Issues#126 to #130 (February 1996)

From: Ingolf Kuehn <>

Sampling  of  vegetation and environmental data on alpine tundra
of Trail Ridge,  Rocky  Mountain  National  Park,  Colorado  was
carried  out  in  July and August, 1995, to answer the following

 1. Are there correlations between plants (or plant communities)
    and selected  environmental  factors  (or  factor-complexes)
    such  as  altitude,  aspect,  inclination, temperature, soil
    moisture and/or rockiness of the surface that may lead to  a
    better   understanding   of  a  species  autecology  or  the
    community's synecology?
 2. Are there specific plant communities for  specific  environ-
    mental types of vegetation?
 3. Is  there  any pattern on species-diversity or species-area-
    relationship of specific plant-communities or  environmental
    types of vegetation?
 4. Comparing   Modified-Whittaker-Plot-Samples   on   landscape
    dimensions and Braun-Blanquet-Releves  on  community  scale,
    what  will  be  the  differences  between plant composition,
    plant diversity and community types?
 5. Where are the limits of each method and which is the  method
    of choice for which kind of question?

The investigations were (as far as possible) restricted to mesic
tundra  belonging  to  the  class Elyno-Seslerietea BR.-BL. 1948
sensu Komarkova (1979). Eight "environmental types"  (four  car-
dinal  directions, each at two elevations related to treeline at
the specific slope) were defined  and  four  replicate  sampling
locations  for  each  environmental  type were randomly selected
(thus 32 plots). At these locations vegetation sampling was done
with Modified-Whittaker-Plots (Stohlgren et al.  1995)  with  an
area  of  10m x 25m. These plots contain ten 0.25m x 1 m and two
2.5m x 1m subplots, arranged  systematically  inside  along  the
perimeter  of  the  plot,  and  one centre subplot (2.5m x 10m).
Percent cover of each species  was  recorded  at  the  0.25  sqm
subplots,  presence/absence  for all other plots (thus there are
only newly occurring species recorded for the big 250 sqm plot).
Within  or  very  close  to  the  randomly  selected   Modified-
Whittaker-Plots  2-4  subjectively selected Releves of 1 - 2 sqm
(cf. WILLARD 1979) were taken according to the rules  of  BRAUN-
BLANQUET (1964).

Furthermore,  Elk  feces  were counted on 16 Modified-Whittaker-
Plots (2 of each environmental type) in the center-plot  (2.5  x
10  m)  to get an impression of grazing utilization of different
plots. On 8 Plots, representing the  8  environmental  types,  a
HOBO  XT  Temperature  Logger  was  placed for a week in August,
logging  temperature  every  15  minutes.  This  data  will   be
referenced   to   the  temperature-data  sampled  for  long-term
ecological  research  program  on  Niwot  Ridge  (University  of
Colorado,  Institute  for  Arctic  and  Alpine  Research). Soil-
moisture was measured with  a  TRASE  SYSTEM  TDR  (Time-Delayed
Reflectometry)  6050XI.  There  were  10  measurements  in  each
Modified-Whittaker-Plot around the center-plot.

The data is now being evaluated, using Canonical-Correspondence-
Analysis (CANOCO, ter Braak 1987-1992). This  analysis  will  be
run  for  species  data  and  for  plot  data  in  order  to see
autecological and synecological correlations. The data  of  both
methods  will  be  proceeded  to  the  rules  of Braun-Blanquet-
Tablework (Braun-Blanquet  1964)  to  receive  vegetation  units
("plant   communities"),   supported   by   the  program  COENOS
(microcomputer version of Ceska &  Roemer  1971).  Species-area-
curves will be computed for each of the Modified-Whittaker-Plots
as well as for the average of vegetation types and environmental
types and the results will be compared.

I  am  very  thankful  to the following persons who supported my
work: Dr. Tom Stohlgren, National Biological  Service,  Colorado
State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado, and his team as well as
Richard  Bachand,  National  Biological  Service, Rocky Mountain
National Park, Estes Park, Colorado,  and  his  team,  who  gave
scientific support and equipment. Therese Johnson, National Park
Service,  Rocky  Mountain  National  Park, Estes Park, Colorado,
helped me with research permission and housing.

ter Braak, C. J. F. 1987-1992. CANOCO - a  FORTRAN  program  for
   Canonical  Community Ordination. Ithaca (New York): Microcom-
   puter Power, 95 p.
Braun-Blanquet, J. 1964. Pflanzensoziologie ed. 3. Berlin, Wien,
   New York: Springer.
Ceska, A. & H. Roemer 1971. A computer program  for  identifying
   species-releve  groups  in  vegetation studies. Vegetatio 23:
Komarkova, V. 1979. Alpine Vegetation of the Indian Peaks  Area,
   Front  Range,  Colorado  Rocky  Mountains. Flora et Vegetatio
   Mundi 7. Vaduz: Cramer, 591 p.
Stohlgren, T.J., M.B. Falkner & L.D. Schell. 1995.  A  Modified-
   Whittaker  nested  vegetation sampling method. Vegetatio 117:
Willard, B. 1979: Plant Sociology of Alpine Tundra, Trail Ridge,
   Rocky Mountain National  Park,  Colorado.  Quarterly  of  the
   Colorado School of Mines 74(4): 119 p.

(BEN # 126  10-February-1996)
From: Marilyn Walker <>
       re-posted from ECOLOG-L <ECOLOG-L@UMDD.UMD.EDU>

A  new  mailing  list  has  been  established  for discussion of
vegetation science. It will also be  used  for  distribution  of
IAVS-NA  and  ESA  Vegetation Section newsletters. To subscribe,
send an email message to:

with the text:

   subscribe vegetation Your Name

This list is for discussion of issues in the field of vegetation
science. Examples of appropriate subject matter  would  be  jobs
for vegetation scientists, announcements of meetings, discussion
of techniques and approaches for sampling and analysis, requests
for  information,  etc.  It  is  sponsored by the North American
Section of the International Association for Vegetation Science.
Anyone who is a list subscriber may post to the list.  There  is
no  moderation, but posting of inappropriate material may result
in revocation of subscription.

If  you  have  any  questions,   please   ask   Marilyn   Walker
(BEN # 126  10-February-1996)

Pringle,  J.S.  1995. The history of the exploration of the vas-
   cular flora of Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 109  (No.3):

Dr. Pringle's excellent article describes the history of botani-
cal  collecting  in  Canada from Taddaeus Haenke in the West and
the Moravian missionaries in the East to  (almost)  the  present
time.  The  paper  also  lists  the  main collectors of vascular
plants (with some notable  omissions  in  the  British  Columbia
botany  -  e.g.,  C.F.  Newcombe)  and  the herbaria where their
collections are housed. Two other articles in the same issue  by
the  same  author describe the history of the botanical explora-
tions of Greenland and Saint-Pierre et Miquelon.
(BEN # 126  10-February-1996)

Canadian Biodiversity: a  Guide  to  Botanical  Specialists  and
   Literature  by  E.  Small,  J.  Cayouette, B. Brookes, and W.
   Wojtas. 1995. Agriculture and Agri-Food  Canada.  [Electronic
   publication on diskettes and on World Wide Web.]

This  bilingual  format  (English/French)  work  lists  over 300
living (and a few recently deceased)  Canadian  botanists,  par-
ticularly systematists, phytogeographers, ecologists, foresters,
agronomists,  and  germplasm  specialists, and provides complete
citation details  of  over  15,000  of  their  publications  and
reports   related   to   biodiversity  of  vascular  plants  and
bryophytes.  Most  of  the  information  was  furnished  by  the
biodiversity  specialists  themselves. Addresses, telephone num-
bers, fax and E-mail information are also provided. An  appendix
lists recent key publications on Canadian biodiversity. A second
appendix  fully  spells out journal titles, which are standardly
abbreviated in the text. At least half of the listings  are  not
retrievable  from  other  available bibliographic databases. For
example, based on the first 1500 citations (i.e. ca. 10% of  the
entire  database)  61.0%  of  the  citations  included  were not
present in AGRICOLA (for 1970-1995), one of the  best  available
biological databases for North American biodiversity.

Three   hundred  sets  of  the  diskettes  (3.5")  version  were
produced. This comes  with  Acrobat  Reader  ,  a  user-friendly
retrieval  software  system  that  facilitates rapid location of
individuals and words. The system is for computers with  Windows
.  About 5 MB of storage are needed. The entire text (over 1,000
pages), can be printed out.  Printed  copies  of  the  text  are
deposited  in  the  Ottawa library of Agriculture Canada, and in
other selected Canadian libraries.

This work is available on the following web page:

(BEN # 126  10-February-1996)
From: "Clayton J. Antieau" <>
       originally on

As residents of the Pacific  Northwest,  we  have  inherited  an
abundance  of  damaged and disturbed natural places: streams and
rivers,  wetlands,  and  forests--areas  that   should   provide
wildlife  and fish habitat, desirable water quality, recreation,
and a sense of home. The ability to identify the  native  plants
that  grow  (or could grow) in those places is essential to res-
toration efforts in those habitats.

As part of its mandate to  address  such  needs,  and  with  the
assistance  of a $5,000 grant from the King County Surface Water
Management Division, the Washington Native Plant Society  under-
took  the  development  of  a  professionally produced videotape
describing the basic field identification  of  approximately  23
trees,  shrubs, and herbaceous perennials native to riparian and
wetland habitats in  lowland  western  Washington,  northwestern
Oregon, and southwestern British Columbia. All these species are
useful  in  restoration  projects in those habitats. It is hoped
this video effort will encourage more citizens of our region  to
become  involved  in the enjoyment and study of native Northwest
plants, and in the restoration and care  of  the  habitats  they

This  30-minute  VHS videotape is appropriate for older children
and adults with little or no botanical experience. The videotape
features western Washington habitats and  an  introduction  from
Dr.  Arthur R. Kruckeberg, Professor Emeritus of Botany, Univer-
sity of Washington. Loaner copies of the videotape are available
through the King County Surface  Water  Management  Division  in
Seattle  for  the  cost  of  mailing  (for details contact Polly
Freeman 206-296-8359), or through the  Washington  Native  Plant
Society  for the cost of mailing ($3.00, pre-paid, check payable
to Clayton Antieau, WNPS, 1108 Northwest 80th  Street,  Seattle,
WA   98117-4134),   or   call   Clayton  Antieau  (206-784-1138; to make other arrangements.
(BEN # 126  10-February-1996)

Tuesday,  February  20,  1996  -  Botany Night: Andy MacKinnon +
   Marvin Eng: "Old Forests of Coastal British Columbia." - Swan
   Lake Nature House, 7:30 p.m.
(BEN # 127  17-February-1996)

Saturday, March 9, 1996 - Native Vegetation Symposium University
   of Victoria, Elliot Lecture Wing, 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.

You  are cordially invited to the third annual Native Vegetation
Symposium being held on March 9,  1996,  at  the  University  of
Victoria,  Victoria,  British  Columbia.  The  Native Vegetation
Committee of VIPIRG (Vancouver Island Public  Interest  Research
Group), which is putting on the event, is dedicated to identify-
ing  issues relating to native vegetation. Our main aims include
education and conservation. Funds raised from the symposium will
be used for continued upkeep of the  UVic  Native  Plant  Garden
along with other committee activities.

The  aim  of the symposium is to expand people's knowledge about
native vegetation issues (see below). Other events include tours
of the Native Plant Garden, lunch time theater and art, book and
plant sales, displays  by  local  organizations,  and  a  raffle
offering great prizes.

Admission  is  $8  for  students,  seniors  and unwaged, $10 for
others. Tickets can be obtained in advance by contacting  Brenda
Costanzo  at the UVic Herbarium (604) 721-7097. As well, we have
group rates for ten or more people ($5 each). The  symposium  is
being  held in the lecture wing of the Elliott building and will
run from 9am to 5pm. Please bring your own mug for refreshments.
We hope to see you there!

Speakers will  include:  Hans  Roemer  (Rare  Plants  of  B.C.),
Neville   Winchester   (Canopy   Research),  Willie  McGillivray
(Wildlife Habitat Creation), Greg Allen  (Garry  Oak  Pollen  of
Heal  Lake),  Nancy  Turner  (Ethnobotany),  Allison  McCutcheon
(Medicinal Native Plants), Penny Kerrigan et al. (First Nations'
Perspective),  Jeff  Ward  &  Joel  Ussery  (CRD  Green   Spaces
Strategy),  Adolf Ceska (Rare Aquatic Plants), B.C. Native Plant
Council Meeting, Brenda Constanzo (Native Plants in Garden), and
Paul Allison (Holistic Approach to Native Plants).

If you need further info you can contact  Jenny  (604-744-1710),
Brenda (721-7097), or Hana (727-3539),  or you can also  use the
following e-mail address:
(BEN # 127  17-February-1996)
From: Kerry Joy <> and
      Hans Roemer <>

The establishment of 35 new small protected areas  on  Vancouver
Island brings the protected area, parks and ecological reserves,
total  to  13%  of  the  Island's total area. This objective was
established in the June 1994 "Vancouver Island  Land  Use  Plan"
which was designed to protect the Island's natural environments.
The  1994 plan established 23 large and representative protected
areas ranging in size from the 600 ha Davie River  area  of  old
growth  forest to the 10,600 ha Nahwitti-Shushartie at Vancouver
Island's northerly tip which protected a portion of the Nahwitti

The new areas range in size from the 2 ha Hudson  Rocks,  a  na-
tionally  significant  pelagic cormorant breeding colony, to the
3,000 ha Quadra Island Main Lakes chain noted  for  its  scenic,
recreational,  and fisheries values. These areas total 11,857 ha
and represent special feature provincial  parks  and  ecological
reserve  candidates.  Some  private lands are included in the 35
areas which will require purchase or land exchange negotiations.
The selection of these  areas  resulted  from  wide  public  and
institutional input including First Nations concerns, naturalist
groups,  individuals  and  key provincial and federal government
staff. This process resulted in some  300  suggestions  totaling
35,000  ha  and  78  highly  valued areas. The 11,770 ha ceiling
caused further study with a final selection of the 35 Crown  and
private land areas.

What  is  in  it  from the botanist's perspective? Just like the
1994 set of large, representative areas,  all  these  new  areas
contain  some  undisturbed  ecological and botanical features of
interest, most of them still to be discovered and  described  by
botanists.  So  only  some  highlights can be mentioned for some
areas where we do know them:

Comox Lake Bluffs - Botrychium simplex, Polystichum imbricans
Klanawa River - BC's only extensive stands of Oxalis oregana
Ladysmith Bog - Utricularia gibba
San Juan Estuary - Only locality of Mimulus dentatus in Canada
Woodley Range - Lotus pinnatus, Aster curtus, Isoetes nuttallii
Somass River Estuary (...if negotiations are successful)
         - Sidalcea hendersonii, host of rare mudflat plants
Somenos Garry Oaks (also under negotiations) - Viola praemorsa
Niagara Creek (under negotiations) - old growth Douglas-fir

Botanists familiar with some of these sites may wonder why  they
have received park status and why those with important botanical
features have not become ecological reserves. The answer is that
the  present action is intended to secure the land base and that
ecological reserve status is still considered as a future option
for several of the sites.

Even botanists  can't  have  everything:  Some  precious  spring
ephemerals  at  Koksilah  River, Canada's only Euonymus occiden-
talis at Tsolum River,  and  the  unique  diversity  of  wetland
plants at Moran Lake go without protection, to name only a few.
(BEN # 127  17-February-1996)
From: "Timothy H. Heaton" <>
         originally on SITKA <>

I just received a 1983 article by Knut Fladmark via ILL where he

   North  of  the  Queen Charlotte Islands, the Alexander Ar-
   chipelago  of  Alaska  represents  a  troublesome  gap  in
   Quaternary  environmental  data. ... it is likely that the
   outer headlands and  slopes  of  Chichagof,  Baranof,  and
   Prince  of  Wales  Island  remained  unglaciated, although
   possibly separated by ice lobes reaching the Pacific ...

I'm happy to announce, Knut, that the gap you spoke  of  is  now
being  filled  and  that  your  claim of coastal refugia appears

My work in SE Alaska began when an old  friend  of  mine  (Kevin
Allred  of  Haines  AK),  while exploring caves in the extensive
karstlands of Prince of Wales Island, began  discovering  exten-
sive  fossil  deposits--primarily  ancient  bear dens. Two caves
have been fully excavated so far: El Capitan Cave (near a bay in
a glacial valley) and Bumper Cave (subalpine). Both  caves  con-
tain  remains  of postglacial brown bears (which were previously
thought  never  to   have   reached   the   southern   Alexander
Archipelago),  and  two  other species recovered are caribou and
red fox (which no longer inhabit the archipelago or the adjacent
mainland). Radiocarbon ages range from 12,300 to 7,000  YBP  and
show  that  the glaciers melted earlier than previously thought.
El Capitan Cave and other coastal caves also contain black bear,
otter, and fish (otter scat) remains.

The most exciting cave to date  is  On  Your  Knees  Cave  where
remains  of  a  17,500  YBP seal, a 35,000 YBP brown bear, and a
42,000 YBP black bear have been found. This cave (on the extreme
northern tip of POWI) seems to have remained ice-free throughout
the glacial peak, and it shows that  brown  bears  have  a  long
history  in the archipelago. At the same time that we discovered
these fossils, Gerald Shields and his student Sandra  Talbot  in
Fairbanks  were  doing  a  DNA study and finding that the living
brown bears  of  the  northern  archipelago  (ABC  Islands)  are
genetically  distinct  from  all  other populations and are more
closely related to polar  bears  than  to  their  mainland  con-
specifics!  Gerald  can  post the details. The combined evidence
suggests that brown bears have had a long-term coastal  refugium
in SE Alaska and are not postglacial immigrants.

On  Your Knees Cave will be a primary focus next summer. We will
also be excavating a cave where Joe Cook found  a  marmot  tooth
that  is  beyond  radiocarbon  age and and another cave where we
found a bone spear point associated with  two  8,600  YBP  black
bears. I want to acknowledge my two primary excavation partners,
Fred  Grady  and  Dave  Love, two very supportive Forest Service
scientists who live on POWI, Jim Baichtal and Terry Fifield, and
the current leader of the Tongass Caves  Project,  Steve  Lewis,
all of whom are here on the list.

The  need for interdisciplinary research has become increasingly
apparent.  Lab  researchers  in   radiocarbon   dating,   stable
isotopes,  ichthyology,  and  palynology  have  provided crucial
information. Archaeologists such as Jim Dixon  who  are  looking
for glacial-age human remains in the archipelago are very inter-
ested  in  our  findings,  and the need for cooperation there is
obvious. More troubling is  our  lack  of  knowledge  concerning
patterns  of  glaciation  and sea level changes--the very things
that would help us find potential refugia  and  ancient  coastal
caves. As I mentioned earlier, the Canadians working in B.C. are
way ahead of those of us doing research in SE Alaska, so a forum
for  discussion will be most beneficial. I'm delighted to see so
many top-notch Canadian Quaternary scientists  on  the  list  as
well  as landmark researchers of the north Pacific Coast such as
Cal  Heusser.  The  interest  among   coastal   researchers   in
Washington and Oregon is also encouraging.
(BEN # 127  17-February-1996)

SITKA  is  the  short  name  for the Northwest Coast Researchers
List. This list is devoted to  interdisciplinary  discussion  of
glacial  and postglacial events along the northern Pacific coast
of North America. Researchers doing work in this area as well as
interested persons are welcome to participate.

To subscribe to this list, send the command
  SUBSCRIBE SITKA First_name Last_name in the body of an  e-mail
message  to  <LISTPROC@SUNBIRD.USD.EDU>. To post messages to the
list, send them to <SITKA@SUNBIRD.USD.EDU>.

Topics of interest (non-inclusive):
-Extent and timing of the last glacial maximum
-Timing and pattern of deglaciation along the Pacific coast
-Sea level changes after glacial melt and isostatic rebound
-Unglaciated coastal refugia during glacial maxima
-Post-glacial colonization by marine and terrestrial species
-Possible refugium/corridors for early humans

Your comments and suggestions are welcome. Feel free to  contact
the  list owner, Timothy H. Heaton <>, at
any time.
(BEN # 127  17-February-1996)

Dawn Loewen is a University of Victoria student who started  her
M.Sc.  work  on  Glacier Lily, Erythronium grandiflorum. Please,
send her a message, if  you  know  interesting  stands  of  this
plant, or anything else that could help her in her work.
Her address is Dawn Loewen <DCL@UVIC.CA>
(BEN # 127  17-February-1996)
From: Sarah Mason <sarah.mason@UCL.AC.UK>

The  aim of this list is to facilitate communication through the
exchange  of  information  on  meetings,  conferences,  bibliog-
raphies,  publications,  reference collections and botanical and
ethnographic data relevant to  the  analysis  of  archaeological
plant  macro-remains.This  group could also exchange ideas about
various  aspects  of   archaeobotany   such   as   problems   of
methodology,identification, presentation and interpretation.

To subscribe send the following command:
     subscribe archaeobotany First_name Last_name
(BEN # 127  17-February-1996)
From: Adolf Ceska <>

Cansel  Ltd.  Burnaby,  B.C. offers the Trimble Ensign GPS units
for incredibly low price: $ 595.00 (Canadian  $$$, +  GST + PST,
where applicable). The units are brand new and the offer is good
while  the supply lasts. The company has a toll number: 800-661-
8342 (ask for Randy) or it can be reached  by  FAX  at  604-299-
1998.  I  have  been  using the Trimble Ensign GPS locator since
1994 and I have been very satisfied with its performance.  Using 
this locator you will know your location within 30 to 100 m even
if you are lost! :-)
(BEN # 127  17-February-1996)

Prof.  Warren Herb Wagner, Jr. : Ferns of Hawaii. Tuesday, 
March 5, 1996, 7:00 p.m. 220 Kane Hall, The University of  
Washington, Seattle. -  Admission complimentary.

The  Second  Annual  Melinda F. Denton Memorial Lecture is spon-
sored by the Department of Botany, University of Washington  and
the  Center  for  Urban  Horticulture,  and  the  Melinda Denton
Memorial Fund.
(BEN # 128  24-February-1996)
From: Frank Lomer, Honourary Research Associate, UBC  Herbarium,
   Vancouver, B.C. c/o <>

The  following  is  an  update  of "Introduced Bog Plants Around
Vancouver", BEN # 104 - July 2, 1995.

Azolla caroliniana Willd. I have now  seen  this  aquatic  plant
   from  numerous  places, especially around the extensive cran-
   berry fields on the northeast corner of  Lulu  Island,  Rich-
   mond.  This  species  can  be  invasive.  One large slough in
   Richmond (6m x 0.5km) was completely covered  by  a  mat  1cm
   thick.  The plants themselves were in turn covered by aphids.
   Also collected in a ditch at 10480 59th Ave., Delta. (Lomer #
   95-222) I have seen A.  caroliniana  sold  in  a  few  garden
   centers and this may be the source of our introductions.

Cyperus  erythrorhizos  Muhl.  - I mentioned that the introduced
   population at  Richland  Farms,  19611  Westminster  Highway,
   Richmond,  may  be  extirpated,  but  it is still abundant in
   cranberry fields about 1km west of where I found the original

Cyperus retrorsus Chapm. - A single plant,  1  meter  tall,  was
   growing  along  the  edge  of  a  hog fuel track skirting the
   perimeter of a large cranberry field. C. retrorsus is  native
   to  the  eastern  U.S.  and perhaps has not been collected in
   Canada before. Collected from  Richland  Farms,  Richmond  on
   September 28, 1995. (Lomer # 95-197)

Juncus canadensis Gay - I have found two new populations of this
   species.  It  grows  at  Burnaby Lake and along the edge of a
   tidal marsh, Pitt River, Port Coquitlam, 1km  north  of  Pitt
   River Bridge. (Lomer # 95-201)

Juncus  pelocarpus Meyer - Since I wrote the original article, I
   have found two new populations of this species. It  is  abun-
   dant  and  widespread in Burns Bog, Delta and in a gravel pit
   at 200th St.and 36th Ave. in Langley.

Muhlenbergia uniflora (Muhl.) Fern. - This  distinctive  clumped
   grass  with a diffuse purplish panicle is native to N.E. U.S.
   and S.E. Canada. Collected in a weedy  plot  in  a  cranberry
   field  north  of  the Richmond Freeway about 1km east of No.8
   Road, Richland Farms,  Lulu  Island,  Richmond.  Despite  the
   name,  the  plants  I  saw mostly had 2 florets. More than 50
   clumps were  seen  in  a  field  with  Cyperus  erythrorhizos
   (abundant),  Hypericum  boreale,  and  Lindernia  anagallidea
   (few). (Lomer # 95-195, 95-241)

Scirpus atrovirens var. georgianus (Harper) Fern. - Collected on
   June 23, 1995 on boggy shore of Burnaby Lake,  4km.  east  of
   Vancouver  (Lomer  #  95-131), growing with Juncus canadensis
   and Glyceria canadensis. A few days after  I  collected  this
   plant,  the  area was covered with gravel and this population
   seems to be extirpated.
(BEN # 128  24-February-1996)

Pielou, C.E. 1994. A naturalist's guide to the  Arctic.  Univer-
   sity  of  Chicago  Press,  Chicago. 327 p. ISBN 0-226-66814-2
   [softcover] Price: CND $29.95

When we visited Dr. Chris Pielou in their  new  home  on  Denman
Island  quite a few years ago, she told us that her book on "The
world of northern evergreens" had just appeared and that she was
writing another book on natural history. She  would  not  reveal
what it was about, but our good mutual friend told us (about two
hours  later) that the book was to be on the Holocene history of
North America ("After the Ice Age" - published in 1991).

Chris Pielou was an eminent mathematical ecologist and  she  has
tried  all  her  life  to compress Nature into the bold print of
matrix algebra. In her books such as "Mathematical ecology" (two
editions), "The interpretation of ecological data...",  "Popula-
tion  and  community  ecology"  - just to name a few, you easily
find sections which you cannot read unless you have a degree  in
mathematics.  You  had to wonder, how the author saw the forest,
ecosystem, ecology, or a dandelion. Has she ever noticed them?

Open the "Naturalist's guide to the Arctic" and  you  will  know
the  answer.  No  bold matrix algebra, but a nice description on
how the Arctic works. You will learn about  astronomy,  climate,
geology,  the ocean, plants and animals and all the interactions
and causal relationships that you  have  to  know  in  order  to
understand  this  particular biome. Everything is written in the
nice, clear style and all the stories  are  fascinating.  I  was
looking  for  the  name  of an artist who drew the nice pictures
(ranging from the Arctic landscapes, through plants, birds,  and
mammals  to  the  Cariboo  Warble Fly) before I noticed that the
book was "illustrated with more than 400 of the  author's  draw-
ings and maps."

Congratulation, Chris!
P.S. - Richard, can you tell us what is Chris working on now?
(BEN # 128  24-February-1996)

Mackenzie,  Ian.  1995.  Ancient landscapes of British Columbia.
   Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton.  128  p.  ISBN  1-55105-043-9
   [softcover] CND $24.95

"British  Columbia  is  a beautiful place," told us the clerk of
the Canadian Embassy in Prague in 1969  after  she  stamped  the
Canadian  visa  into our Czech passports. We understood what she
meant when we arrived to British Columbia few  days  later.  Ian
Mackenzie's book is an extraordinary document of this extraordi-
nary  province.  It  is the result of a six-year pilgrimage: Ian
Mackenzie has journeyed on foot  and  horseback,  by  canoe  and
kayak,  by  air,  river and ocean, to the most remote corners of
every region.

The photographs (we are told that they were selected from  about
30,000  images)  are  overwhelming. I have not been able to read
the text - whenever I opened the book  I  had  to  look  at  the
photographs  and  I  slipped into daydreaming about those sacred
places. From a short biography we learn that the  author  has  a
Master   degree  in  linguistics  and  speaks  and  read  eleven
languages. In addition to his gift to  communicate  through  his

The  book  is  a  "pictorial geography of British Columbia." The
biogeoclimatic map at the end of the book will give you not only
the distribution of our biogeoclimatic zones, but also refers to
pictures taken in the respective zones. In the text,  paragraphs
printed  in  bold  italics summarize the characteristics of each
biogeoclimatic zone.  Great  idea  !  By  the  way,  when  Prof.
Vladimir  Krajina introduced the term "biogeoclimatic zone" even
many professional people laughed to the seemingly useless tongue
twister he had created. Twenty or thirty years later  this  term
is a part of a picture book directed to a very wide audience and
nobody  worries that the average reader would not understand the
concept of BIOGEOCLIMATIC zones.

The Lone Pine Publishing did an excellent  job  and  produced  a
remarkable  publication.  The  Lone  Pine  Publishing have their
offices in Edmonton - Lone Pine Publishing's phone number is  1-
(BEN # 128  24-February-1996)

Turner,  Nancy  J.  1995.  Food plants of coastal First Peoples.
   Royal British Columbia Museum Handbook,  UBC  Press  &  Royal
   B.C.  Museum,  Vancouver-Victoria.  164 p. ISBN 0-7748-0533-1
   [softcover] Price: CND $24.95

This is the second edition of Nancy Turner's  1975  handbook  on
ethnobotany  of  British Columbia. The original edition has been
expanded and updated, with more colour photographs and with  the
most recent additional literature references.
(BEN # 128  24-February-1996)

For the April 1st issue of BEN I would like to compile a collec-
tion of known and unknown biological laws and postulates.


Klinger's law: Peatbogs always start being formed on the leeward
   side of water bodies.

Ferdinand Kokoschka's principle: No excrement can be bigger than
   the organism that produced it.

Please, send me your favourites: 
(BEN # 128  24-February-1996)

Friday March 15, 1996   9:30 - 4:30
Abbotsford Agriculture Centre
1767 Angus Campbell Road
Abbotsford, B.C.

The formation of this group is perceived to be developmental and
consensus driven, thus there is a reluctance to outline a struc-
tured  agenda. ... Please come with an open mind and a plenitude
of ideas and commitment. ...

Phone to Diane Gertzen (604-930-3309, fax 604-775-1288) for more
information [or registration?].
(BEN # 129  11-March-1996)
DAVID LYALL (1817-1895)
From: Dr. W.A. Weber <>

I don't know whether you know more about Lyall than this, but  I
had  a  request from a lady in Evergreen who has a friend by the
name of Lyall, and wonders whether David Lyall was an  ancestor.
I  was  able  to  dig  up  this wonderful obituary by Hooker and
wonder whether you would like to send it out in the  newsletter.
In  the American books on our botanical history he is simply not
mentioned  except  in  the  introduction  to  Piper's  Flora  of
Washington. I think field botanists in America need to know more
about this fellow.

The  following is the obituary of David Lyall published by J. D.
Hooker in J. Bot. 33: 209-211. 1895.

David Lyall was born in Kinkairdineshire, June  1st,  1817,  and
after  a  long period of active service as a medical officer and
naturalist in the Royal Navy, he retired in 1873,  and  died  at
Cheltenham,  March 2nd, 1895, with the rank of Deputy Inspector-
General of Hospitals and Fleets and a Good-Service Pension.  Dr.
Lyall  received  his  medical education at Aberdeen where he had
his M.D. degree, having previously been admitted a Licentiate of
the Royal College of Surgeons,  Edinburgh.  As  was  not  unfre-
quently the case with young Aberdonian medical men, he sought to
improve  his  medical  knowledge, and threw himself early on his
own resources, by undertaking a journey to Greenland as  surgeon
to  a whaling ship; and this no doubt led to his being selected,
immediately after entering the Royal Navy in 1839,  for  service
under  Sir  James  Ross in the expedition being fitted out for a
scientific voyage to the Antarctic  Regions.  He  was  appointed
Assistant-Surgeon  of  H.M.S.  'Terror'  (the  consort of H.M.S.
'Erebus') under Commander Crozier, to  which  duties  Sir  James
(the Captain) Ross added those of forming botanical collections.

During  the  voyage which did not return to England till late in
1842, his conduct was officially reported to  the  Admiralty  as
"meriting  the highest commendations." The writer of this notice
was a brother officer of Dr. Lyall's during that expedition  (an
intercourse  that  led  to a life-long friendship) and has added
his tribute to the value of his services in the  following  pas-
sages:  "To  him  were  due many of the botanical results of the
Expedition" (Fl. Antarctica vol. 1, p. xii). "He formed  a  most
important  herbarium amounting to no less than 1500 species." He
also, during the five winter months  of  1842,  when  the  ships
remained  in  Berkeley  Sound,  made  a "beautiful collection of
interesting Algae",  which  formed  "an  important  addition  to
Antarctic  Botany"  (op. cit., part 11, 215). On this expedition
was found, in Kerguelen Island, the remarkable  plant  named  by
the writer Lyallia [kerguelensis, Caryophyllaceae].

Shortly  after the return of the Antarctic Expedition, Dr. Lyall
was appointed to the Mediterranean, where he served  in  several
commissions   as  Assistant  Surgeon  till  1847,  when  he  was
promoted, and at the recommendation of Sir William  Hooker,  was
selected  as Surgeon and Naturalist to accompany Capt. Stokes in
H.M.S. 'Acheron' on the survey of  the  coast  of  New  Zealand.
Here,  devoting himself to the collection of the lower orders of
plants especially, he amassed the most beautiful  and  extensive
herbarium  in these branches of botany which had ever been found
in the  islands,  besides  making  considerable  discoveries  in
phaenogamous  plants,  and collecting some of that had been pre-
viously gathered by Banks and Solander. Among one  of  his  many
important discoveries in this survey were that of the monarch of
all  buttercups, the gigantic white-flowered Ranunculus Lyallii,
the only known species with peltate leaves, the "water-lily"  of
the New Zealand shepherds.

In  1852,  Dr. Lyall was appointed Surgeon and Naturalist to the
'Assistance', one of the squadron sent out to the Arctic Regions
under the commander of Sir E. Belcher, in  search  of  Sir  John
Franklin.  When  in  this service he received an acting order as
lieutenant in command of one of  the  sledges  employed  in  the
search,  and  further,  as senior medical officer of the expedi-
tion, he was appointed  Superintending  Surgeon  of  the  'North
Star',   when  the  crews  of  the  'Assistance'  and  'Pioneer'
retreated to that ship. During this Arctic Expedition Dr.  Lyall
made  good  collections  at  every  point visited, from Disko to
Polar Islands. A list of these is published in  the  Journal  of
the  Linnean  Society.  It  contains about ninety phaenogams and
vascular cryptogams and a large number of musci, etc.  Exclusive
of  Greenland,  this is by far the largest herbarium ever formed
in the American Polar Islands, and exceeds the sum of  those  of
all  previous  expeditions  in  the same regions; but, as was to
have been expected, no novelties rewarded his  labours.  On  his
return  he was appointed to the 'Pembroke', Capt. Seymour, under
whom he served throughout the Baltic Campaign of  1855  [Crimean
War],  and  was  present at the bombardment of Sveaborg [Suomen-
linna, then in Russian hands].

After a short period of home service in the 'Royal  William'  at
Devonport,  Dr. Lyall was commissioned as Surgeon and Naturalist
to  H.M.'s  surveying  ship  'Plumper'  and  afterwards  to  the
'Hecate',  under  Captain  (now  Admiral  Sir  George) Richards,
employed in the delimitation of the sea boundary  between  Great
Britain  and  the  United States in the Pacific Ocean. From this
his services (in 1858) were transferred  to  the  Land  Boundary
Commission,  under  Col. Sir John Hawkins, R.E., which he accom-
panied in its survey of the boundary line between British Colum-
bia and the United States possessions, from the Gulf of  Georgia
to  the summit of the Rocky Mountains. From this exploration Dr.
Lyall brought home a magnificent herbarium, one of  such  impor-
tance that, at the earnest representation of Sir William Hooker,
he  was  borne  on the books of H.M.S. 'Fisguard' at Woolwich as
Staff Surgeon, a  vicarious  appointment  that  allowed  of  his
residing  at Kew for the purpose of arranging, reporting on, and
distributing his collections. The results  are  published  in  a
valuable  contribution to the Linnean Society* which contains an
account of the regions traversed, from the  sea  to  8,000  feet
alt.  of the Rocky Mountains, where the various zones of vegeta-
tion in British Columbia are for the first  time  indicated  and
scientifically  portrayed.  Immediately  after the conclusion of
his labours at Kew, Dr. Lyall was appointed Surgeon to  Pembroke
Dockyard,  at  that  time a permanency, and when the regulations
affecting this branch of the service (the dockyard) were changed
in 1868, he accepted home appointment  to  H.M.S.  'Trincomalee'
and  'Daedalus'  consecutively  till 1873, when he retired. Lat-
terly he resided at Cheltenham, where shortly before  his  death
he  met  with an accident, the breaking of an arm, from which he
never wholly recovered.

Dr. Lyall's only other published contribution to science  was  a
paper  on  the  habits  of  a  remarkable  New Zealand bird, the
Kakapo, Strigops habroptilus**. He married in 1866 to Miss  F.A.
Rowe,  daughter  of  Dr.  Rowe  of Haverfordwest, by whom he had
three children who survived him. He was elected a Fellow of  the
Linnean Society in November, 1862.

 * Account  of  the  botanical  collections made by David Lyall,
R.N., M.D., F.L.S. Journal of the Linnean  Society  vii  (1863):

** Proc. Zoological Society xx (1852): 31-33.
(BEN # 129  11-March-1996)
From: Loren Russell, Corvallis, OR <loren@PEAK.ORG>
   originally posted on Alpine-L the Electronic Rock Garden

A couple of days ago I had the opportunity to go over  a  thesis
proposal  for a graduate student in forest resources. Her inter-
est is in the way reproductive systems of various native  forest
herbs  determine  their  response/recolonization following fire,
logging, or other disturbance.

What was striking to me was her comment that faculty  have  been
advising students away from studies of herbaceous plants because
"you  can't  grow  them." It seems that some previous local work
with the likes of trilliums, erythronium, baneberry, asarum, and
such failed becasue they don't behave like douglas-fir.  And  so
this  was  seen as a death trap for theses! [I was consulted via
"buzz" from a workshop I presented for the  local  Native  Plant
Society last spring.]

I  pulled  out my usual resources -- Deno (1993), back issues of
the AGS and NARGS bulletins -- totally unknown to  local  fores-
ters  (and  botanists).  Betsy's thesis proposal seems now to be
going through. Grey literature or not, the thesis advisor  [him-
self a backyard nurseryman] was persuaded that "the little green
things" will germinate.

Another  example of the isolation of scientists from our culture
was work, also at Oregon State University, on  the  reproductive
biology  of  the Umpqua population of Kalmiopsis leachiana (soon
to be K. fragrans, I understand). One of the students complained
that they had transplanted, with great care, a  number  of  Kal-
miopsis,  and  that  all  of them promptly died. I told him: "Of
course, and why didn't you take cuttings?" Never heard of such a
thing. And hadn't seen even one of the many horticultural publi-
cations on this species (and this population).

Ref.: Deno, N.C. 1993. Seed germination theory and practice. 2nd
   Edition. 242 p. Published and distributed by the author  [Dr.
   Norman  C.  Deno,  139  Lenor Drive, State College, PA 16801,

(BEN # 129  11-March-1996)
From: Tom Volk <>
       originally posted on bionet.mycology

I have just updated my Mycology web page, whichh can be found at
the following URL:

Improvements include moving most of the inline images  to  other
pages,  so  the  first page will load faster. There is a link to
over 800 of my images of  fungi  (currently  under  major  reor-
ganization  and  revision)  at  a University of Wisconsin Gopher
site. There are descriptions and pictures of the fungi  we  work
on  at  the Forest Products Lab here in Madison, including a new
key to North  American  Armillaria  species,  including  in-line
images.  There  are  some  miscellaneous  in-line images of some
other fungi. There is also a bit of information about  the  Wis-
consin Mycological Society.
(BEN # 129  11-March-1996)
From: Roy Reehil <>
       originally on bionet.mycology

I  would  like  to  share  the  address  of  our electronic club
newsletter with any interested mycologists. Included are stories
of local and national interest, a laugh, and a  recipe  now  and
then.  Link  to  NAMA/NEMF  96 Foray home page (new). Created by
Dave Fischer, VP of NEMF and organizer of last years NEMF foray.
Includes registration info, costs, faculty and location descrip-

Roy Reehil
Editor, Central New York Mycological Society Newsletter
(BEN # 129  11-March-1996)

March 19 (tonight): Botany Night of the Victoria Natural History
   Society.  Matt Fairbarns will talk on plants of SE Australia.
   Swan Lake Nature House, 7:30 p.m.

March 21: Native Plants Study Group of  the  Victoria  Horticul-
   tural  Society.  Dr.  Nancy  Turner  will give a talk on Eth-
   nobotany  of  the  Pacific  Coast.  University  of  Victoria,
   Clearihue Building A 215, 7:00 pm.

March  22:  UVIC  Biology  Seminar.  Dr.  Ken  Marr will talk on
   "Natural history of the  Hawaiian  Islands  and  recent  sys-
   tematic studies of Hawaiian plants." Cunningham Building Room
   146, 3:00 p.m.
(BEN # 130  19-March-1996)

The  inaugural  meeting  of  the Native Plant Society of British
Columbia took place in Abbotsford on March 15, 1995. About fifty
people interested in native plants met and discussed the mission
statement and goals of the Society.  A  steering  committee  was
selected  and  its  members  should come back to the broad forum
with more definite picture of the organization. As many  of  you
will  remember,  the  efforts  of  establishing the Native Plant
Society of British Columbia are  not  new,  but  this  is  first
really  constructive  step in this direction. Please contact me,
if you are  interested  in  this  organization.  -  Adolf  Ceska
(BEN # 130  19-March-1996)
From: Robert Meinke <>

When  we  have  propagated  rare species for use in our research
here at Oregon State we've had excellent results -- contrary  to
the  implication in your message, we do know something about the
literature and techniques relating to native plant  cultivation.
The  fact  of  the matter is we've never tried to propagate Kal-
miopsis as part of our studies, as you stated.  If  we  did,  we
would indeed use cuttings (yes, we have heard of the practice!),
since the plants grow out of cliffs or bedrock and transplanting
is  not  feasible -- perhaps you didn't know this? I'm also very
aware of the horticultural literature available  re:  Kalmiopsis
(again, contrary to your assertion), and would make use of it if
it  were  actually pertinent to our work. However, as all of our
reproductive studies were accomplished in  the  field,  this  is
irrelevant.  Out  of  curiosity,  I've  quizzed  those in my lab
who've worked on this project (none are students, by  the  way),
and  no one remembers speaking with you (or even knowing who you
are). I guess you must be getting your  information  second-hand
--  try  checking  with the source the next time you use someone
else's research to illustrate a point.

Robert J. Meinke, Assistant Professor and Program Leader  (Plant
Conservation  Biology),  Department  of Botany & Plant Pathology
Oregon  State  University,  Corvallis,  OR   97331-2902   Phone:

[When  I  posted Loren Russell's article on BEN, I knew that his
accusations about the mass destruction of  rare  Oregon  endemic
was  very  serious.  I  should have checked what had really hap-
pened, but I did not. The two cultures do exist, but  there  are
important  bridges between them - I can name a number of profes-
sional botanists who are avid  gardeners  and  usually  a  great
asset to their garden-only oriented counterparts. - Adolf Ceska]
(BEN # 130  19-March-1996)

Mulligan, G.A. 1995. Synopsis of the genus Arabis (Brassicaceae)
   in Canada, Alaska and Greenland. Rhodora 97: 109-163.

This  taxonomic  treatment  of  Arabis  recognizes 30 species. A
comprehensive key is provided for these species and 8 varieties.
Four new species are described:  A.  boivinii,  A.  calderi,  A.
codyi, and A. murrayi. In addition, many other taxa are recorded
for  the first time for this area. Cytological studies available
for 45 North American and Greenland species of Arabis  are  sum-
marized and discussed.

[In  BEN  # 108, July 31, 1995, George Douglas reported three of
the Mulligan's newly described species  of  Arabis  as  new  for
British Columbia.]
(BEN # 130  19-March-1996)
From: Barbara Crandall-Stotler <>
       originally posted on bryonet-l <>

We have just posted a WebSite called Bryophytes at the address

This  will  accommodate the data of an on-going monograph of the
Fossombroniineae, but will also have  some  general  information
about  bryophytes.  We  will  add text and photos to the page at
regular intervals. It is still in its "infancy,"  but  it  is  a
(BEN # 130  19-March-1996)

I have been adding all sites I've come across to a list at:

This is primarily for on-line collections (and is not restricted
to  bryophytes),  but  the list also includes some keys, floras,
checklists, and image collections. I have been hoping to  create
a more comprehensive page specifically for bryophytes, and would
appreciate  any  sites  that  people send to me. I haven't found
many bryophyte-related sites out there.
(BEN # 130  19-March-1996)