Issues#110 to #119

From: Adolf Ceska <>

I  remember  the  first  vernacular  name of a vascular plant my
mother taught me: kontryhel [con-tree-hell], a  Czech  name  for
Alchemilla.  I don't know the etymology of the Czech name, but I
remember the mnemonic my  mother  used:  "Mrs.  Kondrys  (a  pub
keeper  from  across the street - imagine what I knew when I was
four!) picked it." For Czechs, Alchemilla  would  be  easier  to
remember  and  easier  to  pronounce  than kontryhel. Kontryhel,
however, has a great  advantage  over  Alchemilla:  it  can  get
through  the  declination mill of the Czech language without any
damage, whereas Alchemilla halts the Czech language in all forms
except the nominative singular.

The Czech language requires the use of vernacular names  because
the  scientific  names  are incompatible with the Czech grammar.
According to the rules, "scientific names are treated  as  Latin
regardless  of their derivation," and Czechs cannot handle Latin
in Czech sentences. Even in the Czech scientific texts you  have
to  use  common  names,  never  mind  how absurd, artificial, or
difficult to remember they may be. Common names fill  the  holes
where  the  Latin  names would halt the sentence. The scientific
name of a given plant is usually appended immediately behind the
vernacular name in parentheses: people ought to know what  plant
you  are  really  talking  about.  E.g.,  kontryhel ostrolalocny
(Alchemilla acutiloba). It is the structure of  the  Czech  lan-
guage that dictates the use of vernacular names. Russian grammar
is  equally  incompatible  with  Latin  names,  but in addition,
Russians use a different alphabet; Latin names are difficult  to
accommodate  in  Russian written sentences even when Latin names
are in the form of nominative singular.

Nobody can blame Japanese for using vernacular names.  With  the
exception  of Tsuga or Aucuba (Japanese names treated as Latin),
Japanese cannot transcribe most scientific names and they had to
develop their own botanical nomenclature. The Japanese  language
is  quite  flexible  in  accepting  English words (e.g., fo-ku =
fork, ay-soo-cree-moo = ice cream,  hen-de-mayku  =  megaphone).
but  the attempt to replace Japanese vernacular names with Latin
names transcribed in katakana would be irrational. Again, it  is
the  incompatibility  of  the  Latin names and the language that
necessitated a creation of vernacular nomenclature in Japan.

What about English? I am not a linguist, but  I  don't  see  any
major  incompatibility  between Latin names and English grammar.
Latin names can be used directly in  English  sentences  and  we
don't  have to use "Lady's-mantle" for "Alchemilla" just to keep
the sentence grammatically correct. The only area where there is
any "incompatibility"  between  Latin  and  English  is  in  the
pronunciation.  However,  do we really need English common names
just because we don't  know  (or  we  don't  agree  on)  how  to
pronounce  scientific  names?  I believe that we can get through
"Dryas integrifolia" more  easily  than  through  "Entire-leaved
white   mountain-avens."   I   have  met  many  "lay  people"  -
naturalists,  amateur  botanists,  and  garden  enthusiasts  who
prefer  using  scientific  names;  vernacular  names mean almost
nothing to them. Let's be grateful to the English language  that
it  can  accommodate  scientific names as well as it does. In my
opinion, we do not have to create  a  parallel  nomenclature  of
vernacular  names  just  because we have occasional difficulties
with pronunciation of scientific names.
(BEN # 110  19-August-1995)
From: Adolf Ceska <>

COSEWIC (Committee on status of endangered wildlife  in  Canada)
followed  the  example of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and
designated Castilleja  levisecta  as  a  threatened  species  in
Canada.  This  species  once  occurred from Oregon north to Van-
couver Island in British Columbia. Only 10 disjunct  populations
of  this  plant now exist, in open grasslands ranging from south
of Olympia, Washington north through the Puget Sound  to  South-
west British Columbia, Canada [BEN # 79].

There  are  only  two  localities  in British Columbia where the
species still survives: Alpha Islet and Trial Island  (obviously
the  largest  population among the 10 known locations), and both
are Ecological Reserves. There are  several  historical  collec-
tions  from  around  Victoria. One plant of Castilleja levisecta
grew in Beacon Hill Park in Victoria: it has not been seen since

In her reminiscence of the past history of the Craigflower  area
(part  of  View  Royal,  Victoria), Alice (Heron) King mentioned
golden paintbrush:

"There was a large hay field where children  did  not  play,  or
they  would  be  lectured  by Johnny Stewart. Joe Stewart, Amy's
brother, and his family camped on adjacent property. This is the
only place I have  ever  seen  where  a  huge  patch  of  yellow
paintbrush  bloomed  each  spring.  It  was  destroyed  when the
seaplane business took over." [1928-1932]

The location of the site was at the end of Steward Road in  View
Royal, Victoria.

Alice  (Heron) King. 1993. The Heron family and friends. Pp. 66-
      69 in Duffus, Maureen. Craigflower Country: A  history  of
      View Royal 1850-1950. Fleming Printing, Victoria. 130 p.
(BEN # 110  19-August-1995)

Spooner,  I.S.,  L.  Hills  &  G.D.  Osborn. 1995. An integrated
      approach to Holocene palaeoenvironmental reconstruction in
      Northwestern British Columbia: Applications of palynology,
      sedimentology and resident oral history.

The following is the abstract of a paper presented at the  joint
meeting  of the Canadian Quaternary Association and the Canadian
Geomorphological Research Group  in  St.  John's,  Newfoundland,
June 5-7, 1995.

Susie  Lake  is an alpine cirque lake situated near tree line on
the eastern slope of northern Coast Mountains, British  Columbia
(approx.  58  deg.  N.,  131  deg.  W.). Palynomorph assemblages
recovered from cores were interpreted  as  proxy  indicators  of
Holocene  climate change. The post-glacial colonizing vegetation
appeared before 7990 +- 80 yr B.P. and consisted of a shrub herb
community dominated by Alnus (alder), Betula (birch),  Artemisia
(sage) and Gramineae (grasses). Macrofossil and palynomorph data
suggest  that  between  about  7700  and 2000 yr B.P. timberline
remained above present levels in  response  to  warmer  climatic
conditions  and was dominated by Picea (spruce) and Abies (fir).
A return to wetter, perhaps colder conditions after 2000 yr B.P.
is indicated by an increase in Tsuga (hemlock) and an absence of
tree macrofossils. A decrease in the frequency of occurrence  of
turbidity  current deposits in the core generated by a bordering
alluvial fan coincides with an  elevated  treeline  and  warmer,
drier  conditions.  The palaeovegetational record for Susie Lake
is unique when compared to the previously obtained  coastal  and
interior  records  and indicates that there are significant dif-
ferences in meso-scale climate trends in western Canada.

Information on Late-Holocene environmental changes was  obtained
from  resident oral histories. Landslide activity was associated
with concentrated spring runoff during  high-snowpack  years.  A
large  rock  avalanche  was  caused  by activity along the Queen
Charlotte transform. Both legends and resident  histories  indi-
cate  that  volcanic  activity  on  Mt. Edziza may have occurred
within the last millennium indicating that the eruptive  history
of  Mt.  Edziza  should  be re-evaluated, especially in light of
proposed economic development of the region.
(BEN # 110  19-August-1995)

Taylor, Ronald J. & George W. Douglas. 1995. Mountain plants  of
      the  Pacific Northwest: A field guide to Washington, west-
      ern British Columbia, and  southeastern  Alaska.  Mountain
      Press  Publishing  Company,  Missoula,  Montana. (437 pp.,
      >1000 color illustr.)  Price  -  US $20.00
The book will be available in bookstores sometime in  September.
At  present  it  may  be  ordered from Mountain Press Publishing
Company, P.O. Box 2399, Missoula, Montana, 59806. 
(BEN # 110  19-August-1995)
From: Clement W. Hamilton and Paul West c/o <>

[Copyrighted  material released with the authors' permission for
      posting on BEN.]

The past several years has seen increasing interest, on the part
of the horticultural public as well as landscape  professionals,
in the health of the Pacific madrone, Arbutus menziesii. Several
general  trends  --  such  as  the  desire for more broad-leaved
evergreens in urban  landscapes,  the  growing  appreciation  of
native  plants  of  ornamental  and  ecological  value, and ever
augmented plant-physiological  stress  due  to  urbanization  --
converge  on  the  madrone. People are almost unanimous in their
praise of the tree's desirability for urban landscapes, and also
unanimously puzzled about what might be causing its  decline  in
urban areas of the Pacific Northwest.

The  symposium  on  "The  Decline  of  Pacific  Madrone: current
theories and research directions" was held at the University  of
Washington  Center  for Urban Horticulture April 28, 1995. About
200 researchers, professionals, and interested citizens gathered
to share their knowledge and perspectives. They sought to deter-
mine whether any common understandings could be reached and what
future research might be of greatest help to  the  madrone.  Two
questions  underlay the twelve presentations and ensuing discus-
sions: 1) What are the nature  and  causes  of  the  decline  of
Arbutus   menziesii   in   urban  environments  of  the  Pacific
Northwest? and 2) How can the madrone be  propagated,  restored,
and managed in urban landscapes?

This  symposium  was  initiated  by a group of Seattle community
activists who had been witnessing the  gradual  demise  of  many
formerly  handsome  madrones along Magnolia Bluff. In 1994, they
won special funding to determine how to reverse this decline  as
mitigation  for  the West Point sewage treatment plant at nearby
Discovery Park. Save Magnolia's Madronas, as they  called  them-
selves,  recognized  that  the  madrone's decline was widespread
throughout the Seattle area, and that  research  was  needed  to
better under stand the causes of decline.

At  the  beginning  of  the  symposium, Christopher Chappell and
Gregory Ettl spoke of the natural context of the madrone,  Chap-
pell noting the apparent importance of fire in the establishment
and   persistence   of   plant  associations  in  which  madrone
predominates. Fairly dry, sunny sites with shallow, well drained
soil seem to be prime madrone habitat.

Richard Hunt considered that a particular growth  characteristic
of  the  madrone  actually  may accelerate its decline. When the
tree becomes stressed, it flowers more prolifically,  an  evolu-
tionary  strategy  to  continue its lineage despite its possibly
impending death. That  excessive  flowering,  however,  detracts
from  the  resources  to put into new terminal shoot growth, and
the tree produces fewer new leaves. As flowering  increases  and
leaf  production  declines, the tree may begin to lack the vigor
necessary t o defend itself against the canker-causing  diseases
described by Hunt and by Ralph Byther.

Dana  Bressette  and  Clement  Hamilton  have  been sampling in-
dividual madrone trees west  of  the  Cascades,  recording  site
conditions  and  grading  tree health. Their preliminary results
suggest that two characteristics correlate with  decline:  tall,
single-stemmed  growth  habit  and  thin  bark.  This implicates
exposure of the stem as a primary  causative  factor.  Bressette
noted  also  that  she  witnessed bark exfoliation more often on
south sides of samples, possibly implicating sun exposure  as  a
direct  cause  of decline. Their observations complement a model
of stand decline that A.B. Adams has proposed. He noted that the
trees studied in the landscaped area of Magnolia Bluff exhibited
more dieback and canker than do the trees in the natural setting
of nearby Thorn dyke Park. This led  him  to  posit  a  positive
feedback  process whereby the disturbance and exposure caused by
landscape development causes a stress response in the tree, such
as exfoliation of the bark. This may then predispose the tree to
infection by pathogens, which accelerates the  decline.  As  the
tree  canopy  dies  back  and individual trees are lost, the ex-
posure of the  stand  further  increases,  thus  augmenting  the
potential for general decline.

Trees are dying, but these are typically remnant trees of former
forest  stands  that  have not been able to adjust to changes --
usually clearing -- in the environment around them. In contrast,
young, vigorous madrone trees  can  be  seen  growing  up  along
highways,  in  parking lot medians, and in other stressful urban
situations. It appears, therefore, that madrones can thrive in a
wider variety of conditions than found in its usual habitat,  if
they  are  established  as  juveniles  within those same growing
conditions. Madrones have been witnessed growing at the edges of
wetlands, in irrigated turf, and under  closed  conifer  canopy,
for  instance.  This perspective holds promise that madrones can
find new niches in many parts of the urban landscape.

This hope is fueled by  great  evidence  that  madrones  can  be
readily  propagated  from  seed.  The  work of Ray Maleike, Rita
Hummel, Diana Privett, and Rico  Gonzclez  indicates  that  con-
tainer  production  is within reach using standard nursery prac-
tices. Another challenge is transferring  the  plants  from  the
nursery  into  the  landscape.  Thus  far,  the  work of Hummel,
Privett, Gonzclez, and Tony Shoffner has focused on establishing
1- to 3-gallon sized material.  Because  madrone  exhibits  sen-
sitivity  to  transplanting,  smaller  material  offers more im-
mediate potential. Working with small material presents  special
challenges  to  the  landscape manager, however, requiring extra
protection in environments with heavy traffic, careful  monitor-
ing  for pests (notably slugs and root weevil), and allowing the
juvenile bushy habit and low branching to prevail  in  order  to
protect the trunk. The challenge does not end with establishment
of  the  trees,  as Phil Coker points out; proper arboricultural
treatment depends on  understanding  the  physiology  of  mature

At  the  close  of  the  symposium,  participants discussed over
twenty areas of research that  could  benefit  madrones  in  the
future,  among  them  the  following: 1) systematic study of the
canker-causing organisms; 2) genetic  study  of  disease  resis-
tance,  coupled  with  a  program of selecting, propagating, and
introducing desirable plants; 3)  exploring  the  possible  sig-
nificance  of  mycorrhizal  associations;  4) trial plantings in
different types of urban site; 5) determining the size and  area
of  minimum  viable populations in urban greenbelts; and 6) com-
parative study of different  approaches  to  pruning  and  other
arboricultural practices.

Seldom does one plant species, outside of agriculture or produc-
tion  forestry,  arouse  such  a  high  degree of concern as has
Arbutus menziesii. The contributors to  this  volume  hope  that
their  work  has helped lay a significant foundation for a heal-
thier future for the Pacific madrone.

Proceedings from the symposium will be published this  fall  and
will  be  available  from  the  Center  for  Urban Horticulture,
University of Washington GF-15, Seattle WA 98195, for $15 US.
(BEN # 111  26-August-1995)
From: Toby Spribille

The recent exploration of the calcareous wetlands in the Tobacco
Valley in northwest Montana has resulted in numerous new records
for the region and an interesting overview of  bryophyte  diver-
sity  in  an  otherwise  poorly-known area. One of the most sig-
nificant finds to date is the discovery of Carex  prairea  Dewey
in  two  marl  fens  near  the  village of Trego in the northern
Salish Mountains. This species is very rare in the west, and  is
present  in  British Columbia only in the Fraser Plateau region.
Phytogeographically, it can be regarded  as  a  northeast  North
American  element  at  its  western  periphery; its discovery in
northwest  Montana  represents  a  range  extension  south  from
central B.C. and west from the northern Great Plains.

The  plant  was first brought to my attention by Jack Triepke, a
botanist on the Fortine Ranger District, who collected it  in  a
large  marl  fen/Betula  glandulosa  carr.  It  was subsequently
collected in another fen in the vicinity. At the latter site  it
was  the  dominant  cover, forming extensive hummocks with Carex
gynocrates. The seeping water had a pH of 7.2.

In addition to the Carex, many other rare or infrequent  species
were  discovered  in  the  second  fen. These include the mosses
Scorpidium cossoni, Meesia triquetra  and  Catascopium  nigritum
and  the rare lichen Cetraria sepincola, known from only a hand-
ful of collections south of the Canadian border. It was found to
be locally common on twigs of Betula glandulosa.

Voucher specimens  of  Carex  prairea:  MONTANA;  FLATHEAD  CO.:
      Collins Fen, Lime Creek, 25. July 1995, J. Triepke FJT025;
      Magnesia  Creek,  abundant  in  rich  fen,  21. June 1995,
      Spribille 3355; same location,  1.  Aug.  1995,  Spribille
      3902; specimens to be deposited at COLO, MICH, MONTU.
(BEN # 111  26-August-1995)
From: Philip A. Thomas - National Biological Service
      Haleakala Field Station <>

I  am working on a project sponsored by the Research Corporation
of the University of Hawaii to compile a database of sources  of
information  RE: alien species in Hawaii. I would be very inter-
ested to hear from anyone who has any  kind  of  data  on  alien
species  (plants, animals, etc.) which occur in Hawaii. Data can
be field notes,  electronic  databases,  incidental  or  spatial
observations, etc. I would appreciate any information.

Please  respond  to  me directly with a brief description of the
data that you have/know about, or  if  you  would  like  further
details about this project.
(BEN # 111  26-August-1995)
From: The European MagAZine, 31 Aug - 6 Sept 1995, p. 12.

The  natural  compounds in yew are being used in the manufacture
of a new anti-cancer drug being developed by  the  French  phar-
maceutical  company Rhone Poulenc Rorer. The result of long-term
research  into  the  taxoid  compounds  is  the  drug  Docetaxel
[=Taxotere], which has recently undergone trials by the European
Society  for Medical Oncologists. The women who took part in the
trial  all  had  advanced  breast  cancer  and  secondary  liver
tumours.  In a quarter of the patients tested, the liver tumours
disappeared completely and in half of the group they  shrank  by
50 per cent or more.

Docetaxel  is  showing a high activity in patients where current
therapy is limited and where prognosis is extremely poor.  Also,
the  recommended  dose  and schedule are suitable for outpatient
treatment. Docetaxel takes just one hour to administer and  only
five  or  so  treatments  are usually required. But, as with any
anti-cancer drug, there are side effects, including fluid reten-
tion, lower back pain, vomiting and chest tightness. If licensed
by the European Medical Evaluation Agency, Docetaxel  should  be
on the market by the end of the year.

In southern England, hedge clipping and collecting companies are
already  springing up to satisfy the new demand. Every year 200-
300 tonnes of English yew clippings are now sent to France.  The
collection process is selective and only European yew no thicker
than  a  pencil  can  be  processed.  The clippings must be dry,
unadulterated by other garden  refuse  and  reach  cold  storage
within  48  hours  of being cut. One tonne of clippings produces
just 200 g of the new drug.

Additional references (from CARL's Uncover):

Gelmon, K. 1994. The  taxoids:  paclitaxel  and  docetaxel.  The
      Lancet, 344(8932): 1267.
Lavelle,  F.,  Bissery,  M.C.,  &  Andre,  S.  1995. Preclinical
      Evaluation of Docetaxel (Taxotere). Seminars in  oncology,
      22(2 - Supp 4): 3.
Pazdur,  R.,  Kudelka, A. P., & Kavanagh, J. J. 1993. New Drugs:
      The taxoids: paclitaxel (Taxol) and docetaxel  (Taxotere).
      Cancer treatment reviews, 19(4): 351.
Verweij,  J.  1994.  Docetaxel (Taxotere), a new anticancer drug
      with  promising  potential?  British  journal  of  cancer,
      70(2): 183.
(BEN # 112  13-September-1995)
From: Adolf Ceska <>
      & Frank Lomer c/o <>

Two  species  of  the  genus  Picris have been found recently in
British Columbia. Picris is a genus of  about  45  species  dis-
tributed  in  Europe,  Asia  and Africa. It belongs to the tribe
Lactuceae, the tribe of the Asteraceae family  that  is  charac-
terized  by  having heads with only ligulate flowers. Within the
tribe Lactuceae, Picris has the  following  characteristic  com-
bination  of  characters: plants with cauline leaves; stems with
stiff, scattered hairs; achenes beaked, with  plumose  (feather-
like) pappus.

Picris  hieracioides  L.  was  collected  in British Columbia on
Cedar Hill (=Mt. Douglas), Victoria,  in  1887  (Macoun,  CAN  -
cited  in Groh, H. 1947. Canadian Weed Survey, 4-th Report 1945,
p. 44) and two years ago east of Greenwood on Phoenix Mine Road,
at the base of the roadside, mine waste clearing about 4  km  to
highway  #  3  to  Grand Forks (Frank Lomer s.n., 12 July 1993 -
UBC, V).

Picris echioides L. has been reported from Alberta, Saskatchewan
and Ontario. One plant of this  species  appeared  in  a  potato
patch in Dave Coombes' garden in Victoria (Government at Niagara
Str., Adolf Ceska, # 29629, August 15, 1995 - V).
(BEN # 112  13-September-1995)

Lyons,  C.P.  &  Bill Merilees. 1995. Trees, shrubs & flowers to
      know in British Columbia  &  Washington.  Lone  Pine  Pub-
      lishing,  Edmonton,  Alberta.  375  p.  ISBN 1-55105-044-7
      [softcover] CDN$ 18.95, US$ 15.95

The first edition of Chess Lyons' popular guide was published in
1952. The original guide (written for "scouts and grandmothers")
has been revised again, for the fourth time. The  new  publisher
retained  the  original  typeset and Chess Lyons' line drawings,
including the mysterious picture of a man with a hat and  a  tie
(Chess  Lyons  himself?), used as a scale for shrubs. A new sec-
tion with over 400 colour photographs of plants has  been  added
as a help for identification.

The publisher has a toll-free phone number: 1-800-661-9017 and a
toll-free FAX number: 1-800-424-7173.
(BEN # 112  13-September-1995)
From: Dr. Mary Barkworth <STIPOID@CC.USU.EDU>

During  the  last  few  years,  several  of  us  in  the Pacific
Northwest and Intermountain Region have met on various occasions
to discuss topics of mutual interest concerning our herbaria.  A
topic  at  each  of  these meetings has been databasing, sharing
information, and making the value of the collections in our care
better known and better appreciated, both internally and  exter-
nally.  One  way  of  doing this that we discussed was making it
possible  to  obtain  distributional  information  from  several
herbaria at one time.

After  talking  with  Brand  Niemann  of the National Biological
Service and reading the recent bulletin that came out from  NBS,
it  seems like this might be a good time to start moving forward
to a formal proposal. To help in the development of  a  coopera-
tive  proposal, Jim Smith at Boise State University has formed a
newsgroup for exchanging ideas, comments, etc.. To subscribe  to
the  newsgroup,  send a message to: [or
listserv@idbsu.bitnet]. Leave the subject line blank.  The  mes-
sage  to  send  is: subscribe HERB-L your ordinary name. For in-
stance, my message would be: subscribe HERB-L Mary Barkworth

Once subscribed, when you wish to communicate with  anyone  con-
cerning matters that relate to herbaria of the Pacific Northwest
and/or  Intermountain Region, use: as the
address. Lower case (herb-l) works, but you need  to  know  that
last character is the letter l, not the number 1.
(BEN # 112  13-September-1995)
From: Toby Spribille, Interior Northwest Botany News # 9

[The  following  are  autobiographical  notes  written  by Klaus
Lackschewitz last winter after he was  diagnosed  with  terminal
cancer.  They  describe the life and work of Montana's botanist,
whose efforts contributed very significantly to the knowledge of
the flora of the state. His books are now in widespread  use  in
the  U.S. Forest Service and are accepted as standard references
for the flora of west-central Montana. He died in Missoula on 10
August 1995, at the age of 84. The  notes  are  reproduced  with
permission of Mrs. Gertrud Lackschewitz. --TS]

I  was  born  May 4, 1911 in a rural forester's residence in the
then Russian province of Livonia, which was in  1918  to  become
the  independent  republic of Latvia. Shortly after the founding
of the new state my father, who had earned his  forestry  degree
in Germany, was appointed to the State Department of Forestry in
Riga.  There  I  spent  my  high school years, graduating from a
German Gymnasium with a Classics emphasis. My  interest  in  the
Natural Sciences was strongly supported by gifted teachers and a
father  who  came  from  a  family  of  literati  in the Natural
Sciences. I attended Botany  and  Zoology  courses  for  several
years at the "Institutum Herderianum Rigense", a German College.
The political climate in the early thirties in a country border-
ing  on  the  Stalinist  Soviet  Union  was virulent. The German
minority in the Baltic States was gradually disenfranchised  and
put under severe economic pressure. Like many of my countrymen I
turned  from an academic to a practical career hoping to be able
to survive and stay in the country of my  forefathers  which  we
all loved very much. I took a 2-year crash course at an agricul-
tural  college  near Berlin, and from 1935-1939 managed and then
leased a farm in Latvia.

After war broke out in the fall of 1939  all  of  our  hopes  of
holding  on  to  a  place  in  our homeland were dashed when the
Hitler/Stalin Pact assigned Latvia as a "sphere of interest"  to
the  Soviet  Union.  The  150,000  or  so  ethnic  Germans whose
forbears had lived there for  500 years  were  ordered  out  and
shipped  on  boats to resettle in western Poland, on lands taken
away from Polish proprietors. Soon after being "settled", I  was
called  to  the  German  army.  I served on the Russian southern
front from 1941-1945, which  then  advanced  into  the  Caucasus
area. My familiarity with Russian language and culture helped to
open  my  eyes  and  ears  in  encounters  and tradings with the
population. Later on when I was wounded and captured and  trans-
ferred  about  in  POW  camps  in northern Russia, I was able to
serve as interpreter between the camp authorities and my  fellow
prisoners,  which gave me some advantage under nearly unbearable
conditions. My knowledge of edible plants helped here and  there
to  augment  our  starving rations. With shattered health (I was
diagnosed with Tuberculosis), I almost miraculously made it into
a contingent of returnees in 1947, and stumbled back  into  war-
devastated West Germany, which was then almost a foreign country
to me.

After  recovering  I  worked odd jobs. I decided to emigrate to
the United States or Canada, where many  of  my  countrymen  had
gone.  In  the  spring  of  1952  my  papers were complete and I
crossed the ocean in a contingent of "deported persons",  in  an
old military transport ship. My German-born sponsor had hired me
to  rehabilitate an abandoned farm in New Jersey, a project that
had little prospect of success. So I turned my old  hobby,  gar-
dening,  into  a  livelihood.  I  worked in greenhouses and with
landscaping companies, learning about American plants  and  gar-
dens  (and  the  English  language). I specialized in foundation
plantings and rock gardens. Although  I  was  impressed  by  the
richness  of  the  flora of the East Coast I never felt quite at
home in it.

When my wife obtained a position at the University of Montana in
1960 I was happy to move west to Missoula, Montana.  I  was  im-
mediately  taken by the beautiful open landscapes and mountains,
and drawn to investigate the native  flora,  especially  of  the
alpine  regions. Friends like Frank Rose, who had been gathering
native plants for commercial purposes, introduced  me  to  their
favorite  collecting  places.  Tor  Fageraas,  at that time head
gardener of the University campus and  an  experienced  mountain
climber,  accompanied  me an many a field trip in canyons up the
Bitterroots to collect high elevation plants for the  university
herbarium.  I  also  became much interested in the use of native
plants for horticultural purposes and established a rock  garden
at  my house. Since 1965 the Botany Department of the University
as superintendent of greenhouses, and  subsequently  gave  me  a
working  place in the herbarium. I could now pursue my two major
passions: investigating and collecting native  plants  in  their
natural  habitats to further our knowledge about them, and weav-
ing their austere beauty into our garden design.

Until 1994 I  collected  specimens  for  over  12,000  herbarium
sheets, mostly from Montana mountain ranges. Next to the Bitter-
roots,  the largest amounts were taken from the Anaconda-Pintler
Mountains, the Front Range east of the Continental  Divide,  and
the  Beartooth  Plateau.  I  visited  many of the other mountain
ranges, but only a few times each. After all,  I  had  become  a
mountain  man  only  after  the age of 50. A number of specimens
found had not been collected in Montana before.  Agoseris  lack-
schewitzii,  Erigeron  lackschewitzii  and  Lesquerella  klausii
turned out to be heretofore unknown species.

The major fruit of my observations is contained in my  guidebook
Vascular Plants of West-central Montana, 1991 and 1993. In order
to  facilitate plant identification by the lay user the material
is organized by habitat (which plant am I likely to find  here?)
and by frequency of occurrence. The description again takes into
account the surrounding plant associations.

In  1966  I had the opportunity to realize our plan for a Native
Plant Garden around the  University  Botany  Building.  Chairman
Sherman  Preece  shared  my  enthusiasm,  secured  the means and
personally helped to collect the plant  material.  He  mobilized
the  faculty  and graduate students for the actual groundwork of
laying out and planting the garden.  Work  study  students  were
found  to  pluck the weeds, and for a time new plants were added
every year. Several years ago the Native Plant Society took  the
garden  into  their  responsibility. Volunteer workers have gra-
ciously contributed their time and effort to maintain the plant-
ings. Thanks to this ongoing labor of love the garden  has  been
improved  as  a teaching tool and a display of the beauty of our
native flora.

   Klaus H. Lackschewitz
(BEN # 113  24-September-1995)
JOSEF POELT (1924-1995)
From: ASPT Newsletter Volume 9(3) - July 1995

Josef  Poelt  (1924-1995),  Emeritus  Professor,  Institut   fur
Botanik,   Universitat   Graz,  Graz,  Austria,  and  a  leading
authority on the systematics of cryptogams  especially  lichens,
died on 3 June 1995 at his home in Graz. Prof. Poelt was born on
17  October  1924  in  the  small  village  of  Pocking in upper
Bavaria. He studied botany in Munchen,  completing  his  PhD  in
1950  and  his  habilitation  in  1959.  In  October 1965, after
several years as Curator and Lecturer at Munchen, Poelt  took  a
professorship  at  the  Institut  fur Systematische  Botanik und
Pflanzen-geographie,  Freie  Universitat,  Berlin.  In  February
1972,  he left this position to become Professor of the Institut
fur Botanik, Graz.In October 1991, after almost 20 years as head
of the Institut, he stepped down to become an  Emeritus  Profes-
sor.  Even  in retirement Prof. Poelt remained active, lecturing
until June 1994 and conducting field  work  and  systematic  re-
search until his death.

Prof.  Poelt  leaves  an  impressive body of systematic research
reported in over 320 publications,  which  reflect  his  diverse
interests  in  floristics,  morphology,  evolution,  and  class-
ification. His flora Bestimmungsschlussel Europaischer  Flechten
(1969)  is  a  standard reference for lichenology. His floristic
interests, however, were not  limited  to  Europe;  Prof.  Poelt
traveled  extensively,  especially conducting field research and
floristic studies on the lichens of the Himalayas. Although most
of his publications are in this  specialty--the  systematics  of
lichen-forming  fungi--many  are  on  non-lichenized  fungi  and
bryophytes, and a few on vascular plants.  The  significance  of
his  scientific  research  has  been  recognized  with  numerous
awards, including membership in the Bavarian Academy of Science,
honorary membership in the Regensburg Botanical Society, foreign
membership in  the  Linnean  Society  of  London,  corresponding
memberships  in the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Botani-
cal Society of America, and Acharius Medals  from  the  Interna-
tional  Association  of  Lichenologists.  Also,  Prof. Poelt was
President of the 4th International Mycological  Congress,  which
was held in Regensburg, Germany in 1990.

Prof.  Poelt  was  a  capable and enthusiastic teacher. Over his
long university career he trained many talented students,  first
in  Munchen,  and  later  Berlin and Graz. To these students and
numerous colleagues and  collaborators,  he  provided  freely  a
fountain of ideas and research suggestions. Both his institution
and his home were international meeting places where science and
friendships  flourished. Over time his scientific family grew to
include many generations of students, all directly or indirectly
influenced  by  Prof.  Poelt's  ideas.  This  large   group   of
lichenologists  and  mycologists  should  be  recognized  as the
"Poelt School."

In addition to his scientific achievements, Prof.  Poelt  was  a
devoted  husband and loving father. After the early death of his
wife, Christa, he cared for their young daughters.  He  is  sur-
vived by these two daughters, Julia Poelt and Mag. Doris Poelt.
Paula  DePriest,  Department  of  Botany,  NHB-166,  Smithsonian
Institution, Washington, DC 20560-0001, USA.
(BEN # 113  24-September-1995)
From: Dr. Robert Vance <> via QUATERNARY
      <QUATERNARY@MORGAN.UCS.MUN.CA> [abbreviated]

Report on 'Palaeoecology and Palaeoclimatology  of  the  Pacific
Northwest'  session  held  during the AAAS (American Association
for the Advancement of Science) Pacific Division meeting at  the
University  of  British  Columbia, June 1995. [BEN has published
several abstracts of papers presented on this meeting. From  Dr.
Vance  report  I  selected only those parts that dealt with ter-
restrial vegetation. - AC]

 ....Following lunch, the focus shifted to  terrestrial  records
of  climate  change.  R.  Spear (State University of New York at
Geneseo) discussed pollen evidence of  vegetation  and  climatic
change  in  northern Yukon. A sparse herb tundra prevailed at 18
ka, indicating cold, dry conditions. The 6  ka  palaeoecological
record  features  the  expansion of black spruce (Picea mariana)
and alder (Alnus) populations in south and central  Yukon,  sug-
gesting  decreased  temperatures and/or increased precipitation.
R. Hebda (Royal British  Columbia  Museum)  summarized  Holocene
palaeoecological investigations in British Columbia, emphasizing
that  the  6  ka time slice is best viewed as a 'time of transi-
tion' from warm, dry conditions in the early Holocene to  cooler
and  moister  climate;  much  like today's, but slightly warmer.
Lake- levels were rising from early Holocene lows,  high  eleva-
tion  treeline remained higher-than-present, and western hemlock
(Thuja plicata) was  expanding  along  the  coast.  On  southern
Vancouver Island, Garry oak (Quercus garryana) was more abundant
at  6 ka than it is today, suggesting that at least in this area
of the province dry conditions persisted. R.W.  Mathewes  (Simon
Fraser University) summarized 18 ka conditions in British Colum-
bia, pointing out that the widely used date of 18 ka for maximum
ice-sheet  expansion  is at variance with data from southwestern
British Columbia that suggest interstadial  conditions  at  this
time.  Rather  than  the  cold  and  dry  conditions outlined by
CLIMAP, Mathewes reviewed palaeobotanical data  indicating  more
humid  and  temperate  conditions in the Pacific Northwest. R.E.
Vance  (Geological  Survey  of  Canada)  reviewed  the  existing
palaeoecological  data  base  of the Canadian prairie provinces.
Most, if not all of the region was  covered  by  the  Laurentide
glacier  at  18  ka, although somewhat controversial radiocarbon
dates on lake cores in western  Alberta  (within  the  so-called
'ice-free  corridor'), suggest that ice free areas existed at 18
ka. Sparse shrub  tundra  prevailed,  suggesting  cold  and  dry
conditions.  In  contrast,  the  rich  and  varied 6 ka database
outlines  significant  vegetation,  geomorphic,  and  lake-level
responses to warmer and drier climatic conditions. Major vegeta-
tion  zone  boundaries  (i.e.  grassland and boreal forest) were
located  farther  north  than  today,  treelines  were  situated
upslope  of  current  positions,  forest fires more frequent and
lake- levels lower  than  today.  P.E.  Wigand  (University  and
Community  College  System  of  Nevada) rounded out the regional
palaeoecological syntheses by  summarizing  pollen  and  woodrat
midden records from the northern intermontane west of the United
States.  Records  west  of  the Cascades indicate cold and moist
conditions at 18 ka, whereas cold and dry  conditions  prevailed
in  the northern interior and southern intermountain regions. In
northern Nevada, an 1100 m  depression  in  the  limit  of  pine
(Pinus) growth suggests a drop in temperature of at least 8.5oC.
Like British Columbia, 6 ka conditions in the northern intermon-
tane west were on the downhill side of peak postglacial aridity,
and  a  synchronous  (from  Oregon to southern Nevada), dramatic
increase in precipitation at 5500 BP marks the onset  of  condi-
tions similar to the present.

Following  the  afternoon  coffee  break,  attention  shifted to
'alternative' proxy  indicators  of  climate  change;  that  is,
indicators   that   have   not   been  as  extensively  used  as
palaeobotanical data to reconstruct  past  climate.  M.  Hickman
(Devonian  Botanic Garden and University of Alberta) opened with
a discussion of diatom evidence  of  salinity,  lake-level,  and
climatic  change,  focusing on records from central Alberta. The
diatom stratigraphy of Goldeye Lake, a  possible  18  ka  record
from  western  Alberta,  outlines  an interval of high salinity,
supporting pollen evidence of pronounced  aridity.  Diatom  data
from central Alberta suggest that significant swings in salinity
and  lake-level  occurred  during the mid- Holocene, underlining
the potential  these  sensitive  indicators  of  the  hydrologic
budget have to document rapid environmental changes that may not
be  recorded  by palaeobotanical markers. S.A. Elias (University
of Colorado) followed with  a  summary  of  insect  evidence  of
palaeoenvironmental  conditions  in  Alaska.  At  18  ka, insect
remains indicate that, in contrast to dry, continental  climatic
conditions  in interior Alaska, southwestern Alaska and at least
central regions of the Bering Land Bridge were subject  to  more
mesic  conditions, supporting shrub-tundra communities. By 6 ka,
essentially modern  environmental  conditions  were  established
throughout  Alaska.  However,  spruce  (Picea)  forests  did not
arrive in lowland sites until 4200 BP, some 8000 years after the
time that insect evidence suggests  that  conditions  were  warm
enough  to  support spruce forest. I.R. Walker (Okanagan Univer-
sity College) ended the session with a review of  the  potential
chironomid remains have for reconstructing past climate. Results
from low elevation coastal sites tend to support palaeobotanical
inferences  of  a warm, dry early Holocene followed by the onset
of conditions similar to the present by 6 ka.  Current  research
foci  include analyses of sedimentary records from climatically-
sensitive saline lakes and high  elevation  tarns,  as  well  as
development   of  quantitative  models  for  palaeoclimatic  in-

Those who  wish  more  information  on  the  session  (including
abstracts  and addresses for all contributors) are encouraged to
contact either Robert Vance, Geological Survey of Canada,  3303-
33rd  St.  NW,  Calgary, AB T2L 2A7 Canada ( or
Ian Walker,  Okanagan  University  College,  3333  College  Way,
Kelowna, B.C. V1V 1V7 Canada (
(BEN # 113  24-September-1995)
From: "Clayton J. Antieau" <>

 ...connecting the Pacific Northwest (USA) Biological  Resources
and Ecological Restoration Community

Washington  State University Cooperative Extension is pleased to
announce the availability of PACIFIC-BIOSNET. PACIFIC-BIOSNET is
a free, moderated mailing list that  was  created  in  September
1995  to  serve  as a forum to provide information about and ex-
change ideas involving native plants, weeds, ecological restora-
tion, wetland science,  conservation,  and  biological  resource
regulation  and  management,  with emphasis on Pacific Northwest
issues. It's intended to be a comfortable, supportive place  for
subscribers  from all levels of expertise to express themselves,
seek information, and connect with others  with  similar  inter-
ests.  While  honest  differences of opinion are welcome, flames
and personal attacks are not. PACIFIC-BIOSNET features a  digest
version as well as a regular list and has all posts to it stored
by  topic. All posts will eventually be available on an ftp site
accessed via anonymous ftp.

To subscribe, please send your subscription request to:

In the body of the email message, type:

     subscribe pacific-biosnet Your_Real_Name

Owner/Moderator: Clayton J.  Antieau  (360-379-5610  ext.  204):
Washington  State  University  Cooperative  Extension--Jefferson
County 201 West Patison Port Hadlock, WA 98339-9751
(BEN # 113  24-September-1995)

A one day workshop is being planned to provide an opportunity to
hear  about  current  programs  and initiatives involving use of
native plants in British Columbia.

Where: Vernon, B.C.
When: Saturday, November 25, 1995
Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Cost: The workshop will be free but you will have to pay your
      own travel costs.

Proposed agenda:
Morning: Short presentations about native plants by agencies and

Afternoon: Workshops on
      Native plant biology and seed collection
      Native plant propagation and culture
      Species uses and programs involving native plants
      Formation of a BC Native Plants Council

For information and registration contact:
Diane  Gertzen,  Nursery  and  Seed Services Branch, Ministry of
Forests, 14275-96th Ave., Surrey, B.C., V3V 7Z2, Phone: 604-930-
3309, FAX: 604-775-1288
(BEN # 114  9-October-1995)

For his treatment of the genus Papaver for the  Flora  of  North
America,  D.F. Murray made one new nomenclatural combination and
validated two names  previously  published  by  Randel:  Papaver
radicatum  subsp.  kluanensis (D. Love) D.F. Murray, P. macounii
subsp. discolor (Hulten) Randel ex D.F. Murray, and P. nudicaule
subsp. americanum Randel ex D.F. Murray.

Murray, D.F.  1995.  New  names  in  Papaver  section  Meconella
      (Papaveraceae). - Novon 5: 294-295.
(BEN # 114  9-October-1995)

A unique opportunity to study conditions for plant growth at the
onset  of  glaciation  was  offered  as  a retreating glacier at
Ellesmere Island,  Canada,  revealed  well-preserved,  subfossil
plants  of  Cassiope tetragona (that lived between 1485 and 1610
AD). Predictions based on regression between modern  plant  per-
formance  and  climatic  data from the study site imply that the
mean temperature of the period immediately preceding the glacia-
tion of the area was about 0.7 deg. C  lower  than  today.  This
estimate  is  independently supported by the correlation between
growth and mean July  temperature  seen  today  among  different
sites.  The result supports the idea that the pre-Little Ice Age
plants were killed suddenly by permanent snow embedment and  not
by the glacial movements or temperature limitations.

Havstrom,  M.  T.V.  Callaghan, S. Jonasson, & J. Svoboda. 1995.
      Little Ice Age temperature estimated by growth and flower-
      ing  differences  bewteen  subfossil and  extant shoots of 
      Cassiope tetragona, an arctic heather.
      Functional Ecology 9: 650-654.
(BEN # 114  9-October-1995)
From: Janice M. Glime <>

I have been encouraged by Gillis Een to  use  the  old  name  of
Bryonet-l  (note that it is an l as in liverwort, not the number
one) for this list serve for bryologists. My  intention  was  to
join  the  bryophyte  ecologists  and provide a forum for asking
questions and discussion, particularly to benefit all  the  iso-
lated  graduate students and faculty around the world. Of course
all systematists are welcome, and even an occasional systematics
question will be welcome, but my primary purpose  was  to  serve
the  other  areas  of  bryology. Non-bryologists who want to ask
bryological questions or to tap into the discussions are welcome
to take advantage of the net. So, Bryonet-l is up and running.

If you want to subscribe:
mail to:
  no subject
  subscribe bryonet-l

Do not include your email address. Majordomo will take  it  from
your  mail.  You should get a message back telling you about the
bryonet-l and how to unsubscribe.

Address of the owner: Janice M. Glime, Department of  Biological
Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931-
e-mail:, phone: 906-487-2546, FAX 906-487-3167
(BEN # 114  9-October-1995)

Johnson,  D.,  L. Kershaw, A. MacKinnon & J. Pojar. 1995. Plants
of the western boreal  forest  and  aspen  parkland.  Lone  Pine
Publishing and Canadian Forest Service, Edmonton. 392 p. ISBN 1-
55105-058-7 [softcover] CDN$24.95, US$19.95

The book includes more than 800 colour photographs and about 900
line drawings of plants from the boreal zone. It covers the area
from Alaska, Yukon, British Columbia to western Ontario.

The book is the third in the series of very popular field guides
[cf.  BEN  #  31  and BEN # 76]. When I opened the book I got an
impression that the authors ignored botanical literature of  the
last  thirty  years,  because  the  nomenclature and taxonomy of
vascular plants seemed rather rusty and obsolete.  I  found  the
explanation  of  this in the Introduction - Plant Names: "Scien-
tific names largely  follow  Scoggan  (1978-1979)  for  vascular
plants,  ... " The authors even had the nerves to write "The bog
orchids, for example, are placed in the genus Habenaria  [mostly
a tropical genus - AC] in this book, while other works may refer
to  this genus as Platanthera [a circumpolar genus - AC]." In my
review of the "Coastal Plants..." [BEN # 76] I pointed out  that
the  complexity  of  taxonomy  and  nomenclature  was  too  much
simplified with the phrase "Also known as ..." In  this  volume,
"Also  called  ..." often refers to a correct, commonly accepted
scientific name (e.g., "Also called  Orthilia  secunda").  I  am
sorry  to  say that the choice of Scoggan's Flora of Canada as a
standard reference for scientific names was a grave mistake.

I like and admire the format of these field guides. The  content
is presented in fresh way, combining colour photographs and text
with  keys,  line  drawings,  tree  and leaf silhouettes, etc. I
missed the comparison tables in  this  volume.  One  interesting
feature   has  been  added:  175  small  colour  photographs  of
"wildflowers" that enable users to identify the family and  send
them to a proper section of the guide.

The publisher has a toll-free phone number: 1-800-661-9017 and a
toll-free FAX number: 1-800-424-7173.
(BEN # 114  9-October-1995)
From: Brother Eric Vogel <>

Brother Alfred Brousseau F.S.C. (1908-1988) made a collection of
35mm  color  slides  of  Native  Wildflowers of California which
consists of over 20,000 slides of over 2,000 species. The object
of this project is to make this material available to  all.  The
project  if a not-for-profit one and asks for a donation to help
defray the production costs.

The first output of this project is  in  the  form  of  CD-ROM's
containing  2,000  pictures  of  665  species  of flowers. These
pictures were scanned using a Barneyscan and saved as 8 bit PICT
files for use on the MAC and changed to 8 bit TIFF files for the
DOS version. It is intended to  continue  this  project  in  the
attempt to make Brother Alfred's complete collection available.

Native  Wildflowers  of California CD-ROM, containing 2,000 pic-
tures of 665 species of wildflowers, indexed and  classified  is
now available for IBM compatible machines (as well as for Macin-
tosh)  Since this is not-for profit project, we are asking for a
$35.00 donation for each CD. Make checks  payable  to  Brousseau
Project  and  send them to Brother Eric Vogel, Saint Mary's Col-
lege, POB 5150, Moraga, CA, 94575. Be sure to state  which  ver-
sion you wish.
(BEN # 114  9-October-1995)

From: Terry Taylor c/o Rosemary Taylor <>
The discussion on the value of common names is interesting. Yes,
I  believe  mosses and lichens should have common names, but not
necessarily always to the species level. In order  to  slow  the
rate  of  species loss a much greater appreciation and knowledge
of the natural world must be  created  than  the  abysmally  low
level  that now prevails. The general awareness and value placed
on cryptogams is almost non-existent. However, I  am  frequently
asked  the  name  for a moss or lichen, and a reply such as rock
tripe or belly button lichen receives a  much  better  reception
than  Umbilicaria.  The  genus or family level is probably close
enough, as anybody wanting more information than this  is  prob-
ably already using species names. The examples presented against
English   names  are  certainly  ludicrous,  but  many  resource
managers also do not identify with Latin names, and these people
make decisions regarding preservation, whether  botanists  agree
with  this  or not, so species level English names may be advan-
tageous for forestry and similar inventories. The use of English
names for birds seems to be accepted by professionals,  although
there are certainly fewer taxa involved.

From: "Alexej B. Borkovec" <>
More  than  three cheers to you for your subject article. I am a
biochemist and just a very amateurish botanist who  nevertheless
is  greatly  bothered  with  these  mostly idiotic pseudo-common
names. Thank you very much. Regards, Alexej (Sasha) Borkovec

From: Elisabeth Harmon <> [abbrev.]
Your article was forwarded to my list,  where  I  read  it  with
great  amusement  and  chagrin.  For  many years my husband, the
grandson of a professor of botany,  has  refused  to  use  Latin
names.  He  is  totally  confused  by  case. His mother, an avid
horticulturist from birth, always uses botanical Latin. While  I
must  say  that  California  poppy  is  a lot easier to say than
*Eschscholtzia californica maritima*, it becomes ridiculous when
you add it to the yellow-one-with-gold-in-the-middle.

The public, American and otherwise, are most strongly influenced
by the media. Unfortunately, I have not heard of any  grants  to
shows  or  magazines to teach children Latin or botanical flower
names. Yes, that's where a change would have to start. Databases
with correct spelling would have  to  become  available  in  the
computers these children have at school. Botanical gardens would
have to use the correct plant names for their children's garden-
ing  classes.  And  someone,  would  have  to get the whole ball
(BEN # 114  9-October-1995)
From: Dr. Pekka Pakarinen <PAKARINEN@cc.Helsinki.FI>

The  latest issue of Vegetatio (1995, Vol. 118:1-192), edited by
C.M. Finlayson and A.G. van der Valk, contains  the  proceedings
of  a  symposium  'Classification  and  inventory of the world's
wetlands' held at the IV International  Wetlands  Conference  in
Columbus,  Ohio,  USA,  in  1992.  Wetland  and  peatland class-
ification systems and the  status  of  wetland  inventories  are
discussed in fourteen articles:

- Scott, D.A.  &  Jones,  T.A.:  Classification and inventory of
  wetlands: A global overview.

  There is a need for a simple global classification system.  It
  is  suggested  that the Ramsar classification system should be
  adopted generally for international purposes.

- Hughes, J.M.R.: The current status of European wetland  inven-
  tories and classifications.

  The  status  of European wetland inventories is summarized for
  44 countries. The total area of designated Ramsar wetlands  in
  Europe in 1994 was 7.4 Mha.

- Pakarinen,  P.:  Classification of boreal mires in Finland and
  Scandinavia: A review.

  The paper reviews the development of peatland  classifications
  in  Fennoscandia  (Finland, Sweden, Norway), with a discussion
  on circumboreal classification  and  corresponding  vegetation
  types in Canada.

- Gopal, B. & Sah, M.:  Inventory and classification of wetlands
  in India.

  We propose a hierarchical classification of wetlands based  on
  their  location,  salinity,  physiognomy, duration of flooding
  and the growth forms of the dominant vegetation.

- Lu, J.: Ecological significance and classification of  Chinese

  Natural  wetlands are classified into three main groups: coas-
  tal and estuarine wetlands, riverine and lacustrine  wetlands,
  and  peat  bogs. Artificial wetlands include four types: paddy
  fields, aquatic culture ponds, water storage  reservoirs,  and
  salt  pans.  The total extent of wetlands in each province has
  been estimated.

- Taylor, A.R.D., Howard, G.W. & Begg, G.W.: Developing  wetland
  inventories in Southern Africa: A review.

  The  status  of  wetland  inventories and availability of data
  sources is reviewed for the ten countries of southern Africa.

- Pressey, R.L. & Adam, P.: A review of  wetland  inventory  and
  classification in Australia.

  Past and current approaches in Australia are reviewed, and the
  issue of a global classification scheme is discussed.

- Semeniuk, C.A. & Semeniuk, V.: A geomorphic approach to global
  classification for inland wetlands.

  A  geomorphic classification on criteria other than vegetation
  is proposed, based on their host landform and degree  of  wet-

- Naranjo,  L.G.:  An evaluation of the first inventory of South
  American wetlands.

  The paper evaluates the  reliability  of  the  South  American
  wetlands  inventory  and its impact on wetland conservation in
  South America during the last six years.

- Zoltai, S.C. & Vitt, D.H.:  Canadian  wetlands:  Environmental
  gradients and classification.

  For peatlands, the primary division should be acidic Sphagnum-
  dominated  bogs  and  poor  fens  on  one hand and brown moss-
  dominated rich fens on the other.  Non  peat-forming  wetlands
  lack  the  well-developed  bryophyte  ground layer of fens and

- Cowardin, L.M. & Golet, F.C.: US  Fish  and  Wildlife  Service
  1979 wetland classification: A review.

  We review the performance of the classification after 13 years
  of  use. The classification structure consists of five hierar-
  chic  levels.  The  principal  problem  areas  are   discussed
  (definition  of  wetland,  definition  of classification taxa,
  lack of basic ecological data, limitations of remote sensing).

- Wilen, B.O. & Bates, M.K.: The US Fish and Wildlife  Service's
  National Wetlands Inventory Project.
  The  current  status  of the National Wetland Inventory in the
  conterminous US and Alaska is described, with information also
  of the availability of  inventory  products  (list  of  hydric
  soils, list of wetland plant species, map reports and bibliog-
  raphic listings).

- Novitzki,  R.P.:  EMAP-Wetlands: A sampling design with global

  The wetland component  of  the  Environmental  Monitoring  and
  Assessment Program (EMAP) of the U.S. Environmental Protection
  Agency  (EPA)  is designed to provide quantitative assessments
  of the current status and long-term trends in  the  ecological
  condition of wetland resources.

- Finlayson,  C.M. & van der Valk, A.G.:  Wetland classification
  and inventory: A summary.

  An international committee under the auspices of  an  interna-
  tional  agency  (e.g.  IWRB,  Ramsar Bureau, IUCN) needs to be
  established to develop a classification system and  guidelines
  for carrying out a complete inventory of the world's wetlands.
(BEN # 115  10-October-1995)
From: Dr. Brian D. Compton <>

Compton,  Brian  D. 1995. "Ghost's ears" (Exobasidium sp. affin.
      vaccinii) and fool's huckleberries  (Menziesia  ferruginea
      Smith):  a  unique  report of mycophagy on the central and
      north coasts of British Columbia. Journal of  Ethnobiology

Exobasidium  spores may infect the leaves, stems, and flowers of
fool's huckleberry or false azalea, resulting in organ  deforma-
tion  and  hypertrophic  growth that accompanies fungal develop-
ment.  Eventually  the  fungus  sporulates  on  the  surface  of
mycocecidia  (fungal  galls)  that range from 1-2 cm in size and
are somewhat berry-like (i.e.,  globular,  somewhat  sweet,  and
crisp). The mycocecidium produces a whitish bloom when sporulat-
ing, but the immature structure may be pale rose to purplish.

The  cultural  roles of mycocecidia (fungal galls) of the fungus
Exobasidium sp. affin. vaccinii on  Menziesia  ferruginea  Smith
(false  azalea,  or  fool's  huckleberry)  among various Pacific
northwest coast cultures are identified and discussed.  As  many
as nine distinct coastal groups named and ate these mycocecidia.
These  galls  were occasionally eaten fresh when they were found
but there is no evidence that they were gathered or prepared  in
any  way.  Among at least three coastal groups, the Henaaksiala,
Heiltsuk, and Tsimshian, the mycocecidia had mythological impor-
(BEN # 115  10-October-1995)
From: Toby Spribille

We are working on establishing a small  herbarium  in  northwest
Montana  and  are  interested in the possibilities of exchanging
specimens with other herbaria for the purpose  of  stocking  our
collection of Carex, Vaccinium and other genera. We have miscel-
laneous  material  collected  in  northwest  Montana,  including
vascular plants, lichens and bryophytes  (quite  a  few  of  the
latter, in fact).

We  are  particularly interested in material from other parts of
Montana, as well as  Idaho,  Washington,  British  Columbia  and
Alberta.  If anyone is interested in exchanging material, please
let me know. Unfortunately, we are not yet listed in  the  Index
Herbariorum, but intend to do so soon.

   Toby Spribille
   North Zone Herbarium
   Fortine Ranger District
   P.O. Box 116
   Fortine, MT 59918
(BEN # 115  10-October-1995)

From: Bianca Davis <davise@BLUE.CS.NYU.EDU>
I suppose you will be getting a  great  many  responses,  but  I
wanted  to  let  you know how much I enjoyed your article, which
Tom Stuart posted on Alpine-L.  I  am  a  botanical  artist  and
illustrator  and  gardener, not a botanist. But without correct,
universal scientific names I would be lost. More and more  books
are substituting pseudo-common names in their indexes and texts,
and  this  makes doing research more time-consuming for me, as I
don't just use keys and floras. Often my research  must  include
standard texts written for gardeners and other such materials.

Even at exhibits organized by botanical illustrators and artists
I will be asked to supply common names for plants that really do
not  have  one.  Some of the plants I draw and paint are alpines
from remote regions. Perhaps the  yak  herders  or  nomads  have
cutest  common names for these things -- often I feel like tell-
ing people to hike up there themselves and  find  out.  Ha!  And
isn't  is "imperialism" for *us* to be making up names for these
plants anyway? Shouldn't the locals have a say?

It is so wonderful for me to be able to consult  a  flora  in  a
language  I  don't  read,  but can use, because the names are in
Latin, and I can piece the rest together...

You say we should take botany out of the kindergarten. I say the
opposite. As you point out, children have no problem with  these
things.  Before  my four year old nephew moved on to an interest
in the Revolutionary War, he had successfully memorized hundreds
of scientific names of dinosaurs and other creatures. Botany  is
not  taught  in  schools, but it used to be. Children and adults
could also draw, to some degree or other,  what  they  saw,  and
this  is  a  great  way  to  learn  about a plant. People cannot
respect or care for what they have never  been  taught  to  take
seriously  or  understand. I know many people who consider them-
selves "environmentalists" who don't know the name of  a  single
plant--they  consider  all  plants  silly  flowers.  The schools
should teach botany from a young age, and teach children how  to
draw  and  paint  what they see. Then maybe even PBS would start
having some serious programs about plants, not just animals.

I am also a gardener. As you can see, my perspective is  one  of
an amateur and layperson. Many gardeners are somewhat hostile to
botanists.  They find keys intimidating. (They need more usable,
gardener oriented keys.) But at  least  rock  gardeners  have  a
respect  for  the  names of their plants! I have no problem with
common names for truly common plants. Tasha Tudor  is  perfectly
free to call her violas whatever she likes, just as I am free to
call  my dogs all sorts of weird names. The problem comes when I
start asking everyone I know to learn all that stuff, put it  in
books,  rewrite  things, and remember that I don't call my dog a
dog, I call him a teddy bear.

Long live botany, botanists, and scientific names.  As  I  said,
I'd  be  lost  without them--literally,I could not do my job. So
thanks, and good luck. - Bianca

From: Bob Simmonds <>
A reply to Dr. Weber: While I can understand  your  position,  I
think there are other points to be considered. In today's educa-
tional  system,  the  number  of students learning Latin is very
small, and the number learning Classical Greek essentially zero.
During my teaching career (in geology) I found it  necessary  to
offer  a mini-course on the meanings of common Greco-Latin roots
in scientific terminology. While the meaning of eg "Eohippus" is
immediately obvious to me, it might as well be Martian to  most,
and  labelling  the  beast  as  "Dawn Horse" is far more helpful
(Yes, i am aware that the name is  no  longer  valid,  and  that
illustrates a problem with the scientific keeps
changing  as  earlier references turn up...witness the demise of
"Brontosaurus".) Furthermore, most vascular  plants,  at  least,
*have*  common  names in areas where the population is gatherers
who have been in place for a long time. It would seem only  fair
to use these names, at least on the specific level.

From: Weber William A <weberw@spot.Colorado.EDU>
Probably  I  should  have  pointed  out  that  I  use scientific
nomenclature to teach these benighted people the meanings of the
words in their own  English  language!  I  also  have  no  gripe
against  using common names that have grown up within a culture.
But even these are not usable when you are talking to a  Chinese
or Russian or even a Swedish friend.

In  the  Boulder  Camera  at  the  beginning  of  August 1995, a
quotable quote: Astronomer  Carl  Sagan,  in  his  first  public
appearance  since  undergoing a bone marrow transplant in April,
telling a Seattle audience that adults  are  sending  the  wrong
messages  to  kids: "One trend that bothers me is the glorifica-
tion of stupidity, that the media are reassuring people it's all
right to know nothing, that in a way it's cool. That  to  me  is
far more dangerous than a little pornography on the Internet."
(BEN # 115  10-October-1995)
From: "Brian D. Compton" <>

Compton,  Brian D. 1995. Puffballs from the past: identification
      of gasteromycetes from a Lillooet archaeological site  and
      speculation   regarding  their  aboriginal  use.  Canadian
      Journal of Archaeology 19:154-159.

Abstract: Puffballs representing three  species  in  two  genera
(Abstoma  reticulatum,  Bovista dakotensis and B. tomentosa) are
reported from an archaeological site  in  the  traditional  ter-
ritory of the Lillooet, one of the Indigenous Peoples of British
Columbia.  These fungi are presumed to represent human-collected
materials that arrived in British Columbia by way of  aboriginal
trade  from  the South or East. Their cultural roles likely were
mythological, medicinal, talismanic or shamanistic.
(BEN # 116  19-October-1995)
From: "S. Talbot" <>

Talbot, S. S., S. L. Talbot, and S. L.  Welsh.  1995.  Botanical
      Reconnaissance   of   Tuxedni   Wilderness  Area,  Alaska.
      Biological Science Report 6. U.S. Department of the  Inte-
      rior, National Biological Service, Washington, D.C. 41 p.

Abstract:  The  vascular  flora  of  two small maritime islands,
Chisik and Duck Island (2,302 ha), comprising Tuxedni Wilderness
Area in western lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, was recorded to deter-
mine species composition where few previous collections had been
reported. The field study was conducted  in  sites  selected  to
represent the totality of environmental variation within Tuxedni
Wilderness  Area.  A  total  of 290 species -- 279 native and 11
introduced  --  was  identified.  To   provide   a   comparative
phytogeographic  framework,  we  analyzed  data  from  published
reports that categorized vascular  plant  distribution  patterns
from  circumpolar, North American, and Alaskan perspectives. The
flora of Tuxedni Wilderness primarily includes species  of  cir-
cumpolar  (36.6%),  eastern  Asian  (22.9%)  and  North American
(20.4%) distributions. The most important longitudinal distribu-
tional classes within North America consist of  transcontinental
(59.9%) and extreme western species (32.2%). The distribution of
Tuxedni species in latitudinal zones peaks in the high subarctic
and  low  subarctic and gradually decreases from the low to high
arctic. The annotated list of species in the Tuxedni  Wilderness
Area  expands  the  known range for many species, filling a dis-
tributional gap within Hulten's Central Pacific Coast  district.
Forty-four  range  extensions  are  reported.  Latitudinal  zone
comparison based on the Raunkiaer  life-form  spectrum  suggests
the  flora of the Tuxedni Wilderness Area is closest to the high
subarctic zone. Key words: Coastal,  life  form,  middle  boreal
zone, phytogeographic, upper oroboreal zone, vascular flora.

The  publication is available free of charge and may be obtained
by writing: Stephen Talbot, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011
East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503
(BEN # 116  19-October-1995)
From: David Silverberg <silverberg@IGC.APC.ORG>

In September 1995, The School for Field  Studies  opened  a  new
Centre  in  Barkley  and  Clayoquot  Sounds,  British  Columbia,
Canada. It is registered with the Private Post-Secondary  Educa-
tion  Commission  of  British  Columbia.  The  Centre focuses on
sustainable ecosystem management of  natural  resources  in  the
coastal  zone. The main campus of the school is in Bamfield with
extensive field work  and  teaching  in  Barkley  and  Clayoquot

The School for Field Studies is one of the largest private post-
secondary experiential educational institutions designed to give
students the opportunity to contribute to critical environmental
management  issues  in various ecosystems (BC, Australia, Kenya,
Costa Rica, South Cacos). The Centre is staffed with a director,
three full-time resident faculty  (Forest  Resource  Specialist,
Coastal Ecologist, Resource Economist), several adjunct off-site
faculty  (First  Nations Resource Sociologist, Salmon Biologist,
Forest Policy Expert), four graduate interns,  one  student  af-
fairs  manager,  one site manager, assistant site manager, and a
satellite logistics coordinator.  The  Centre  offers  fall  and
spring  semester  programs,  as  well  as  two  four-week summer
programs. Each program has 32 student participants. Courses  are
accredited  through Boston University and the student's Canadian
or US  home  institution.  Faculty  are  approved  as  lecturers
through Boston University. Faculty are required to live on-site.
Room and board are provided by SFS.

The  Forest Resource Specialist Faculty will address sustainable
ecosystem management.  Professional  interests  should  include:
forest   and   wildlife  management;  landscape-scale  ecosystem
management principles, forest and fisheries  planning,  alterna-
tive  forest  models  in the context of sustainable development,
social forestry, forest ecology,  resource  sociology,  Canadian
and British Columbian provincial land-use management.

The faculty position requires a dedicated educator who is facile
with   interdisciplinary   analysis  combining  management  with
methodological insights from the fields of  resource  management
and natural sciences. A familiarity with landscape-scale ecosys-
tem  management  principles  and the history of British Columbia
land use management are essential.

Faculty own a portfolio which includes the  supervision  of  one
case  study,  their  participation  in  two  other  related case
studies and the supervision of 10 community identified  directed
research  projects  each  semester.  Lectures,  workshops, labs,
field trips are utilized  within  discussion-oriented  decision-
based   case   studies.  In  addition  faculty  offer  community
workshops and lectures based on needs assessments.

Requirements: Ph.D. or Masters Degree with at least  four  years
of  practitioner/applied  experience.  Relevant  work/living  in
British Columbia or similar temperate coastal  zone  ecosystems.
At  least  2 years teaching at the undergraduate level with full
course responsibility, a demonstrated commitment and passion  to
innovative  teaching  programs,  experience working with applied
conservation/management issues in a diverse  community  context,
proven  leadership  skills  in a start-up institution, desire to
facilitate education of highly motivated students, wit and  good
humor in an intensive, immersion educational setting.

For  more  information  or  to  apply, please call or e-mail/fax
cover letter, CV and 3 references  (addresses  and  e-mail/phone
numbers) to:

   Dr. David Silverberg, Director
   School for Field Studies
   GPO Bamfield
   British Columbia V0R 1B0
   604-728-2390 phone; 604-728-2391 fax
(BEN # 116  19-October-1995)
From: Dr. Brenda Callan <BCALLAN@PFC.Forestry.CA>

During  a fungal biodiversity workshop Oct. 15-19, 1995, at USDA
Headquarters in Beltsville, MD., a presentation  and  discussion
session  on herbarium curation was led by Dr. Quixan Wu from the
Field Museum in Chicago. Freeze-drying as a preservation  method
for   fungal  herbarium  specimens  was  discussed.  Mycologists
present at the workshop agreed that this technique was  unsatis-
factory for a number of reasons:

 1. Freeze-dried fungi retain their macroscopic features such as
    color  and  form for a few years, but are extremely fragile,
    and soon break into  small  unrecognizable  fragments  after
    normal use.

 2. Freeze-dried  fungal  tissue  disintegrates  and  loses both
    macroscopic and  microscopic  morphological  features  after

Conventional  drying methods (40 C in a drying oven) often cause
shrinking, and some discoloration and distortion of  macroscopic
features  of  fungi. However, the resulting specimens are struc-
turally stronger and thus less  likely  to  break  apart  during
subsequent  examination, and important key microscopic features,
such as spore morphology, remain constant and rehydrate  beauti-
fully  even  in  very  old  collections.  A conventionally-dried
fungus accompanied by good field notes is a far better long-term
investment than a freeze-dried collection.

Traditionally, fungal herbarium accessions  are  microscopically
examined  either  by  using  preserved  slides included with the
specimen, or by sectioning and  rehydrating  a  small  piece  of
tissue.  The  latter  technique  does not work with most freeze-
dried specimens, whose tissues collapse upon rehydration.
(BEN # 117  2-November-1995)
From: Dr. Stephan Helfer <S.Helfer@RBGE.ORG.UK>

For the past few years I have been working on the  taxonomy  and
floristics of rust fungi (and some powdery mildews). During this
work  it  has struck me how little co-operation there is between
higher plant collectors and plant pathologists.

Most botanists collect the cleanest specimens they can find, and
some pathologists only collect infected parts  of  host  plants,
making  it near impossible for the botanists to identify them to
any detail. Both sides are thereby losing out: the botanist,  as
many  biotrophic  parasites  are  very  host  specific,  and the
presence of e.g. a rust  can  help  with  the  identification  /
taxonomy  of  a plant; and the pathologist plainly because valu-
able information can not be provided.

I therefore propose that specimen collectors of both disciplines
keep  in  mind  the   interests   and   needs   of   the   other
discipline.They  can  thereby  help themselves and each other as
well as the community as a whole.
(BEN # 117  2-November-1995)
From: Jari Oksanen <> (from bionet.plants)

Nordic scientists are perhaps the greatest  sinners  in  coining
"colloquial"  or  "vernacular"  names  which  are  used  only in
academic papers.  Special  committees  of  botanists  have  been
working  in  Finland  to  invent  names for macrofungi, lichens,
mosses, hepatics, etc. Similar efforts have been made in  Norway
and  Sweden  as  well.  These  lists  are  usually  regarded  as
authoritative, and if someone uses other names  (e.g.  genuinely
vernacular  or  colloquial names) the person is accused of using
"wrong" or "unofficial" names. Since the scientific community is
small and living in a compact  geographic  area,  the  "correct"
usage of national names can be controlled.

Personally,  I  find very difficult to understand why all plants
should have national names, especially when only a few people in
the whole country know those plants. When  you  write  "jauhepi-
karitorvijakala",     "karheatorvijakala"    or    "ruskopikari-
torvijakala", it is  guaranteed  that  nobody  understands  you.
Those people who know these organisms have to check in some name
list  that  they  are  Cladonia  chlorophaea, Cladonia grayi and
Cladonia pyxidata (I could not find a Finnish name for  Cladonia
merochlorophaea,  but  it  might  by something like "jyvapikari-
torvijakala"). Those people who don't  know  these  plants  (the
vast majority of Finns) won't know their Finnish names either.

One  of  the funniest cases I've met was an article in a Finnish
conservation magazine on Aphyllophorales. The article used  only
Finnish names. However, those Finnish names were invented by the
author  of  the  article,  and  had  not been published anywhere
(later they were published, I believe).  So  it  was  guaranteed
that  only  the  closest  friends  of the author could know what
these fungi were. However, the idea was that  a  general  reader
was  not disturbed by cumbersome Latin names - it was not impor-
tant that these names had no meaning to any reader.

In Finland the botany students still have  to  learn  the  Latin
names  (except  in  some  basic courses). However, it seems that
here in Norway only national names are taught to  students  (and
many  species  have  two  national  names:  one in both official
Norwegian languages). I've moved recently from Finland  to  Nor-
way,  and  I  think this is a problem when discussing with young
generation Norwegian botanists or students.
(BEN # 117  2-November-1995)
From: Web pages at

World  outrage  tinged  with  despair greeted the news on Friday
November 10, 1995 that Nigeria's  best-known  human  rights  ac-
tivist  Ken  Saro-Wiwa  and  eight  of  his  colleagues had been

Saro-Wiwa, who was a  successful  writer  and  businessman,  was
leader  of the Movement for the Survival of Ogoni peoples, which
had campaigned against the pollution and exploitation  of  their
land  by  multinational oil companies - especially the Shell Co.
Ken Saro-Wiwa was a recipient of the Goldman Environmental Prize
and was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize.

Leaders at the  Commonwealth  summit  in  Auckland,  angered  at
General  Abacha's  disregard of their pleas for clemency, agreed
to  suspend  Nigeria  immediately  from  the  Commonwealth.  The
country now has two years to embrace democracy or face permanent

You can find more on Web pages at

Also  on  that  site  is a transcript of The Drilling Fields and
condemnation from writers around the world in  an  article  from
PEN  International,  press  releases  from  the  Ogoni Community
Association in London (including a plea  from  Saro-Wiwa's  son,
Ken Wiwa, calling for international action to stop the execution
of  his  father)  and Greenpeace statements. We have also inter-
viewed Glen Ellis, Director of the Drilling Fields - the  award-
winning TV documentary that helped bring the exploitation of the
Ogoni  land  and  people by Shell and the military government to
the world's attention.
(BEN # 118  14-November-1995)
From: Bryce Kendrick <bkendric@sol.UVic.CA>

Taylor, T. N., W. Remy, H. Hass & H. Kerp. 1995.  Fossil  arbus-
      cular  mycorrhizae  from the early Devonian. Mycologia 87:

This paper reports the first unequivocal evidence of  arbuscules
in  a presumably mutualistic endomycorrhizal symbiosis. Although
vesicles closely resembling  those  of  modern  VAM  (vesicular-
arbuscular  mycorrhiza)  fungi  have previously been reported in
fossils in the Rhynie Chert, the  photomicrographs  illustrating
this  paper are the first to show the truly diagnostic structure
of endomycorrhizal fungi, the arbuscule. Arbuscules  are  finely
branched,  tree-like  fungal structures that are produced inside
cells of the host root cortex, and it is these  structures  that
form  the  vital  interface between fungus and plant. Now fossil
material of Aglaophyton from the Devonian has  been  found  con-
taining  both vesicles and arbuscules. On the strength of these,
a  new  genus,  Glomites,  has  been  described  as  the  fossil
homologue  of  the  modern  genus Glomus. In the opinion of this
abstractor (BK) the VAM fungi must now surely be  recognized  as
among  the  most conservative of all eukaryotic organisms, since
their morphology has changed little if at  all  in  400  million
(BEN # 118  14-November-1995)

List of WWW Sites of Interest to Botanists (mirror)

List WWW Sites of Interest to Ecologists (mirror)

The  long  file ("A Collection of Botany Related URLs") with all
the links will still be available in Helsinki:

The menu page for the new system is at:

A large collection of forestry links is  available  at  the  WWW
Virtual library for Forestry at

Indices Nominum Supragenericorum Plantarum Vascularium:

A New Palaeo-Ecosystem Atlas and literature review on the web:

Cambridge University Press has established a WWW site:

The Quaternary Research Association now has a WWW page at:

Environment Canada's WWW server:

The  National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) is an
initiative of the NBS to foster the development of a distributed
electronic network of biological data and information maintained
by a variety of Federal and State government  agencies,  univer-
sities,  museums, libraries, and private organizations. The NBII
is available on the Internet:

The TAXACOM List Archive is also indexed  by  date,  author  and
thread,  and is conveniently browsable as a Word Wide Web Hyper-
mail archive:

Missouri Botanical Garden has expanded web resources:
(BEN # 118  14-November-1995)
From: ASPT Newsletter Volume 9(4) October 1995

Rexford  F.  Daubenmire,  a  widely-recognized  expert  in plant
ecology, died at his home in  Mount  Plymouth,  FL,  USA  on  26
August 1995. Dr. Daubenmire was born in Coldwater, OH, USA on 12
December  1909.  He  received  a  bachelor's  degree from Butler
University, Indianapolis, IN, USA in  1930;  a  master's  degree
from  the  University  of Colorado in 1932; and a doctorate from
the University of Minnesota in 1935.

He taught at the University of Idaho for 10 years and  then,  in
1946,   joined  the  Washington  State  University  faculty.  He
remained at the university in Pullman for 29  years  and  became
professor emeritus of botany after his retirement.

Dr.  Daubenmire's  research  involved classifying the forest and
grassland  vegetation  of  the  Pacific  Northwest.  His  class-
ification scheme, once considered radical, emphasized the poten-
tial  vegetation of an area, rather than what vegetation existed
after human intervention. Two of his books, Plants and  Environ-
ment:  A  Textbook  of  Plant  Autecology  (1947) and Plant Com-
munities: A Textbook of Plant Synecology (1968) served as stand-
ard reference texts for university students.

Dr. Daubenmire is survived by his wife and a daughter.--
(Abstracted from The New York Times, 8 September 1995).
(BEN # 119  28-November-1995)
From: Jenifer Parsons <>

On  June  1,  1995,  Hydrilla  verticillata  was  discovered  in
Washington State. Hydrilla is an aggressive  non-native  aquatic
plant  which  will out-compete native plants if given the oppor-
tunity. Where it has become established (in the southern  United
States  as  far  north  as  Delaware and west to California) its
rapid growth has radically changed  aquatic  environments.  Mil-
lions  of  dollars are spent each year attempting to control its
growth. Because this is the first known population  of  Hydrilla
in the Pacific Northwest, aggressive action was taken to attempt
its eradication.

The  Hydrilla  population is located in the 73 acre Pipe/Lucerne
lake system in southern  King  County,  approximately  20  miles
southeast  of  Seattle.  Identification  was  confirmed  by  the
presence of distinguishing tubers and  through  enzyme  analysis
conducted  at  the University of California in Davis. The enzyme
analysis also indicated that this  Hydrilla  population  is  the
monoecious  variety. The plants were well distributed throughout
the lake, but are still in a pioneering stage. After  the  iden-
tification  was confirmed, the State Department of Ecology began
working closely with personnel from King  County  Surface  Water
Management  Division  to decide on plan of action. The following
sequence of events ensued:

 -  A public meeting was held for community members, attended by
    more than 100 people.  At  the  same  time  the  media  were
    notified,  and  several  television  stations and newspapers
    reported on the problems.

 -  The Aquatic  Plant  Management  Society  held  their  annual
    meeting  in  Bellevue,  Washington in early July. A Hydrilla
    Task Force was formed from  the  scientists  attending  this
    meeting,  all  of  whom  have  had  experience  dealing with
    Hydrilla in other parts  of  the  country.  The  Task  Force
    recommended  treating  the  lake with aquatic herbicides and
    stocking sterile grass carp to eradicate the plant.  Quaran-
    tining  the  lakes,  screening the outlet, and posting signs
    about Hydrilla were also encouraged.

 -  An experienced dive team  was  hired  to  map  the  Hydrilla
    population  and  to  survey  several lakes near Pipe/Lucerne
    Lake to see if the plant had spread. No other populations of
    Hydrilla have been found.

 -  An emergency rule was developed to list Hydrilla as Class  A
    weed in the State Noxious Weed List. This provides the State
    with more authority to control the plant.

 -  The  lakes  were  treated  with a systemic aquatic herbicide
    during August and September. The objective was to weaken the
    plant before they began setting tubers (which  happens  when
    day length shorten to less than 13 hours).

 -  Another public meeting was held in the fall of 1995. At that
    time,  the  Hydrilla  looked weakened, and what small tubers
    were produced did not appear viable.

Successful eradication  of  this  plant  will  be  a  long  term
project. Decisions will be made late next spring when the plants
begin  growth  whether  to  continue  with herbicide treatments,
stock sterile grass carp, or both.

Jenifer Parsons, Washington State Department of Ecology,
Environmental Investigations and Laboratory Services Program,
P.O. Box 47710, Olympia, WA 98504-7710; phone: 360-407-6679,
FAX: 360-407-6884; e-mail:
(BEN # 119  28-November-1995)

Goward, T., B. Goffinet, & O. Vitikanen. 1995. Synopsis  of  the
      genus Peltigera (lichenized Ascomycetes) in British Colum-
      bia,  with  a  key to the North American species. Canadian
      Journal of Botany 73: 91-111.

28 species with one new species  (Peltigera  cinnamomea  Goward)
are treated in the paper.
(BEN # 119  28-November-1995)
From: Barry Glick <barryg@SLIP.NET>

The URL for the GardenWeb home page is:
The URL for the Mystery Plant Contest is:

The URL for the Crossword Puzzle Contest is:

The URL for the Garden Spider's Web is:

The URL for the Seed Guild is:

The URL for the Southern Perennials & Herbs is:

The URL for Sunshine Farm & Gardens is:

The URL for the Cyber-Plantsman is:

The URL for the GardenWeb Forums is:

The URL for the Garden Exchange is:

Rita  Heaton  of Devon England, holder of the NCCPG Sisyrinchium
collection has written a  very  informative  article  about  her
collection and growing Sisyrinchium.

The article can be found at-
(BEN # 119  28-November-1995)