders accepted.
(BEN # 98  7-April-1995)
From: R.T. Ogilvie <bogilvie@RBML01.RBCM.BC.CA>

The  article in BEN 97 on Goethe's anti-sex views in plants is a
reaction in his old age  to  his  youthful  enthusiasm  for  the
Linnaean  sexual  system  of plant classification. Linnaeus used
the number of stamens for defining Classes, and  the  number  of
carpels for defining Natural Orders (approximately equivalent to
our present-day Families).

Linnaeus'  classification  system for higher categories was more
precisely a numerical system rather than a sexual  system.  Each
Class  and  Order was given a Latin name, a brief Latin descrip-
tive phrase, a short Latin "anthropocentric" phrase, and in some
editions after 1759 the English equivalent for these  names  and
phrases.  Some  examples,  which may give an idea of what Goethe
was reacting to:

Class Pentandria (Five Males) - five stamens in a  hermaphrodite
      (bisexual) flower (five husbands in the same marriage).
Class  Didynamia  (Two  Powers) - four stamens, two long and two
      short (four husbands, two tall and two short).
Class Monoecia (One House) - male and female flowers on the same
      plant (husbands live with their wives in  the  same  house
      but have different beds).
Class  Dioecia  (Two  Houses)  - male and female flowers on dif-
      ferent plants; (husbands and wives have different houses).
Class Polygamia - bisexual flowers, male, or female  flowers  in
      the   same   species   (husbands   live   with  wives  and
Class Cryptogamia (Clandestine Marriages)  -  flowers  are  con-
      cealed (nuptials are celebrated privately).
Order  Polygamia  Aequalis  (Equal Polygamy) - many florets with
      stamens  and  pistils  (many  marriages  with  promiscuous
Order  Polygamia Spuria Segregata (Spurious Separate Polygamy) -
      many flower- bearing involucres contained  in  one  common
      involucre  (many  beds  united so that they constitute one
      common bed).

Linnaeus first published his system in 1735, and republished  it
many  times  with  minor  changes in the next thirty years. Lin-
naeus' system was widely adopted throughout  Europe  as  a  con-
venient  means  of  identifying plants. France was an exception,
where many French botanists such as Gerard, Adanson, and the  de
Jussieus  rejected  the  Linnaeus  system  because  of  its  ar-
tificiality. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a serious amateur  botanist,
saw  the  value of Linnaeus' system for teaching and used it for
his very popular book on plant  identification  "Essais  Elemen-
taires sur la Botanique" (1771). Goethe was a generation younger
than  Linnaeus  and  Rousseau,  but like Rousseau he was both an
ardent student  of  the  enlightenment  and  a  serious  amateur
botanist.  It  was during the very last years of his life (1820)
that Goethe wrote his remarks criticising the sexual  system  of
plant classification.
(BEN # 98  7-April-1995)
From:  "Made-in-China  Variety Galls French Gourmets" by William
      Drozdiak, Washington  Post  Foreign  Service.  Publication
      date: 2/18/95 [abbrev.]

PARIS,  Feb.  17  --  Ever  since classical times, gourmets have
extolled the fragrant virtues of the truffle. The fabled fungus,
known as the "black diamond" because of its rarity and value, is
especially revered in France, where culture is  defined  by  the
taste bud as much as by the eye or the mind.

But  as  truffle fans are discovering to their chagrin, there is
nothing sacred in the modern global marketplace. While Americans
complain of China's piracy in the electronics trade, the French,
among others, are crying foul because  an  invasion  of  Chinese
truffles has enabled unscrupulous dealers to perpetrate fraud in
the guise of one of their greatest culinary delights.

The  Asian  intruder  bears an almost perfect resemblance to the
Tuber melanosporum found in the French woodlands of Dordogne and
Provence. Any superficial disparities can only be detected  when
the  spores of the truffle -- which can range in size from a pea
to an orange -- are examined under a microscope.

But taste is another matter. Unlike the  rich  pungency  of  the
French  version, the Chinese truffle, or Tuber himalayensis, has
little appreciable flavor when  fresh  and  can  even  turn  un-
pleasant  after  a  few days. "If it is not consumed quickly, it
becomes nasty and sulfurous," said Louis Riousset, a mycologist,
who is regarded as one of France's most  renowned  truffle  con-

By  dousing  the Chinese fungus with some truffle-scented oil or
bunching them in a box that includes a few  fragrant  chunks  of
the French species, dishonest dealers have been able to get away
with incalculable fraud, especially when the truffles are marked
up for re-export to such lucrative markets as the United States.
Indeed,  the potential for profits is considerable. While French
truffles sell for about $270 a pound, the  Chinese  cousin  goes
for almost $50 a pound.

The  vanishing  quantities  of  the French variety have only en-
hanced the value of the truffle trade. French output has dropped
from 800 tons a year at the end of the last century to less than
20 tons today. "The harvest of the whole country can now be  put
into  one  truck,"  said  Pierre-Jean  Pebeyre,  heir  to one of
France's greatest truffle dynasties.

Meanwhile, the Chinese have rapidly filled the void. The  French
federation  of  truffle producers estimates that since the Asian
fungus began appearing two years ago, several  hundred  tons  of
truffles  have  been flown in from the provinces of Shandong and
Szechuan. This year, Chinese truffles have  become  a  veritable
plague on the market.

Truffle  fraud  is  difficult  to detect. "Since the Chinese and
French truffles have the same look and feel to  them,  the  only
way to know the difference is to have a trained palate taste and
identify  them,"  Rostang  said. His own fool-proof method is to
sample the truffle on a piece of toast with salt and olive  oil;
an  even  better way to bring out the pure flavor of truffles is
to mix them in scrambled eggs.

"We have nothing against the Chinese farmers who  want  to  cul-
tivate  their  truffles, but they should be sold under their own
name and not confused with ours," said Riousset, who has  earned
his  living  digging up and studying truffles in southern France
for more than 30 years. "I know that money breeds all  sorts  of
scams,"  he said. "But this is a moral crisis and not just busi-
ness, because it involves a unique part of our culture  that  is
rooted  in  our  own earth. We cannot allow it to be destroyed."
[Cf. also BEN # 92]
(BEN # 98  7-April-1995)
From: New Scientist, 25 March 1995, p.11 (by Ian Anderson)

Australia's largest butterfly, the Cairns Birdwing (Ornithoptera
priamus), could be driven to extinction because it is laying its
eggs on the wrong vine. The butterfly, which can have a wingspan
of more than 18 cm, is being fooled into believing that  a  vine
imported from Brazil for the nursery trade is the native vine on
which  it has always laid its eggs. When the caterpillars emerge
and begin to eat the leaves, they are  poisoned  by  a  powerful
toxin.  The  Cairns  Birdwing  is  found  in northern Queensland
between Mackay and Cape York. In some areas near Townsville  the
butterfly's  population  has  plummeted  to  20  per cent of its
former level. A second species, the Richmond Birdwing  (Ornitho-
ptera richmondii) is also falling victim to the vine.

The  various  species  of Birdwing, which are found in Southeast
Asia, Papua New Guinea,  northeast  Australia  and  the  Solomon
Islands, all feed on local species of the vine Aristolochia. But
in Australia, instead of sticking to the native A. tagala and A.
praevenosa they are also lured onto an introduced species called
Dutchman's  Pipe  (Aristolochia  elegans), imported from Brazil.
But the Dutchman's Pipe contains an unidentified compound  which
is highly toxic. The sheep have died after eating the plant, and
the  toxin  is  taking its toll on at least two other species of
butterfly -- the Big Greasy (Cressida  cressida)  and  the  Red-
bodied Swallowtail (Pachliopta polydorus).

A  number  of  measures  are  being  taken to save Birdwings. In
Townsville, local people are being urged to rip out the imported
vine from their gardens  and  replace  it  with  native  plants.
Native  plants  are  also  being  planted in reserves and nature
parks. Nurseries are being asked to  stop  selling  the  import.
Dutchman's  Pipe  is  a  very  aggressive  plant, and the native
species cannot compete with it in wild.
(BEN # 99  13-April-1995)
From: Jan Schlauer <>, and
      Rick Walker <>

Although carnivorous  plants  represent  a  comparatively  small
segment  within  the  vast  field of botany, they still generate
intense interest from professional botanists and  amateur  plant
enthusiasts  alike.  This  is  partly due to the great beauty of
these plants and also to their startling mode  of  heterotrophic

The  novelty  of  these  plants  makes them an ideal vehicle for
introducing botany to young children. Because  many  carnivorous
plants  are  endangered,  they  can  also  help in informing the
public about environmental and ecological concerns. However,  in
the  past, a lack of reliable information about these plants has
hampered their educational potential.

CARNIVOROUS PLANT DATABASE - History and present status

As a result of  ongoing,  lively  discussions  in  the  internet
carnivorous  plant  mailing list [1], it became clear that there
was both a demand, and sufficient  expertise,  to  establish  an
electronic   database   representing  as  much  of  the  present
knowledge about carnivorous plants as possible.

A comprehensive synonym checklist and bibliographic database  of
scientific  names  already  existed  [2],  so  it was decided to
install a world wide web page to allow searches in  this  check-
list  by  a  hypertext  browser [3]. Through the kind support of
Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, the necessary hardware and storage
capacity were supplied free of charge.

The database has been running since November  15,  1994,  having
received  (and  hopefully  answered  satisfactorily) nearly 4000
queries from over 850 sites, worldwide.

With the database framework in place, we are working  to  incor-
porate  various  supplementary  data.  This  new  information is
cross-referenced to both the taxonomic list entries and to other
relevant information.  Already  included  in  the  database  are
pictures,  identification keys, and supplementary textual infor-
mation for selected taxa.

The data formats will be held in conformity with TDWG and  other
biodiversity  data  standards  so that information exchange with
related databasing projects will be as convenient as possible.

In a monographing project initiated by  the  German  carnivorous
plant  society  (GFP),  a  topical outline was developed to help
organize the presentation and  collection  of  information  from
different sources.

CALL FOR PAPERS - Which kind of input is needed?

We invite contributions to any/all of the following:
 1. Species monograph texts or relevant data.
    These  should  be  held  in conformity with the standard GFP
    monograph framework, trying to cover as many of  the  topics
    mentioned  therein  (see  below). All interested parties are
    cordially invited to become monographers  in  this  project.
    Monographers  will  be  cited  not  only  as  authors in the
    database (also intended to be issued on CD-ROM periodically)
    but also as  authors  in  a  printed  version  thereof.  The
    printed  version  of  the  database  is planned to be a con-
    tinuously updated (by new editions or separate  supplements)
    manual on carnivorous plants.
    Some experience in Botany -especially in carnivorous plants-
    would be beneficial, but principally all persons with suffi-
    cient  interest  are  welcome.  The  following  species  are
    covered by forthcoming monographs already:

    Sarracenia  purpurea,  Drosophyllum   lusitanicum,   Dionaea
    muscipula,   Drosera   anglica,   D.capensis,  D.intermedia,
    D.regia,    D.rotundifolia,     Nepenthes     distillatoria,
    N.khasiana,  N.madagascariensis, N.masoalensis, N.pervillei,
    Pinguicula  agnata,  P.alpina,   P.esseriana,   P.gypsicola,
    P.rotundiflora,  P.vulgaris,  Genlisea  glabra,  Utricularia
    australis,   U.bremii,   U.gibba,   U.intermedia,   U.minor,
    U.ochroleuca, U.vulgaris.

    Monograph topical outline (extracted from GFP framework. For
    a full listing please contact Jan Schlauer:

         o  Taxonomy & Nomenclature (covered by checklist already)
         o  Systematics & Evolution
         o  Description & Variability
         o  Habitats & Distribution
         o  Physiology & Ecology
         o  Uses & Cultivation
         o  Literature References

 2. High quality reference pictures

    These  should  be  scanned  photographs  or  line  drawings,
    preferably of the less known,  and  not  yet  satisfactorily
    covered  species.  For image formats and further information
    please contact Rick Walker.

 3. Identification keys.

 4. All further kinds of tips, hints, FAQs, slide presentations,
    etc., to be linked into the database.

A great many experts who could share their knowledge are already
connected to the internet (the number increasing daily), and  we
would  be very happy if some of this expertise could be utilized
for the carnivorous plant database.

Thank you for your consideration and (hopefully) contributions!

For further information, please contact:

    Jan Schlauer <> or
    Rick Walker <>


[1] List address:  "".  Subscribe  by  sending
      email,  the  body  consisting  of the single line: "SUB CP
      Your_first_name Your_last_name"  (no  apostrophs)  to  the
      address: "".

[2] SCHLAUER,  Nomenclatural  Synopsis  of  Carnivorous Phanero-
      gamous Plants,  Carnivorous  Plant  Newsletter  15  (3&4),
[3] WALKER, Carnivorous Plant Home Page, 1994,

(BEN # 99  13-April-1995)
From: Ann Pinzl <>

The  10th  annual meeting of the Society for the Preservation of
Natural History Collections (SPNHC) will be hosted by the  Royal
Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 2-6 June 1995. Everyone
is  encouraged  to  submit papers and posters on natural history
collection management  issues  for  consideration.  Meeting  ac-
tivities include oral and poster presentations, vendor displays,

WORKSHOP - Managing the Modern Herbarium The SPNHC Education and
Training  Committee  in  conjunction  with the ROM Department of
Botany is offering its first discipline- specific workshop, June
5-6.  This  program  is  intended  for  herbarium  managers  and
curators,  researchers, and all others interested in the preser-
vation, care, maintenance and use of collections of  plants  and
fungi.  Many  topics  to be presented here are applicable to all
systematic collections.

Monday: Preventive Conservation in the Herbarium  Case  studies,
panel  presentations  and  discussion  will be among the formats
used to explore preventive conservation in the modern herbarium.
Among the topics to be covered: conservation standards; building
design and  environment;  viable  options  for  integrated  pest
management  control;  choices  of  papers,  adhesives,  inks and
plastic products; and a review of available resources on preven-
tive conservation and collections care.

Monday evening: Herbarium Information Bazaar - will  provide  an
opportunity  for  interaction  among  workshop  participants and
speakers. The conservators and  consultants  who  will  be  par-
ticipating  in  the day's session on Herbarium Conservation will
be on hand with demonstration materials, and to answer questions
about papers, adhesives, plastic products, pest  control,  inks,
humidity  control, or renovation and design. Suppliers will also
be there to discuss and display  archival  and  other  herbarium

Tuesday:  Contemporary Issues Facing Herbaria Bar Coding: Stand-
ards for Systematic Collections. The results of  a  survey  con-
ducted  for  the Taxonomic Databases Working Group on the use of
bar codes in systematic collections will be presented. Recommen-
dations for bar-coding specifications, interpretation and stand-
ardization will be made.

Destructive Sampling and Molecular Systematics:  Are  we  moving
toward  a consensus? Discussion will focus on the issues related
to the expanding  role  of  destructive  sampling  of  herbarium
specimens:  what  is  the  current state of technologies; estab-
lishing guidelines for sampling, for documentation, and  optimal
retention  of  data;  how can molecular systematics and herbaria
mutually benefit from new roles for preserved specimens; how can
we best address issues of DNA storage and availability?

For an information packet about the meeting  and  workshop,  in-
cluding registration forms, contact:

   SPNHC '95 Conference
   Royal Ontario Museum
   100 Queens Park
   Toronto, Ontario

Janet Waddington, SPNHC'95 Committee Chair
(tel: 416-586-5593; FAX: 416-586-5863; email:
(BEN # 99  13-April-1995)
From: Allen Banner <ABANNER@MFOR01.FOR.GOV.BC.CA>

Planned  location:  South  Chilcotin,  Timberwest  Gaspard Creek
Logging Camp (approx. 90 km southwest of Williams  Lake;  40  km
south of Riske Creek)

Accommodation:   Limited   indoor  sleeping  accommodation  (?30
      people) but plenty of camping opportunities

Dates: June 21 through 23rd, 1995

Tentative agenda:
June 21st: Registration and icebreaker (evening)
June 22nd (am): indoor talks
June 22rd (pm): field trip to grasslands and wetlands
June 23rd (all day): extensive  field  trip  to  grasslands  and
      wetlands (2 groups)

Field trips are planned to: Jamieson Meadows (large diversity of
wetlands),  Gang Ranch/Dog Creek grasslands, Junction grasslands
(Junction of Chilcotin and Fraser Rivers), Farwell Canyon, Other
Chilcotin grasslands and wetlands in the area.

Confirmed Speakers: Trevor Goward (grassland  lichens),  Shirley
Saulkeld  (botanical  illustrations),  Maryanne  Ignace  / Nancy
Turner  (ethnobotany),  Allen  Banner  /  Will   Mackenzie   (BC
wetland/riparian classification), Anna Roberts (local wetlands -
field trip).

Contact:  Allen  Banner ( ; tel 604-387-
6688) soon if you are interested in attending. A mailer will  be
going  out  within 2 weeks to our ever-increasing list of Botany
BC "ites" with more details.
(BEN # 100  29-April-1995)
From: Frank Lomer, Honourary Research Associate, UBC Herbarium,
         Vancouver, B.C. c/o <>

In December 1994, I was exploring a peat bog  in  South  Burnaby
and  came  across  a small plant I had never seen before. It was
floating at the edge of a large pond in an old  peat  extraction
site  with  Lemna  minor  and  Spirodella  polyrhiza.  It  was a
Mosquito Fern (Azolla sp.), a small free floating  annual  fern-
like plant.

Two  species  of  the genus Azolla are known to occur in British

Azolla filiculoides Lam. is an introduced plant from Europe.  We
      have  collections  at  UBC  only  from  within the city of
      Vancouver. I have not seen it myself except in  a  nursery
      pond (sold?) with aquatics. It can be distinguished by its
      larger  size  (1-10  cm  diameter)  and the rather thickly
      papillose upper leaf lobes.

Azolla mexicana K.B. Presl is known in Canada only from  several
      places  around  Shuswap  Lake (Brunton 1986, Goward 1994).
      There is some dispute as to whether it is native or intro-
      duced there. It can be identified under  a  microscope  by
      the   crosswalls   within  the  barbed  hairs  (glochidia)
      projecting  from   the   massulae   (an   aggregation   of

The  plants I collected were tiny (all under 1 cm, mostly only 5
mm in diameter) and the upper leaf  surfaces  were  smooth.  The
plants contained no spores.

A  month  later,  I found the same plant growing in a deep ditch
transecting a huge cultivated cranberry field in  Richmond  near
the  Fraser  River.  It  was growing so thickly that it formed a
mass of living and dead plants a few meters square and more than
10 cm thick in places. It was clogging the culvert debris screen
and lots of dead plants had accumulated along the ditch bank.  I
saw  more  plants  at  another  culvert further along the ditch.
Again, I could see no spores.

On March 5, 1995, I  saw  another  large  accumulation  of  this
Azolla  species  floating  at the end of a deep ditch at another
section of the same cranberry field about 2.5 km  further  west.
All  were  dead  plants. This time I could see a yellowish-white
powder scattered over the surface of the  debris.  These  turned
out  to  be microspores which I collected and examined under the
microscope. The  glochidia  were  all  without  crosswalls.  The
species  I  found  fits  the  description  of Azolla caroliniana
Willd., and eastern North American species known in Canada  only
from  1962  collection from Hamilton Beach, Ontario which is now
assumed extirpated (Cody & Britton, 1989).

The three areas where I found this plant  contained  many  other
species  native  to  eastern  North America, probably introduced
with cranberry stock from long ago.

The voucher specimens are deposited in the UBC herbarium:
"Richmond, near River Rd. E of No  8  Rd.  In  slough  along  CN
tracks  running  along  edges of cranberry bog. January 2, 1995.
Coll. Frank Lomer."


Brunton, D.F. 1986. Status of  mosquito  fern,  Azolla  mexicana
      Salviniaceae  in Canada. Canad. Field-Naturalist 100: 404-
Cody, W.J. & D.M.  Britton.  1989.  Ferns  and  fern  allies  of
      Canada. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada. 430 p.
Goward,  T.  1994.  Mosquito  fern:  Two  new records in British
      Columbia. Cordillera 1(2): 23-25.
(BEN # 100  29-April-1995)
From: Deb Sholly, US Forest Service, Ketchikan, AK (Phone:  907-

We are looking for slides of the following plants:

Draba borealis var. maxima     Platanthera gacilis
Draba kamtschatica             Puccinellia glabra
Draba kananaskis               Puccinellia kamtschatica
Hymenophyllum wrightii         Senecio moresbiensis
Isoetes truncata               Stellaria ruscifolia
Ligusticum calderi                        spp. aleutica

I would like to know what photos are coming, so would appreciate
a phone call. You can send them to:
Deb  Sholly,  Ecology,  US  Forest  Service,  Federal  Building,
Ketchikan, Alaska 99901. - Thanks!
(BEN # 100  29-April-1995)
From: Adolf Ceska <>

I visited Shuswap Lake last weekend and  to  my  surprise  found
large  stands of moss grass (Coleanthus subtilis) in full bloom.
It looks like the most ideal time to look for this  grass  along
the  mud  flats  of those lakes and rivers that are fed by water
from glaciers and mountain snow.

In the fall of 1989 we (my wife Oluna,  Bryce  Bancroft  and  I)
found Coleanthus subtilis along Shuswap Lake; this was a new for
British  Columbia  and  Canada.  Previous collections from North
America were from Oregon  and  Washington:  Sauvie  Island  near
Portland, muddy shore of Hayden Island at base to I5 bridge, and
Bingen.  In  1989  we tried to find Coleanthus on Sauvie Island,
but we found only a few plants on Oak Island, at the N end of  a
slough where the road to a boat ramp crosses the dyke.

Coleanthus  subtilis  is  an annual grass and it flowers late in
fall, and evidently also early in spring. Due to its small  size
and  short  time  span when it can be found, Coleanthus has been
rarely collected. Now it is time to look  for  it!  I  would  be
interested in learning more about the distribution of this plant
in the Pacific Northwest. If you find it (and I am sure that you
will  if  you try), make a collection and write me the location.
(BEN # 100  29-April-1995)
From: R.T. Ogilvie <bogilvie@RBML01.RBCM.GOV.BC.CA>

The hundredth issue of Botanical Electronic News should not pass
without some comment. In Botany there  are  various  plant  cen-
turies, some pertinent to our purpose, others that are not.

The  genus  Centaurea  (Asteraceae)  has  nothing to do with one
hundred. The name comes from the Greek kentron  -  a  spur,  not
centum - a hundred. Centaurea includes notorious species such as
the  noxious  knapweeds,  star-thistle,  etc.  The name of these
plants comes from Chiron the Centaur,  half-man  and  half-horse
who,  according  to  myth, taught the medicinal herbs to the an-
cient Greek medical-botanists such as Asclepias. Various species
of  Centaurea  have  been  used  as  herbal  tonic,   stimulant,
diuretic,  diaphoretic, purgative, vermifuge, and goodness knows
what else.

Another genus Centaurium  (Gentianaceae)  has  several  species,
called  Centaury,  which  have been used as herbal and medicinal
tonics. This genus is also named for Chiron the Centaur.

The Century Plant - Agave  americana,  got  its  name  from  the
belief that it flowered only once in a hundred years. In fact it
flowers  more  frequently  than  that, but at least the name has
something to do with a hundred.

Lastly, a Century of Plants, is a set of 100 dried, pressed, and
labelled plants specimens, distributed to  herbaria.  As  a  UBC
student  I  recall  Dr. Krajina assembling bundles of "Centuria"
for exchange with other herbaria. Also, Bernard Boivin,  another
classical  botanist,  issued  sets  of "Centurie de plantes" for
exchange in the early 1950's.

So finally we're back to a  Century  of  BEN,  and  Adolf  Ceska
should be congratulated on achieving this. We hope BEN continues
for at least another hundred issues.
(BEN # 100  29-April-1995)

Thank  you,  Bob,  for  your  note  and thanks to all of you who
contributed to BEN and made its century possible.

At this moment BEN has about 470 direct subscribers and is  also
posted  on  USENET  in  bionet.plants.  I  rarely  hear from the
readers, mostly only when I do something wrong. For instance:

BEN # 98: " Any superficial disparities  can  only  be  detected
when the spores of the truffle -- which can range in size from a
pea to an orange -- are examined under a microscope."

> Adolf,
> WE were amazed at truffle spores the size of an orange.
> This is surely a record. The truffle that produces them
> must be immense.
> Wilf [Schofield] & Olivia [Lee] [UBC Herbarium]

Please,  don't write me notes saying that you read BEN and enjoy
or hate it. Instead,  I  would  greatly  appreciate  any  notes,
articles  or news that you would like to post on BEN. It is you,
BEN readers and BEN contributors, who can keep BEN running.
(BEN # 100  29-April-1995)

I have started a WILDFLOWERS home page which might be of  inter-
est to your subscribers of BEN. Their input to WILDFLOWERS would
certainly  make  the  page  more  useful  and  meaningful to the

Thanks for your consideration.

Gary Lipe,
PO BOX 11830, Ft Worth, TX 76110-1830
Visit the WILDFLOWERS page at:
(BEN # 100  29-April-1995)