Issues#141 to #160 (August 1996 to March 1997)

From: Kathy Ahlenslager

The  dynamic  duo  of Herb and Florence Wagner, along with their
botanist friend Art Gilman from Vermont,  treated  Colville  Na-
tional Forest botanists to a visit on their way from the Univer-
sity  of  Michigan  to  the  American  Institute  of  Biological
Sciences meeting in Seattle. Both Wagner's conduct  research  on
ferns  and  fern-allies.  The Wagner's were interested in seeing
some populations of our odd  Botrychium  species  (moonworts  or
grape ferns).

On  the  Colville  National  Forest  they  visited 14 Botrychium
locations in 4 days (July 28-31) and identified two new  species
of  them  for Washington (B. hesperium and B. lineare). In addi-
tion we saw several populations  of  an  undescribed  Botrychium
species, which is also known from the Wallowas.

The Wagner's were treated to the largest Botrychium paradoxum (7
inches tall) and the smallest sporulating B. virginianum (1 inch
tall)  that  they'd  ever  seen.  We  also  saw B. campestre, B.
crenulatum, B.  lanceolatum,  B.  minganense,  B.  montanum,  B.
multifidum  B.  pedunculosum,  B.  pinnatum  and B. simplex. The
Wagners commented that the  western  U.S.  forms  of  Botrychium
minganense and B. simplex differ from those in the east and both
species need taxonomic work.

Herb, Florence and Art additionally identified ferns, clubmosses
and horsetails. They found Equisetum nelsonii and E. pratense in
Stevens County, neither of which are shown for Washington in the
"Flora of North America."

Special  thanks  to  Kirk  and Karen Larson, Jean Wood and Linda
Swartz for leading us to "their" Botrychium sites,  so  that  we
all could join in puzzling over this interesting genus.
(BEN # 141  20-August-1996)
From: Jan Leps <>

We  would  like  to invite you to participate in the 40th Annual
Symposium of the IAVS (International Association  of  Vegetation
Science) in 1997. The Symposium will be organized jointly by the
Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of South Bohemia, and
the  Institute  of  Botany,  Academy  of  Science  of  the Czech
Republic. The Symposium will take place from  18  to  23  August
1997, in Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.

The  Symposium  will  be  centered  around  the  following three

 1. Vegetation mapping: scales in space and time and  hierarchi-
    cal vegetation classification
 2. Experimental  tests  of  mechanistic hypotheses of community
 3. Closely related species in plant communities:  from  genetic
    differences to different ecological roles

Pre-symposium  excursion: There will be a four day pre-symposium
excursion in the Czech Republic, featuring the  main  vegetation
types in the country.

Post-symposium  excursion:  There  will  be  a  ten  days  post-
symposium excursion to Bulgaria, organized by Tenyo Meshinev and
Iva Apostolova. This is a not well known, but  botanically  fas-
cinating  area,  and  one of the few easily accessible places in
the Balkans. To avoid lengthy travelling, we will go to Sofia by
plane. The transport Praha-Sofia and back will  be  arranged  by
the  organizers  (it  is  likely  that  we will be able to get a
substantial price reduction). The approximate cost of the excur-
sion will be 450 USD (without the air fare).

Please, address all correspondence to:

IAVS Symposium, Institute of Botany, CZ-252 43, Pruhonice, Czech
fax: +42 2 67750031

Current information on the Symposium (and the on-line  registra-
tion form) can be found at the WWW homepage:

Hope to see you at the Symposium,

Zdena  Neuhauslova,  Frantisek Krahulec, Jan Leps, Tomas Herben,
Petr Smilauer
(BEN # 141  20-August-1996)
From: Sharon Palmer <> [abbrev.]

Forest Sciences Department
Faculty of Forestry
University of British Columbia

Applications are being accepted for a tenure-track  position  at
the  Instructor level to teach in the Natural Resource Conserva-
tion undergraduate program, which will graduate  40-50  students
per  year. Responsibilities include teaching two courses, and in
addition, carrying out management and  coordination  of  an  in-
tegrated  course  that addresses ecological and social issues in

Applicants must have at minimum, a  Masters  degree  in  an  ap-
propriate  field  with  at least three years additional relevant
experience. They must have field and data analysis skills and  a
demonstrated  ability to teach in field and classrooms settings.
Candidates with backgrounds in ecology,  forestry,  conservation
biology,  geography,  or  hydrology  are  encouraged to apply. A
familiarity with conservation  issues  in  British  Columbia  is

Salary  is  commensurate with experience and qualifications. The
University  of  British  Columbia  welcomes  all  qualified  ap-
plicants,   especially   women,   aboriginal   people,   visible
minorities and persons with  disabilities.  In  accordance  with
Canadian immigration requirements this advertisement is directed
to Canadian Citizens and permanent residents.

Please  direct  inquiries, and applications consisting a CV, the
names and addresses of three references, prior  to  October  31,
1996  to:  Dr.  Scott  Hinch,  Search  Committee  Chair,  Forest
Sciences Department, University of British Columbia,  Vancouver,
B.C.,  Canada,  V6T 1Z4. Tel: (604) 822-9377 Fax: (604) 822-9102
(BEN # 141  20-August-1996)
BBBBB    EEEEEE   NN   N             ISSN 1188-603X
BB   B   EE       NNN  N             
BBBBB    EEEEE    NN N N             BOTANICAL
BB   B   EE       NN  NN             ELECTRONIC
BBBBB    EEEEEE   NN   N             NEWS

No. 142                              August 30, 1996        Victoria, B.C.
 Dr. A. Ceska, P.O.Box 8546, Victoria, B.C. Canada V8W 3S2

From: The Idaho Statesman, July 27, 1996, Page 4B [abbrev.]

Douglass  M. Henderson, 58, a professor of Botany at the Univer-
sity of Idaho, died Wednesday, July 24,  1996,  at  his  Moscow,
Idaho, home of a self-inflicted gunshot wound.

He  was  born  July 9, 1938, at Long Beach, Calif., to Allen and
Dolores Smith Henderson. He was reared in  Bakersfield,  Calif.,
and graduated from high school there in 1956.

He  enlisted  with  the  U.S. Air Force, and spent four years at
various bases around the country between 1956 and 1960.  He  was
in  the U.S. Air Force Reserve from 1960 to 1962. While with the
Air Force, he attended tech school in Denver.

He attended Bakersfield College from 1960 to 1963 and  graduated
magna  cum  laude  from  Fresno  State  College  in  1965 with a
bachelor's degree in botany.

He married Margaret Sherman on Dec.  26,  1970,  at  Sacramento,

He  received  his  doctorate  in  botany  from the University of
Washington at Seattle in 1972. He was a teaching assistant, then
instructor of botany at UW after graduation. He was an assistant
professor of botany at the University  of  Idaho  from  1972  to
1978, and become an associate professor in 1978.

He was director of the University of Idaho herbarium, the manag-
ing  editor  for the Systematic Botany (1983-1985), and regional
coordinator for Flora of North America (1984-1987). In  1975  he
was appointed by the Governor to be in charge of issuing permits
for the collection of endangered and threatened plants in Idaho.

He  had written numerous scholarly publications, won UI teaching
excellence awards and was a member of several botanical associa-
tions (ASPT, IAPT, BSA). He was an avid photographer and enjoyed
hiking and canoeing.

He is survived by his wife,  a  son,  two  daughters  and  three
grandchildren.  The  family  suggests  memorials  may be made to
University of Idaho Vandal Boosters, or  to  the  University  of
Washington  Botany  Department,  c/o  University  of Washington,
Seattle, WA 99195.

Several publications of D. M. Henderson [selected by AC]:

Henderson,  D.  M.  1976.  A  biosystematic  study  of   Pacific
   northwestern  blue-eyed  grasses  (Sisyrinchium,  Iridaceae).
   Brittonia 28: 149-176.
Henderson, D. M., R. K. Moseley, & A. F. Cholewa.  1990.  A  new
   Agoseris  (Asteraceae)  from  Idaho  and  Montana. Systematic
   Botany 15(3): 462-465. [A. lackschewitzii - see BEN # 24 &  #
Cholewa,  A.  F.  & D. M. Henderson. 1994. Iridaceae Iris Family
   Part  One  Sisyrinchium  L.  Journal  of  the  Arizona-Nevada
   Academy of Science 27(2): 215-218.
Urbanczyk,  S.  M.  &  D. M. Henderson. 1994. Classification and
   ordination of alpine plant communities, Sheep Mountain, Lemhi
   Country, Idaho. Madrono 41(3): 205-223.
Bursik, R. J. & D.M. Henderson. 1995. Valley peatland  flora  of
   Idaho. Madrono 42(3): 366-395
(BEN # 142  30-August-1996)
From: Thor Henrich c/o <>

On  Friday,  August  9,  1996,  bulldozer  operator  John  Bell,
employed by the Paramount Blasting  and  Drilling  Company,  was
working on the new Duke Point Road extension, which will connect
the  Island  Highway south of Nanaimo to a new ferry terminal to
the mainland. The workers had finished blasting a large  section
of  sandstone  and  coal-bearing  shale, and were removing large
blocks of stone, to crush into roadfill for the  new  extension.
Mr. Bell recognized a large fossil of some sort on the undersur-
face  of  a large boulder. He excavated the stone and allowed it
to turn over. This action exposed a  surface  covered  with  the
leaves of an ancient palm tree, Phoenicites (in older literature
Geonomites)  imperialis,  as  well as many other smaller leaves.
Mr. Bell was able with his huge machine, to scoop up  the  boul-
der, and move it to the top roadcut, adjacent to the parking lot
of the Cranberry Arms Hotel.

The Victoria Palaeontology Society became aware of the discovery
from  Elizabeth  Hargreaves  of  the  Nanaimo Times, and after a
quick reconnaissance trip recognized the  scientific  importance
of  the  fossil site. Salvage palaeontology of the site revealed
exquisitely preserved specimens of the Upper  Cretaceous  Period
(about  72 million years old), such as dawn redwood (Metasequoia
cuneata), several fern species, many angiosperms, and the  enig-
matic  cycadoid Nilssonia. The end of the Mesozoic Era is one of
the most important periods  in  the  history  of  life  on  this
planet.  We  see  not only the extinction of dinosaurs, but also
the rapid evolution of the angiosperms, the dominant plant group

At present the boulder containing  the  palm  fossils  has  been
moved  to  the campus of Malaspina University College, under the
supervision  of  K.  Maggie  McColl  (Geology   Department   co-
ordinator),  until  a  final decision can be made concerning its
final disposition. Members of the Victoria Palaeontology Society
also collected many smaller pieces of  fossil-bearing  rock  for
future scientific investigations.

The  high  diversity  and richness of the flora on this site, as
well as its excellent preservation, mark it as a  most  valuable
site. Unfortunately, most of the fossil containing rock has been
excavated,  crushed,  and used as a road fill for the Duke Point
Road extension.

It is a tragedy, if a society which purports to be advanced  and
civilized,  allows  the  destruction  of  some  of its more sig-
nificant records of its ancient history.

The Victoria  Palaeontology  Society  will  hold  the  Society's
Annual Open House at the Swan Lake Nature Centre, 3873 Swan Lake
Rd.,  Victoria, B.C. on Saturday, September 21, 1996, from 10:00
a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Admission is by donation. All are  invited  to
(BEN # 142  30-August-1996)
From: From the Federal Register Online
      via GPO Access []

This  notice invites comments and information from the public on
species  that  have  been  suggested  as  candidates  for   U.S.
proposals to amend Appendix I or II.

Dates:  The  Service  will consider all comments received by Oc-
tober 11, 1996, on species proposals described in this notice. 

Addresses: Please send correspondence concerning this notice  to
Chief, Office of Scientific Authority; 4401 North Fairfax Drive,
Room  750;  Arlington,  Virginia 22203. Fax number 703-358-2276.
Comments and other information received will  be  available  for
public  inspection  by appointment, from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday
through Friday, at the above address.

For further information contact: Dr. Marshall A. Howe, Office of
Scientific Authority, at the above address,  telephone  703-358-

16. Pacific Yew (Taxus brevifolia)

The  Oregon  Natural  Resources Council has recommended that the
United States propose the Pacific yew for inclusion in  Appendix
II.  This  slow-growing species occurs in a limited range in the
western United  States  and  Canada.  An  effective  anti-cancer
compound  (paclitaxel  or taxol) is obtained especially from its
bark, as well as to an increasing but unknown extent from  other
species  of  Taxus.  Some  companies  are  working on methods of
obtaining paclitaxel from  Taxus  needles  and  branches  (which
could avoid loss of the whole plant). Laboratory substitutes for
the  natural  compound are either not available or not available
in  adequate  commercial  quantity,  but  there  is  some  semi-
synthetic  production.  The species is not grown commercially in
large quantity for medicinal use, but there is  some  ornamental
cultivation.  There  is  some  export of Pacific yew biomass for
manufacture of paclitaxel in other countries. The Himalayan  yew
(Taxus wallichiana) was listed in Appendix II at COP9, excluding
the  finished  pharmaceutical  products  (i.e.,  the end-product

The Service seeks information regarding: (1) The  intensity  and
purposes  of  removal  of the several parts of this species from
the wild in various areas, the characteristics  of  the  popula-
tions  impacted  by  these  extractions, and the trends in those
populations; (2) the location, characteristics,  and  safety  of
populations  that  will not be available for extraction; (3) the
extent to which biomass from the  wild  (i.e.,  materials  other
than  the  end-point  medicine) is exported from either country;
and (4) the degree to which the medicinal trade  involves  other
wild  species,  and/or  non-wild  sources of the compound (e.g.,
from cultivated Pacific yew or other species, or from laboratory

19. Tweedy's Bitterroot (Lewisia tweedyi or Cistanthe tweedyi)

The recommendation to remove this species from Appendix  II  was
initiated  by the CITES Plants Committee, as part of the ongoing
process of reviewing listed  taxa  at  10-year  intervals.  This
herbaceous mountain species is native in the State of Washington
and nearby in the Province of British Columbia (Canada). Because
it  was  found  to be sufficiently secure within its range, this
species was removed from consideration for the  U.S.  Endangered
Species  Act  in a 1985 Federal Register notice on many taxa (50
FR 39526). Moreover, this species is believed to be sufficiently
easy to propagate and available in cultivation to  supply  rock-
garden enthusiasts.

Since  the  biological  status of the species is considered less
vulnerable than when it was listed in 1983, and since there have
been no applications to export it from  the  wild  in  the  last
decade (and almost none to export it from cultivation as artifi-
cially propagated specimens), removal of the species from Appen-
dix II seems appropriate. Information is sought on the status of
the species in the wild, and the likelihood and extent of inter-
national trade in wild specimens of this species.
(BEN # 142  30-August-1996)
From: Tara Steigenberger <>

BCMail  Plus has informed us that our mail will be delayed if we
don't have the new address on it. The new address is:

   Royal British Columbia Museum
   PO Box 9815 Stn Prov Govt
   Victoria, BC
   Canada V8W 9W2

PS: did I tell you that I'm getting married??
(BEN # 142  30-August-1996)
From: Jan Kirkby <>

This year's BOTANY BC took place from July 18 to July 20 in Fort
St.  James and Prince George. The topic this year was Vegetation
of Special Habitats and included a bus trip from  Prince  George
down the Rocky Mountain Trench to Valemount.

Many  thanks to Craig Delong and other organizers of this year's
Botany BC. They outdid themselves by  showing  us  such  a  vast
array  of  ecosystem  types  that  one  participant was heard to
wonder whether we were still on the same planet! Imagine  seeing
this  within  2  days: serpentine ridge (Murray Ridge - 1445 m),
limestone  mountain  (Mt.  Pope  at  750  m  elevation),   black
spruce/tamarack bog, willow forests, beautiful Rubus chamaemorus
(Cloudberry)  bog,  inland  wetbelt  oldgrowth  forest, and sand

This year's BOTANY BC had a slightly different format due to the
bus trip: two full days in the field were combined with  evening
lectures.  There  were  excellent talks by Dr. Art Kruckeberg on
the relationship between  plants  and  serpentine  geology  [see
abstract below], Dr. Hugues Massicotte on mycorrhizal fungi, and
Trevor  Goward's enlichening talk on indicator lichen species in
inland oldgrowth forests. These "antique" forests occur  nowhere
else  on  the  planet,  and Trevor gave an articulate and impas-
sioned plea for the preservation of these threatened ecosystems.
[Abstracts of Dr. Massicotte's talk  and  Trevor  Goward's  "an-
tique" forests will be posted in the next BEN.]

Rare plant discoveries were made, among them blue-listed Pellaea
atropurpurea, Woodsia glabella, and Carex tonsa, and yellow-, or
"watch"-listed Aspidotis densa.

Thanks  again to Craig et al for organizing this memorable trip.
Join us for an alpine BOTANY BC next July. Possibly at beautiful
Cathedral Lakes.
(BEN # 143  12-September-1996)
From: Kruckeberg, A.R. 1992. (Abstract)

[ Ultramafic rocks - igneous rocks in which there is  an  abnor-
   mally  high  content  of  ferromagnesian silicates, but which
   contain no feldspar... Chambers Science and  Technology  Dic-
   tionary ]

In  Western  North  America,  ultramafics  occur with decreasing
abundance from California, Oregon, Washington, to British Colum-
bia. The greatest concentration of ultramafics, mostly  as  ser-
pentinized peridotite, are in northwestern California and south-
western Oregon.

Soils  weathered  from  ultramafic  rocks  are  either devoid of
vegetation (barrens) or support  sparse  but  often  distinctive
floras.  Cation  exchange capacities range from 5.2 to 43 milli-
equivalents per 100 grams of dry  soil;  pH  values  are  around
neutral  (6.0  to  8.8);  Mg/Ca quotients are invariably greater
than 1.0; and deficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus  are  com-
mon.  Tissue  analysis  of  serpentine plants often reveals high
concentrations of magnesium and nickel.

Vegetation on ultramafic soils takes  the  form  of  distinctive
variants  of  conifer-hardwood  forest, chaparral, or grassland.
Often the serpentine (S) vegetation is  sharply  delimited  from
adjacent  non-serpentine  (NS)  types, both by physiognomy (e.g.
chaparral on serpentine, forest on nearby nonserpentine), and by
species composition. The most striking contrast in vegetation (S
vs. NS) are in California and Oregon. Contrasts in S-NS  vegeta-
tion are lessening in the Pacific Northwest, possibly because of
increased  precipitation,  or the short post-Pleistocene history
in the region, or both. A similar lessening of contrasts in S-NS
vegetation was noted in the United Kingdom.

Floras on ultramafic soils  can  be  strikingly  unusual.  Three
types  of  floristic  elements  can be found: (1) serpentine en-
demics, (2) local or regional indicator species, and (3)  boden-
vag  species, taxa widespread on S and NS habitats. Also many NS
taxa may be excluded from adjoining S soils.

The greatest concentration of species endemic to  serpentine  is
in the Klamath-Siskyou mountain complex of northwestern Califor-
nia  and  southwestern  Oregon, with secondary concentrations in
the North Coast and South Coast ranges and the Sierra Nevada  of
California.  Endemics  occur in all life-forms: trees and shrubs
(e.g., Cupressus sargentii, Quercus durata, Ceanothus jepsonii),
herbaceous perennials (e.g., Calochortus  tiburonensis,  Fritil-
laria  liliacea, Lilium bolanderi); and annuals (e.g., Streptan-
thus batrachopus, Layia  discoidea,  Clarkia  franciscana).  En-
demics  belong  to genera abundantly represented in the regional

Widespread species that appear as local or  regional  indicators
of  serpentine include trees like Calocedrus decurrens and Pinus
jeffreyi,  shrubs  (e.g.,  Heteromeles  arbutifolia,  Adenostoma
fasciculatum,  Ceanothus cuneatus) and herbs (e.g., Streptanthus
glandulosus,   Darlingtonia   californica,   Aspidotis    densa,
Xerophyllum tenax).

Indifferent  or  bodenvag  species  are often racially differen-
tiated into tolerant and intolerant biotypes.

The fauna on western North American serpentines has received but
scant attention, and merits closer study. Butterfly species  are
known  to  be closely tied to serpentine plants as food sources;
one instance of plant mimicry of butterfly eggs is cited.

The evolution of a serpentine flora may  involve  a  variety  of
speciational routes. The most probable sequence for diploid taxa
could  involve  (1) genetic preadaptation to serpentine within a
NS species; (2) racial fixation of the preadapted genotype;  (3)
further  morphological  and physiological divergence yielding an
infraspecific variant; (4) attaining species status  by  further
genetic  and  ecological isolation. This sequence is illustrated
by Streptanthus, a genus of  western  North  America  crucifers,
with varying degrees of fidelity and narrow endemism to Califor-
nia  and  Oregon serpentines. A more rapid mode of speciation on
serpentine, saltational speciation  by  catastrophic  selection,
has been proposed.

Adaptation  to  ultramafic  soils  is  likely  to  involve  both
physiological  and  morphological  modifications.   Xerophytism,
nanism,  glaucescence,  plagiotropism  and  colour  changes (an-
thocyanic, chlorotic)  are  frequent  attributes  of  serpentine
species.  A  few  species possess the ability to accumulate over
1000 micrograms/gram  of  nickel  in  their  foliar  dry  matter

Western  North  American  serpentines  have  been  exploited for
minerals,  timber,  grazing  and  agriculture,  with  consequent
effects on their flora. Mining for mercury, nickel and chromium,
as  well  as  geothermal  power  developments,  have created the
greatest disturbance to them. Only modest efforts have been made
to preserve samples of serpentine  vegetation.  Some  state  and
federal  wilderness  areas  include serpentine vegetation; other
serpentine areas are 'protected' either by  neglect  or  because
they  are  valued  as  watershed areas. A very few natural areas
specifically for serpentine vegetation have been established  in
the  three  Pacific  Coast  states.  None  are known for British

Kruckeberg, A. R. 1992. Plant life  of  western  North  American
   ultramafics.  Pp. 31-73 in Roberts, B. A. & J. Proctor [eds.]
   The ecology of areas with serpentinized rocks. A world  view.
   Kluwer Academic Publishers.
(BEN # 143  12-September-1996)
From: Kruckeberg, A. R. 1995. Madrono 42: 461 + pers. comm.

Make  up  a  1 per cent solution of dimethylglyoxime in ethanol.
Soak a box of 4-5 cm filter papers in solution. Allows papers to
dry in a fume hood, or overnight in a low temperature (30  -  40
deg.) oven.

Use  in  field:  Moisten  (water) paper, then crush plant tissue
between folded paper. Turns RED if 1000 ppm or greater.

[The only  hyperaccumulator  of  nickel  so  far  reported  from
northwestern North America is Arenaria (=Minuartia) rubella. Cf.
Kruckeberg, A.R. et al. 1993. Madrono 40: 25-30.]
(BEN # 143  12-September-1996)
From: Coastal Mountain College <>

Coastal  Mountain  College of Healing Arts presents an extension
course "First Nations'  Herbal  Materia  Medica"  instructed  by
Brian Compton, Ph.D.

Native  British  Columbian medicinal plants have been used for a
variety of purposes by indigenous peoples for centuries but have
only recently begun to  be  systematically  and  comprehensively
examined  and  evaluated  by scientists for their antibiotic and
antifungal properties. This combined  with  the  growing  public
interest  in  herbal medicine and research into new formulations
makes this course  of  vital  interest  to  individuals  in  the
product research and manufacturing sectors.

This  10  week course provides an introduction to the botanical,
phytochemical,  therapeutic  and  cultural  attributes  of   100
species  of native medicinal flora. The course will also explain
their relation to the traditional healing beliefs and  practices
of various First Nation cultures of North America.

The  program  will  be  taught  by  Brian  Compton,  Ph.D., eth-
nobotanist and honourary research associate at the University of
British Columbia. He has done extensive field studies  in  North
and  South  America.  With over 10 years of teaching experience,
Dr. Compton presently  teaches  a  course  on  "Ethnobiology  of
British  Columbia's  First  Nations"  at First Nations' House of

The course will feature:
   field trips
   gathering and preparation
   herbal characteristics and classification
   species used by coastal, interior and northern peoples

Course Date: Monday nights from October 7 to December 10, 1996
Course Tuition: CND$ 375.00
Deadline For Registration: October 5, 1996

To Register or For More Information

   Coastal Mountain College of Healing Arts
   1745 West 4th Ave., Vancouver, B.C., V6J 1M2
   Phone: (604) 734-4596 Fax: (604) 734-4597
(BEN # 143  12-September-1996)

This new society was instigated to bring together a diversity of
people  who  enjoy,  study  and work with indigenous plants. The
mission of the NPSBC Native Plant Society  of  British  Columbia

   to  encourage  knowledge, responsible use and conservation
   of British Columbia's native plants and habitats.

This will be achieved through the following objectives:

 1. Advance knowledge and  awareness  of  the  value  of  native
 2. Develop  and  maintain  an inventory of BC's native species,
    communities and habitats.
 3. Promote the  conservation  of  BC's  native  plant  species,
    communities and habitats.
 4. Initiate  the development of guidelines concerning the ethi-
    cal uses of native plants.
 5. Support the use of native  plants  in  accordance  with  the
    ethical use guidelines.
 6. Encourage  the  restoration  of disturbed habitats of native
    plant species and communities.
 7. Facilitate communications and interaction among individuals,
    groups and governments regarding native plant issues.
 8. Support research on native plants and plant communities.

Membership fees: Individual - $20.00, Associate -  $15.00,  Cor-
porate - $75.00.

First  membership meeting of the NPSBC - Native Plant Society of
British Columbia: Saturday, November 23, 1996, from 9:30 a.m. to
5:00 p.m., at the Grand Hall, University College of the Cariboo,
Kamloops. Registration fee for the conference  (includes  buffet
lunch and 2 coffee breaks) is $25.00 (deadline: November 8).

For more information contact:

Diane Gertzen, 14275 96th Avenue, Surrey, BC, V3V 7Z2
Phone: 604-930-3309 E-mail:
(BEN # 144  17-September-1996)
From: Trevor Goward, Nature Canada - Summer 1994.

As  a  rule,  lichen colonization in a maturing forest occurs in
two pulses. The first consists of various species of  widespread
distribution, and is essentially complete by the time the forest
reached the century mark. The second, more diffuse pulse doesn't
really  begin  to  register  until  50 to 100 years later. It is
comprised of species living at or near the ecological limits  of
their  range;  many  will  remain  rare even once they do become

These phenomena are by no means peculiar to the conifer  forests
of  western  North  America.  Similar patterns have already been
amply  documented  in  Britain  by  lichenologist  Francis  Rose

In  mid-'70s,  Rose  conducted inventories of the lichens of 102
oak and beech woodlands in different parts of the British Isles.
When later he compared his species lists against  existing  land
use  records,  he  found a definite positive correlation between
lichen diversity and forest age. This led him to  conclude  that
some  lichens  may be regarded as "historical indicators of lack
of environmental change, within certain  critical  limits,  over
long periods of time."

British forests undisturbed for many hundreds of years typically
support between 120 and 150 lichen species per square kilometre.
The  richest  forest  for lichens by far is the New Forest which
ironically, is  anything  but  new,  having  apparently  escaped
woodcutter's axe since at least the Middle Ages. It was found to
contain  an  astonishing  259  species  of lichens. By contrast,
British woodlans dating from less than 200  years  ago  tend  to
support fewer than 50 lichens per square kilometre.

In  the  British  Isles,  as in British Columbia, a 150-year-old
forest will not acquire its full complement of epiphytic lichens
for at least another century or two.  The  fact  obliges  us  to
think again about what we mean when we speak of "old growth."

Should  an old-growth woodland 1000 years old be lumped, for the
purposes of conservation, with one that is "only" 200 years old?
Both forests may appear identical to the untrained eye. But they
clearly are not  identical  -  whether  as  living  archives  of
British Columbia's past, or as repositories of biological tradi-

"Antique  forests,"  as  I define them, are simply the oldest of
the old: forests that have been around long  enough  to  accumu-
late,  among  other  things,  a  rich  assemblage  of old-growth
epiphytes. Such forests seem invariably to be more than  300  to
350  years  old, and many, in many cases, have been in existence
much longer than the most ancient trees within  them.  The  last
point is important. A 150-year-old tree in a 500-year-old forest
may  well support more old-growth indicators than a 250-year-old
tree in a forest dating from a fire of equivalent vintage.

Goward, T. 1994. Living antiquities. Nature Canada, Summer 1994:
Goward, T. 1994. Notes on oldgrowth-dependent  epiphytic  macro-
   lichens  in  inland  British  Columbia, Canada. Acta Botanica
   Fennica 150: 31-38.
Rose, F. 1976. Lichenological indicators of age and  environmen-
   tal  continuity  in woodlands. Pp. 279-307 in: Brown, D.H. et
   al.  [eds.]  Lichenology:  progress  and  problems.  Academic
   Press, London.
(BEN # 144  17-September-1996)

Rita  M.  O'Clair,  R. M., S. C. Lindstrom, & I. R. Brodo. 1996.
   Southeast Alaska's  rocky  shores:  seaweeds  &  lichens. 
   Plant Press, Auke Bay, Alaska. 152 p.

This  guide to the abundant and diverse organisms living between
tidelines on the rocky shores of Southeast Alaska is useful from
the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, to  Oregon  because  the  complete
ranges of all species are given.

The  book provides detailed descriptions of 83 species of algae,
30 species of lichens, 1 moss and 2  seagrasses.  A  chapter  is
devoted to favorite seaweed recipes.

Each  species description includes the common names, current and
former scientific names, geographic distribution and bathymetry,
as well as comprehensive anatomical, physiological and  ecologi-
cal  information.  Almost  every  species  is  illustrated by an
exquisite grayscale b&w drawing. A complete species list, bibli-
ography and index are included, while a glossary  is  integrated
with the text.

Together,  these three biologists, whose careers span a total of
80 years, have written a treasure for all who  love  west  coast
rocky shorelines, including:

        --students and teachers of marine biology
        --subsistence users of intertidal resources
        --managers of aquaculture projects
        --scientists concerned with shoreline protection
        --tour guides and visitors
        --beachcombers, boaters, SCUBA divers
        --birdwatchers, naturalists, and
        --anyone who walks on rocky beaches!

To order a copy of this book, please send $22.95 in US funds for
orders with the US (residents of the City and Borough of Juneau,
Alaska,  add $.80 sales tax), or $25 in US funds for orders from
Canada or Mexico. For other foreign orders, please enquire. Send
funds together with your complete name  and  address  (including
zip code or postal code) directly to the publisher:

   Plant Press,
   PO Box 210094,
   Auke Bay, AK 99821-0094
(BEN # 144  17-September-1996)
From: Mary Gibby <>

Tadeus  Reichstein  was  born on 20th July 1897 in Wloclawek, at
that time in Russian Poland. The family moved to Switzerland  in
1906.  During  the  1920s  he  worked  on  the  isolation of the
volatile constituents of the flavour of roasted coffee,  and  in
the  1930s he developed a method for the commercial synthesis of
Vitamin C. For his work on  adrenal  cortical  hormones  he  was
awarded  the  Nobel  Prize  for Medicine and Physiology in 1950,
together with E.C. Kendall and Philippe Hench. Since being  made
Emeritus Professor in 1967 he has worked full-time on ferns. His
interests were wide-ranging and global. He was in correspondence
with  pteridologists  from many parts of the world. His fascina-
tion was for polyploid fern complexes, but  he  also  has  spent
many  years  working  on the pteridophytes for Flora Iranica. He
continued to use his  expertise  in  organic  chemistry  in  the
investigation  of phloroglucinols in Dryopteris. In all his fern
work he was a great collaborator, and practically all  his  fern
papers  have  been  multi-authored.  An exception is a favourite
subject, his 1981 paper on  "Hybrids  in  European  Aspleniaceae
(Pteridophyta)", Bot. Helv. 91: 89-139.

He died on 1st August 1996 at the age of 99.
(BEN # 145   3-October-1996)
From: "Hugues B. Massicotte" <>

The  botanical landscape can be seen as a mycorrhizal landscape,
a landscape where the roots of most plant species form  interac-
tive  and  beneficial partners with a variety of fungal species.
In my talk I explored the astonishing structural complexity  and
hinted  at  the  ecological  significance of a variety of mycor-
rhizal symbioses found in B.C. and, indeed, worldwide. With  the
aid of a variety of microscopy techniques and numerous floristic
examples, I explored and compared the significant features which
make  vesicular-arbuscular,  ecto-,  ectendo-, arbutoid, ericoid, 
monotropoid and orchid mycorrhizae.

Fungi involved in mycorrhizal  relationships  range  from  being
very  specific to their host (usually one plant genus), to being
generalists, associating with an immense array of hosts, perhaps
a clue to their numerous ecological contributions.

For example, several important genera of trees in B.C., such  as
Pinus,  Picea,  Pseudotsuga,  but  also  smaller plants, such as
Dryas and Kobresia, form ectomycorrhizae with  their  respective
fungal  symbionts (mostly basidiomycetes and ascomycetes). These
ectomycorrhizae have a  Hartig  net  (the  functional  interface
between the fungus and the root cell) where presumably exchanges
of metabolites take place, and a fungal sheath (or mantle) which
surrounds   the  root  and  interfaces  with  the  soil  matrix,
facilitating the uptake of nutrients and  water  by  the  plant.
Worldwide,  it is estimated that over 5000 species of ectomycor-
rhizal fungi has been described.

Ectendomycorrhizae, monotropoid and arbutoid mycorrhizae, repre-
sent variations in some aspects of  the  ectomycorrhizal  theme!
Like ectomycorrhizae, ectendomycorrhizae have a Hartig net and a
mantle,  but  also  have intracellular coils, fungal hyphae that
exist inside the root  cells.  The  functional  significance  of
these  coils  is  unclear  (after  all,  a Hartig net is already
present). However, species, such as the genus  Wilcoxina,  is  a
fungus presumably involved worldwide with pine species. Arbutoid
mycorrhizae  are  very  similar  to ectendo structurally, except
that all fungal structures are restricted to the outer layer  of
root epidermal cells, as in other ericaceous plants (see below).
The  fungi  involved  with arbutoid plants are the same as those
forming ectomycorrhizae, a phenomenon that  could  theoretically
open  the doors for "linkages" between hosts involved in these 2
classes. Demonstration of these ecological linkages will  occupy
the researcher well into the 21st century!

In the case of vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizae,  found  on
hundred  of  species  in  B.C., (from herbs to woody perennials,
Liliaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Juglandaceae to name a  few)  ,
it  is  the  "haustoria-like" arbuscule (i.e. a tree-like fungal
structure), which develop within root cells,  that  act  as  the
functional  interface  for  exchange  between  the plant and the
fungus.  The  vesicles  (i.e.  intracellular  flask-like  fungal
structures)  act  as the "warehouses" where the fungus can store
lipids. The fungi involved in VA relationships are not  diverse,
perhaps  200  species worldwide, and exhibit low specificity for
their hosts in fungus can interact  with  most  VA
hosts.  To  date, no one has succeeded in growing these VA fungi
in pure culture, emphasizing the obligate nature of  these  sym-
biotic fungi.

The ericoid mycorrhizae involve numerous ericaceous hosts (Gaul-
theria,  Rhododendron,  Vaccinium,  Calluna, etc.) and usually a
"select" group of septate ascomycete fungi. They  appear  to  be
broad  host ranging among ericaceous hosts but are restricted to
them. Ericaceous host roots  are  very  minute  and  the  fungus
usually  interacts with the root epidermis, forming coils within
each colonized cell. The mutual transfer of metabolites  happens

The   most   curious  mycorrhizae,  which  has  intrigued  plant
physiologists for decades, involve monotropoid hosts (Monotropa,
Pterospora, etc.) and possibly a subset of the  vast  ectomycor-
rhizal  fungi  pool.  These  plants are heterotrophic, obtaining
carbohydrates from other sources, therefore it is hard to under-
stand how fungi benefit by forming mycorrhiza with these plants.
It seems the fungi are involved in a tripartite  "contract",  in
which  they  first  derive carbohydrates from a true autotrophic
host (typically Picea, Pinus, etc.) and then  transfer  some  to
the monotropoid plant, apparently an "altruistic" transfer?!. It
is  unclear  what  the  fungus  gets  in  return but speculation

The  last  intriguing  class,  the  orchid mycorrhizae, are even
lesser known. With  a  worldwide  diversity  of  orchid  species
exceeding   the  20  thousands,  and  with  a  select  group  of
basidiomycetes interacting with orchid tissues,  either  at  the
time of seed germination or at the time of symbiotic root forma-
tion,  we  find  ourselves  in the infancy of orchid mycorrhizae
research! Here too, fungal coils invading cells are the presumed
site of metabolite exchanges.

Our understanding of these complex mutualistic  associations  is
still  limited when one considers the vast undescribed diversity
of fungi actually inhabiting the soil with  their  plant  hosts!
The living soil is truly one of our last frontiers...

   Dr. Hugues B. Massicotte
   University of Northern British Columbia
   Prince George, B.C.
(BEN # 145   3-October-1996)

The  South  Vancouver  Island  Mycological Society will have its
annual Wild Mushroom Show on Sunday, October  20,  1996  at  the
Swan  Lake  Nature Centre from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Admission free,
but donations appreciated.
(BEN # 146  11-October-1996)
From: Charles Dorworth <CDORWORTH@A1.PFC.Forestry.CA>

Mr. Ross MacDonald, former  Director  of  the  Pacific  Forestry
Centre  in  Victoria,  had  a  particular interest in biological
control as an alternative to pesticide application and  as  part
of overall plans for integrated pest management systems. On that
note,  he  initiated the Microbial Biological Control of Forests
Weeds Program in March, 1986, and assigned Charles  Dorworth  to
investigate the matter.

By  March  1996  the  Program had expanded to seven researchers,
four graduate students and  supported  approximately  five  B.C.
university   summer   students   annually.   Federal  Government
"downsizing" has reduced the Program staff since that time.

The "product" of the Program is arranged in two  categories  for

 1. FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH: The so-called "discovery" phase of the
    research  required  that  candidate  biocontrol organisms be
    found and  identified.  This  resulted  in  the  description
    recently  of  a  new  genus of fungi, Quasiphloeospora based
    upon Q. saximontanensis comb. nov. (Mycol. Res. 100:979-983,
    1996), based in part on collections of fungi from Ribes spp.
    by PFC Scientist Simon Shamoun and colleagues. Prof.  Thomas
    Sieber  (E.T.H.-Zurich,  Switzerland), who worked at the PFC
    for 1.5 years as a visiting scientist, and Charles  Dorworth
    will describe a new species of Grovesiella from Ribes within
    the  next  year.  Additional  records of first-occurrence in
    British Columbia of other fungi were recorded as well.

    Ron Wall (ret.) Donna Macey and Elaine Sela (ret.) will soon
    have a publication which  presents  the  results  of  mating
    tests among isolates of Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers.:Fr.)
    Pouzar  (Virulence  and  Infertility  of Chondrostereum pur-
    pureum Isolates). Tod Ramsfield has had  marked  success  in
    purification of mitochondrial DNA from C. purpureum and will
    complete  his  thesis  on  (among  other  things) population
    structure of  the  organism  as  elucidated  from  DNA  com-
    parisons.  Carmen  Oleskevich recently published a monograph
    on Ribes spp. and has developed a  library  of  cultures  of
    Fusarium spp. from Ribes spp. This work will forms the basis
    of her thesis.

    The  research  of  Drs. Thomas and Francesca Sieber-Canavesi
    was centered on endophytic fungi and their relationships  to
    B.C. trees. This effort produced results which permitted the
    elaboration of a new philosophical assessment of the role of
    endophytes  either  as quiescent inhabitants or as potential
    plant pathogens and produced a number of excellent published
    works. The  collaboration  between  Switzerland  and  Canada
    continues to produce scientific contributions.

    A  notable  collection  of soil bacteria (rhizobacteria) has
    been accumulated by Donna Macey of the  PFC.  Donna  adapted
    the  methods  and the gas-chromatographic software developed
    in Rhode Island by MIDI Corp. to identify some 500  isolates
    of  bacteria.  Several  of these have not been described and
    new  records  will  appear   in   due   course.   The   same
    chromatographic  method  (fatty-acid methyl ester chromatog-
    raphy) in combination with sterol analysis can be applied to

    Dr. Richard Winder has described the ecological  interaction
    between  various fungi and northern reedgrass (Calamagrostis
    canadensis [Michaux] Beauv.) as affected  by  exudates  from
    fallen litter (Can. Jour. Bot-in press) . He has also inves-
    tigated the physiology of Fusarium avenaceum (Fr.) Sacc. and
    F. poae (Peck) Wollenweber. In addition, Leslie Manning, who
    operates  the  electron microscope laboratory and associated
    facilities, prepared specimens  which  reveal  the  mode  of
    cell-wall  penetration  of Nectria ditissima Tul. and Melan-
    conis marginalis (Peck) Wehmeyer.

 2. APPLIED RESEARCH: The distinction  between  fundamental  and
    applied  research is moot, certainly, but among applications
    might appear:

    Three U.S. patents have been issued and trademarks protected
    to permit commercialization of developments  and  inventions
    generated  by  the Program. A synopsis of those can be found
    in INFORMATION FORESTRY, August 1996, available from Pacific
    forestry Centre (Joanne Stone, 604-363-0600). One  of  those
    developments  (Chondrostereum purpureum) has been funded for
    transcontinental  testing.  An  attempt  is  being  made  to
    register  this  organism  with  Agriculture  and  Agri-Foods
    Canada as a commercial bioagent.

A justification for employing taxpayer dollars  for  mycological
research may seem superfluous. Good fundamental research is, for
many  of us, its own justification. Forest vegetation management
is necessary, however, as weeds are responsible for the loss  of
millions  of  dollars worth of forest replant operations nation-
wide. Pesticides are no  longer  an  acceptable  tool  for  weed
management  in  many  instances.  Money spent for biocontrol re-
search pays dividends to the taxpayers who  contributed  to  the
effort,  and  the  point must be made from time to time. The PFC
will be pleased to supply further information and copies of  the
many  scientific  and technical publications which have emanated
from this work during the past 10 years.

   Charles Dorworth, Ph.D., Microbiologist
   Pacific Forestry Centre
   Victoria, B.C., Canada

(BEN # 146  11-October-1996)

Rollins, R.C., K.A. Beck & F.E.  Caplow.  1996.  An  undescribed
   species   of  Lesquerella  (Cruciferae)  from  the  State  of
   Washington. Rhodora 97 ("1995"): 201-207.

During the course of a  survey  of  plants  within  the  Hanford
Nuclear  Reservation  in  south-central Washington, Kathryn Beck
and Florence Caplow discovered a  new,  undescribed  species  of
Lesquerella.  In  this  article  the  new  species  is  named L.
tuplashensis and it is compared with L. douglasii,  its  nearest
relative.  The  new  species was first collected in 1883 but the
specimens  from  that  gathering  are  incomplete.   Lesquerelle
tuplashensis grows on the upper edge and upper face of the White
Bluffs adjacent to the Columbia River. The only known population
is  found on the upper zone and top of near vertical exposure of
cemented,  highly  alkaline  calcium   carbonate   paleosol   (a
"caliche"  soil).  The  population is approximately two to seven
meters wide and extends for 17 km along the upper  edge  of  the
bluffs. - Congratulations, Kathy & Florence !
(BEN # 146  11-October-1996)

Johnson  Gottesfeld,  L.M., & D. H. Vitt. 1996. The selection of
   Sphagnum for diapers by indigenous North  Americans.  Evansia
   13(3): 103-108.

Abstract: Consultation with the elders from the Wet'suwet'en and
Gitksan  peoples  of northwestern British Columbia revealed that
morphological attributes of Sphagnum are used to  select  proper
moss  material for use as diapers. Long, pink (non-red) material
of S. magellanicum was considered as correct for  diapers  while
several other mosses, as well as the short, yellow-green and red
Sphagna  were  considered inappropriate. A review of the litera-
ture suggests that red Sphagna are avoided by several indigenous
groups for diapering needs.
(BEN # 146  11-October-1996)

Dierschke,  H.  (1992):  European  Vegetation Survey - ein neuer
   Anlauf fur eine Ubersicht der Pflanzengesellschaften Europas.
   - Tuexenia 12: 381-383. Gottingen

Considerations to work up a syntaxonomic overview (prodromus) of
the plant communities of Europe have been around since  the  20s
already,   in   other   words  almost  since  the  beginning  of
phytosociology. With the establishment  of  a  private  research
institute  by  Braun-Blanquet in Montpellier (1929), the Station
Internationale  de  Geobotanique   Mediterraneenne   et   Alpine
(SIGMA),  an international commission was put in place which was
to work on the prodromus. Only four years later the first  over-
view  of  coastal communities of the Mediterranean area appeared
(Braun-Blanquet 1933) after which six parts  appeared  in  addi-
tion,  concluding  with  the  Class  Cisto-Lavanduletea  (Braun-
Blanquet et al. 1940).

After the second World War began an  intensive  phase  of  field
work,  vegetation analysis and synthesis. The number of publica-
tions multiplied almost exponentially, many  international  sym-
posia  and  excursions  expanded  the  knowledge  and led to the
refinement and unification of phytosociological methods.  A  new
international   centre   developed   at   Stolzenau,   later  at
Todenmann/Rinteln under the direction of R. Tuxen. With this new
plans were soon discussed for  a  European  prodromus  of  plant
communities. A first resolution to this end was at the Symposium
on Phytosociological Systematics in Stolzenau in 1964. A two-day
colloquium in 1968 in Todenmann led to a provisional overview of
the  state  of  work  in the European countries, and to concrete
work proposals (cf. Dierschke 1971, Tuxen 1972). Also a list  of
possible  editors  of  individual classes was put forward (Tuxen
1971). At the Prodromus-Colloquium  of  1972  in  Todenmann  the
first results were presented for discussion.

The  first  concrete  result  was a very complete syntaxonomical
bibliography  as  basis  for  finding   and   working   up   the
phytosociological  data  which  were  widely  scattered  in  the
literature. The first paper appeared already in 1971  (Tuxen  et
al.);  up to the present 39 papers on many classes of vegetation
have been completed. Two years later  the  first  paper  on  the
prodromus  was  published  (Beeftink  &  Gehu  1973). The second
initiative ended with a fourth paper, on the Lemnetea  (Schwabe-
Braun  &  Tuxen  1981).  With  the  exception  of  a few, mostly
species- and community-poor  classes  (in  the  mean  time  also
Littorelletea and Violetea calaminariae) the actual work had not
even begun, or only partially. The reason for this was primarily
the  absence  of  professional, paid specialists. There was cer-
tainly enough expertise, but it was with phytosociologists whose
time was taken up with other projects.

Today there are both positive  and  negative  signs  for  a  new
start.  We  have available not only considerably better informa-
tion out of regions which were considered little researched only
20 years ago (e.g., France, Italy), but also the  beginnings  of
syntaxonomical  work  especially  in eastern Europe. At the same
time the number of vegetation releves  has  gone  into  the  in-
numerable  (an  estimated  100,000).  However  it appears that a
synthesis today with help of EDV would be  more  promising  than
the routine handwork of 20 years ago. Nonetheless, the number of
published  syntaxa on all different levels, often in regional or
national solo efforts, is scarcely viewable. A European synopsis
must not only examine and bring together a giant data  set,  but
must  at  the  same  time  lead  to a strongly reduced, viewable
number of syntaxa which are applicable to the  widest  area  and
more  strongly  abstracted from regional idiosyncracies. Already
the agreement on these basic issues must be  viewed  with  skep-

Despite these difficulties and misgivings a new beginning had to
be  attempted. Under the  encouragement and direction of S. PIG-
NATTI (following earlier  discussion  in  1988  in  Frascati)  a
meeting  of  interested  phytosociologists took place during the
Symposium for International Unification of Vegetation Science in
Warsaw in 1990, followed by another in 1991  in  Eger.  At  this
time it was agreed that a preparatory meeting of representatives
from  the  most countries possible should be held at Rome at the
beginning of 1992, the results of which  are  reported  here  in
brief. The entire project received the name "European Vegetation

A  workshop  with  several  keynote presentations as well as na-
tional reports on the syntaxonomic state of work was held at the
Botanical Garden at Rome, led by  S.  Pignatti  and  L.  Mucina.
Vegetation  scientists  from the following countries were repre-
sented:  Austria,  Czechoslovakia,   Germany,   Finland,   Great
Britain,  Ireland,  Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Rus-
sia, Slovenia, Spain, and Switzerland.

Out of the reports from the individual countries  the  following
deserve mention:

Great Britain (J.S. RODWELL/J.J. HOPKINS)

For  a  long  time there has scarcely been any connection to the
European  phytosociology.  Recently  the  interest  has   become
greater,  in  part  because  of  the  translation of Ellenberg's
central  Europe  book  into  English.  The  urgent  need  for  a
vegetation-scientific  reference  system  especially for natural
conservation questions led to a  longer  research  project  with
numerous  fully paid scientists. A five-year phase of systematic
(relatively schematic) vegetation sampling began  in  1975.  Ap-
proximately  35,000  releves were then interpreted on a national
computer database, and  ultimately  ca.  350  vegetation  types,
roughly  equating  associations,  were  differentiated  (without
syntaxonomic hierarchy).  Detailed  descriptions  with  synoptic
tables  are  summarized  in  five volumes which are currently in
preparation (Rodwell 1991).

Netherlands (J.H.J. SCHAMINEE)

Since 1988 a state-funded project has  been  underway  with  two
fully-paid  scientists.  20,000  of the estimated 50,000 releves
have been entered into a database. The data are worked up  class
by  class  and  presented  in  preliminary  publications  (e.g.,
Schaminee 1988). The final results should appear in five volumes
from 1993.

Austria (L. MUCINA)

Here, too is a research project established with state  funding.
In  3  years  the  encompassing  literature  was worked through,
though without immediate evaluation of  vegetation  releves  and
tables.  A  description  in  text should be published in 1993 in
four volumes.

In  other  countries  (e.g.,  Germany,  France,  Poland,  Spain,
Czechoslovakia)  there  is more encompassing syntaxonomical work
in progress [taking place] in various working groups.  Since  no
paid  specialists  are  available,  it is proceeding at a crawl.
Mostly lacking are generally accepted methodical  basics  and  a
national database.

The  discussion  of  organizational and financial questions took
much time. L. Mucina presented a  detailed  organizational  plan
with  actual  syntaxonomical  working  groups  and  more central
groups for coordination and control as well as for  basic  deci-
sions  and  representation  to the outside. The possibilities of
funding were particularly strongly debated. There was  agreement
that,  at least for the central assignments, including an inter-
national database, only fully  paid  assistance  could  be  con-
sidered.  10-20 years have to be allowed for the entire project.
In the test phase several widely distributed, not  too  species-
poor  communities  should  be worked over. The complex Koelerio-
Corynophoretea/Sedo-Scleranthetea/Tuberarietea  was proposed for

In conclusion assignments were distributed  to  smaller  groups,
which are to be taken care of within a year:

   - working up an overall scientific concept and work programme
     with emphasis on usability of results;
   - compilation of general syntaxonomical basics (Grundlagen);
   - rules for working up tables, text, etc.;
   - establishment  of  a  list  of  the  vegetation  classes of
   - investigation of financial possibilities for  a  firm  work
   - checking around in all countries about the present state of
     syntaxonomical work.

In  order  to  expand the data base, current national programmes
should be supported and encouraged. Lately they  have  laid  the
decisive groundwork for an overview in the framework of Europe.


Beeftink,  W.G.,  Gehu, J.-M. (1973): Prodromus der europaischen
   Pflanzengesellschaften. 1: Spartinetea maritimae.  -  Cramer,
   Lehre: 48 p.
Braun-Blanquet, J. (1933): Prodrome des groupements vegetaux. 1:
   Ammophiletalia et Salicornietalia medit. - Montpellier: 23 p.
Braun-Blanquet,  J.,  Molinier,  R., Wagner, H. (1940): Prodrome
   des groupements vegetaux.  7:  Classe  Cisto-Lavanduletea.  -
   Montpellier: 53 p.
Dierschke, H. (1971):   Stand  und Aufgaben der pflanzensoziolo-
   gischen  Systematik in  Europa.  -  Vegetatio  22 (4-5): 255-
   264. The Hague.
Dierschke,  H.  (1972): Bericht uber das Prodromus-Kolloquium in
   Todenmann am 26. Marz 1972. Vegetatio 25 (5-6): 406-408.  The
Pignatti,  S. (1990): Towards a prodrome of plant communities. -
   Journ. Veg. Sci. 1 (3): 425-426. Uppsala.
Rodwell, J.S. (ed.) (1991): British plant communities.  Vol.  I:
   Woodlands and scrub. - Cambridge Univ. Press: 395 p.
Schaminee,  J.H.J.  (1988): Plantengemeenschappen van Nederland.
   2. Lemnetea. - Intern. rapport Rijksinst. Natuurbeheer 88/75.
   Leersum: 20 p.
Schwabe-Braun, A., Tuxen, R. (1981): Prodromus der  europaischen
   Pflanzengesellschaften.  4:  Lemnetea  minoris.  -    Cramer,
   Vaduz: 141 p.
Tuxen, R. (1971): Vorlaufige Liste von Mitarbeitern am Prodromus
   der Europaischen Pflanzengesellschaften. - Vegetatio  24  (1-
   3): 23-29. The Hague.
Tuxen,   R.   (1972):  Richtlinien  fur  die  Aufstellung  eines
   Prodromus   der   Europaischen   Pflanzengesellschaften.    -
   Vegetatio 24 (1-3): 23-29. The Hague.
Tuxen,  R.,  Bottcher,  H.,  Dierssen,  K. (1971): Bibliographia
   Phytosociologica Syntaxonomica. 1:Bolboschoenetea maritimi. - 
   Cramer, Lehre: 25 p.
(BEN # 147  29-October-1996)

Several   weeks  ago,  Rachel  Rayman  posted  this  message  on
bryophyte discussion list bryonet-l:

   "Hi, My grade 3 teacher asked me to  research  this  ques-
   tion.  Sites  on  the  web are too complicated. Can anyone
   answer the question or point me to a resource? Thx. - R."

Rachel got over twenty answers and did her own observations  and
experiments.  Results  of her project are summarized at the fol-
lowing web page:
(BEN # 147  29-October-1996)

Department of  Biology,  Southern  Oregon  State  College  seeks
applicants  for a full-time, tenure-track assistant professor to
teach systematic botany and environmental education.  For  posi-
tion  description,  requirements, salary, and other particulars,
contact   or   write
SBEE,  Department  of  Biology,  Southern  Oregon State College,
Ashland, OR 97520 or phone 541-552-6341.  SOSC  is  a  four-year
college  in the Oregon State System of Higher Education. SOSC is
an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity  employer  committed  to
the development of an inclusive multi-cultural community.
(BEN # 147  29-October-1996)
From: Mary Ellen Grant <>

I  am  a  Biology student based out of the University College of
the Cariboo under the supervision of R.  David  Williams  (UCC),
Dr. Gary Bradfield (UBC) and Dr. Nancy Turner (UVIC).

The  title  of  my Directed Studies is "An Ethnobotanical Study:
Utilization  and  management  of  plant  species  by  Indigenous
peoples,  a local to global view of pit cooking." The objectives
of this study is to compile data from local to global sources.

I would greatly appreciate the support of the readers  to  guide
me to resources which might be available.
(BEN # 147  29-October-1996)
From: Alwynne Beaudoin <>

Sponsored  by  the  Friends  of the Provincial Museum of Alberta
Society, the Provincial Museum of Alberta World Wide Web presen-
tation is now "on the air" and can be accessed at:

This site contains over  325  pages  of  information  about  the
Museum, including an introduction to the twelve curatorial areas
and  the  educational  programs,  information  on  galleries and
exhibits, and a visit to  the  Museum  Shop.  It  also  contains
general  visitor information (dates and times of opening, admis-
sion prices etc.), details of  volunteer  opportunities,  and  a
calendar of events.
(BEN # 147  29-October-1996)
From: Hans Roemer <>

During  field work for the BC Conservation Data Centre this past
summer I had the privilege to record occurrences of two vascular
species that were new to me and are apparently  new  to  the  BC

TRICHOSTEMA OBLONGUM (Labiatae-Lamiaceae) has up to now remained
   unmentioned in the provincial botanical literature. Hitchcock
   and  Cronquist (1973) give the range of this plant as "Wn and
   adj Ida to Cal and W Nev".

   Trichostema oblongum Benth. is a small, annual member of  the
   mint  family  (Lamiaceae) with strongly aromatic, oval leaves
   and small blue flowers in the leaf  axils.  Distinctive  fea-
   tures  of the plant are the odd upward bend of the flower and
   the bundled style and filaments arching over the corolla from
   the back. Our plants were only 2.5 to 5 cm tall at  flowering
   time.  Collections  and  photographs of this species were ob-
   tained by Ron Walker and myself on July 12, 1996, ca.  10  km
   west  of  Castlegar.  The  habitat  was a vernally moist site
   within a large, south-facing forest opening caused by shallow
   soils over bedrock. Trichostema grew  in  a  carpet  of  moss
   (Aulacomnium  androgynum) together with scattered Cystopteris
   fragilis,  Juncus  cf.   bufonius,   Perideridia   gairdneri,
   Dodecatheon  pulchellum,  Deschampsia  danthonioides, Mimulus
   guttatus, Orobanche uniflora, Lomatium spp., etc. Other  rare
   species in the same opening, but not directly associated with
   Trichostema  were  Heterocodon  rariflorum,  Mimulus breweri,
   Botrychium simplex and an  as  yet  unidentified  terrestrial

   reported by  Henry  (1915)  to  occur  in  British  Columbia.
   However,  "no collections are known to date" (Douglas, 1989).
   Douglas included this taxon  in  his  treatment  of  the  As-
   teraceae  of BC as "yet to be collected in British Columbia",
   as it is  known  from  several  stations  just  east  of  the
   BC/Alberta border (Douglas, 1995).

   Erigeron  ochroleucus  Nutt.  is  a  linear-leaved,  smallish
   fleabane (our specimens ca. 8 cm tall)  with  short,  grayish
   foliage,  a single, large head, and woolly involucral bracts.
   The short ray flowers are variably  light  coloured  (in  our
   specimens  light  blue).  Our plants belong to var. scribneri
   (Rydb.) Cronq. Jenifer Penny and I collected  this  plant  in
   the Rocky Mountains on the south- and southeast-facing slopes
   of  Mt.  Gass  between  2300 and 2500 m elevation. The plants
   were consistently  found  on  wind-exposed,  stony  limestone
   slopes  bearing  only a short, discontinuous cover of vegeta-
   tion. Associated species on these dry  sites  were  primarily
   Dryas  octopetala  and  Kobresia  myosuroides, sometimes also
   Erigeron grandiflorus, Townsendia parryi, Oxytropis  sericea,
   and Antennaria alpina.

Any information on these two species from British Columbia would
be  appreciated  by the author <> or the
BC Conservation Data Centre <>.
(BEN # 148   2-November-1996)
From: Reply to:

1793: JOHANN FRIEDRICH ESCHSCHOLTZ is born at Dorpat, now Tartu,
Estonia. Following education at  Dorpat  University,  now  Tartu
University,  Eschscholtz  will serve as naturalist and physician
on Kotzebue's voyages around the world from 1815  to  1818.  His
specimens  from  the  voyage will be given to Dorpat University,
and he will become curator of the Dorpat zoological  collections
in 1822.

1880:  ALFRED  LOTHAR WEGENER is born in Berlin. In 1912 he will
read a paper  titled  "Die  Herausbildung  der  Grossformen  der
Erdrinde   (Kontinente   und   Ozeane)   auf   geophysikalischer
Grundlage" ["The geophysical basis of the  evolution  of  large-
scale  features  of  the  earth's  crust"] before the Geological
Association of Frankfurt am Main. It will be  expanded  in  1915
into  "Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane" ["The Origin of
Continents and Oceans"], the first comprehensive account of  the
theory  of  continental drift. On this day in 1930, his fiftieth
birthday, while on an  expedition  to  Greenland,  Wegener  will
leave  his  base camp for the western coast and will not be seen

Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature  of  Darwin-L,  an
international network discussion group on the history and theory
of  the  historical  sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to  or  connect  to  the  Darwin-L  Web
Server ( for more information.
(BEN # 148   2-November-1996)

From: "Professor David Richardson, Dean of Science"

I received a note from Sylvia Sharnoff thanking me and others in
the  lichen discussion group for help on her National Geographic
article. She asked me whether we could give her  some  more  and
urgent  help.  As many of you know Steve and Sylvia Sharnoff are
collaborating with Ernie  Brodo  to  produce  a  richly  colour-
illustrated book on Lichens of North America.

Sylvia writes:

   The  Middle  Management  of  the Canadian Museum of Nature
   have declared that guidebooks must be  fully  funded  from
   outside  sources  and  have  forbidden  Ernie to finish it
   except on his own time. They have also cut contract  nego-
   tiations with Yale University Press. Ernie will be meeting
   the  Interim  President  of  the  museum Mr Colin Eades on
   November 7th. Between now and then we need to generate  as
   much support as possible.

   If  you  are  willing,  Please  E mail or send a letter of
   support to:

     Mr Colin Eades <>
     fax 613-354-4020

From: "Brodo, Irwin" <IBRODO@MUS-NATURE.CA>

Request for funding for "Lichens of North America"

For the past three and a half  years,  Irwin  M.  Brodo  of  the
Canadian Museum of Nature (CMN) has been working with California
photographer/lichenologists  Steve  and  Sylvia  Sharnoff  on  a
popular, illustrated guide to the lichens of North America.  The
plan  is  to  produce  a treatment of 790 illustrated macro- and
microlichens, with comparative notes on  many  others.  Descrip-
tions,  keys  and  distribution  maps would be provided for each
illustrated species. Introductory chapters would cover  morphol-
ogy,  chemistry, phytogeography, uses, methods for lichen study,
and basic classification.

The CMN policy regarding the production of guidebooks,  requires
researchers  to  completely  fund  such  projects  from  outside
sources to cover all operational and labour costs (i.e., includ-
ing salaries of all staff working on the book). In the  case  of
the  "Lichens  of  North America" project, the remaining work is
estimated to cost CAN$53,540 (ca. US$40,000). Work on  the  book
may not proceed until the complete funding is in place.

At  this  point,  all the photography has been completed and the
photographs selected. The introductory chapters are in 1st draft
stage (130 pages).  Species  treatments  are  complete  for  219
species,  and the writing of keys has begun. Data for almost all
the distribution maps have been gathered, and  final  maps  have
been  drawn for ca. 260 species. It is estimated that about nine
months of additional work is needed to complete the manuscript.

Donors or supporters will, of course,  be  acknowledged  in  the
book. Anyone knowing of potential sources of funding is urged to
contact   the  museum's  Grants  Officer,  Ms.  Martha  Johnson,
Canadian Museum of Nature, P.O. Box 3443, Station  'D',  Ottawa,
Ontario  K1P 6P4, with a copy to Irwin Brodo, Research Division,
at the same address.

From: Darrell Wright <>

Lichen students the world over are groaning at the  decision  of
the  Canadian  Museum  of  Nature  to  withdraw  support for Dr.
Brodo's efforts to bring The Lichens of North  America  book  to
publication.  It  is  particularly needed at this time as a tool
for conservationists who, with the help of  excellent  materials
like  this, will eventually be able to obtain regulatory protec-
tion for these remarkable organisms. It would be a  first  class
tribute to the Canadian Museum of Nature to help with its publi-
cation. Please ensure that the Museum supports this effort.

   Darrell Wright
   Bulletin of the California Lichen Society

(BEN # 148   2-November-1996)
From: Rene Vaillancourt <>

   [Several  people forwarded me a Reuter article "Australian
   Shrub Could be Oldest Life" and asked me  to  post  it  on
   BEN.  I  found  that this newspaper article was based on a
   presentation given by Dr. Rene Vaillancourt et al.  (1996)
   at  the  Proteaceae Symposium in Melbourne, Australia. Dr.
   Vaillancourt kindly sent me the following note for posting
   on BEN. - AC]

A team of scientist working at  the  Plant  Science  Department,
University  of  Tasmania and Parks and Wildlife Service, Depart-
ment of Environment and Land Management, Tasmania (Jasmyn Lynch,
Jayne Balmer, Dr. Greg Jordan, Dr. Jocelyne Cambecedes,  Richard
Barnes,  and  Dr.  Rene Vaillancourt) have discovered the oldest
living plant individual known to date.

Lomatia tasmanica (common name King's Holly), which is a  member
of  the Proteaceae family, is known by only one population which
is located in the World Heritage area of  South  west  Tasmania,
Australia. It grows along creek gullies in remnant rain-forest.

An  isozyme analysis found that it possessed zero genetic diver-
sity (all living plants of the species are exactly the same). On
the other hand, a closely related  species  (Lomatia  tinctoria)
which also propagates vegetatively had a normal level of genetic
diversity. Chromosome counts revealed that Lomatia tasmanica had
a  triploid  chromosome  number and this genetic information ex-
plains the observations that L. tasmanica appears to be  sterile
(it  flowers  but  never  forms mature fruits), and shows little
morphological variability. This evidence strongly suggests  that
the  entire  species  is  a single clone that propagates vegeta-

The L. tasmanica clone (spanning 1.2 km) is the  second  longest
in  the  world  after  the  box-huckleberry  clone  (Gaylussacia
brachycera) in North America (Pennsylvania) which is reported to
be 2 km in length. A clone  of  this  size  must  be  very  old.
Indeed,  under  the cold climate of South-west Tasmania, vegeta-
tive propagation is likely to be very slow.

Fortunately, fossil  leaf  fragments,  identical  to  living  L.
tasmanica  were  found  in a fossil deposit 8.5 km of the extant
population. These permit a  more  precise  age  estimate.  These
fossils  have  a  14C  age  of 43,600 years. The oldest reported
plant clone is the box-huckleberry  which  was  aged  at  13,000
years  (Wherry 1972). The oldest living tree is believed to be a
bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata)  in  Arizona  which  has  been
dated  using  dendrochronology at 4,700 years. Lomatia tasmanica
appears to be the oldest living plant individual known to date.

A manuscript that details all the analysis has been submitted to
the Australian Journal of Botany.

Literature cited and further reading:

Cook, R. E. (1983). Clonal plant populations. American Scientist
   71, 244-253.
Vaillancourt, R.E., G. Jordan, J. Cambacedes and A. J. J. Lynch.
   1996. Is Lomatia tasmanica a 43,000 year old clone? Presented
   at the  Royal  Botanical  Gardens  Commemorative  Conference,
   Proteaceae Symposium, Sept. 29-Oct. 5. Melbourne, Vic.
Wherry,  E.  T.  (1972).  Box-huckleberry  as  the oldest living
   protoplasm. Castanea 37, 94-95.
(BEN # 149   8-November-1996)
From: Sylvia Duran Sharnoff <> on

Many people have been having trouble getting  through  to  Colin
Eades'  fax number at the Canadian Museum of Nature. There seems
to have been something wrong with the phone line. As  of  today,
Tuesday, Nov. 5, there is a working number:

                (613) 364-4022

Irwin  Brodo's meeting with Colin Eades has been postponed until
Nov. 18, so there is more time to get messages to Eades.  Please
keep more coming!
(BEN # 149   8-November-1996)

Coe,  Sophie  D.  &  Michael  D.  Coe. 1996. THE TRUE HISTORY OF
   CHOCOLATE. Thames & Hudson, Inc., New York. 280  p.  ISBN  0-
   500-01693-3 [hard cover] Price US$27.50
   Dr.   Sophie  Dobzhansky  Coe  (daughter  of  the  well-known
   geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky) started  to  work  on  this
   history  of chocolate and cacao in about 1988, spent numerous
   hours in various libraries, and collected a lot  of  original
   material.  After her death of cancer in May 1994, her husband
   Prof.  Michael  Coe,  an   anthropologist   specializing   in
   Mesoamerican  research, finished the book and prepared it for
   publication. Following a thread of Cacao Tree through history
   you will learn about Maya and Aztec culture, go  through  the
   Spanish  conquest  of Central America, and explore the choco-
   late conquest of Europe. This book is a  work  of  love,  not
   only  the  love  of chocolate, but primarily the love of his-
   tory, life, and of a deceased spouse. Even if you don't  like
   chocolate, this book is a feast. I could not find any mention
   of  Carob, although the authors listed other substances (such
   as ground bricks) as cacao substitutes. Address of  the  pub-
   lisher:  Thames  and  Hudson,  500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY

   British  Columbia  Museum  Handbook.  University  of  British
   Columbia Press & Royal B.C. Museum, Vancouver - Victoria. 374
   p. ISBN 0-7748-0564-1 [soft cover] Price CND $24.95
   This  book  deals  with about 300 species of trees and shrubs
   both native  and  escaped  from  cultivation  that  occur  in
   British  Columbia.  All  the  species  are  illustrated  with
   author's own excellent line drawings of  branches  (or  whole
   plants)  with  leaves,  flowers  and  fruits. Important iden-
   tification characters are also  illustrated  in  detail,  and
   this,  together  with  good (indented) keys helps to reliably
   identify the plants. There are 76 plates of  plants  together
   with 3 plates explaining morphological terms. The arrangement
   of  plants  on  plates, however, dictated the order of genera
   within families and  the  order  of  species  within  genera.
   Descriptions  of  closely  related  species  are sometime far
   apart, if their illustrations fell to  two  different  plates
   (e.g.,  Vaccinium  ovalifolium  and  V. alaskaense). Once you
   know this, you can get through the book faster, but  it  took
   me  a while before I understood the strange sequence (neither
   alphabetic,  nor  phylogenetic).  You  can  order  the   book
   directly  from  the UBC Press (phone 604-822-3259, Fax 1-800-
   668-0821, e-mail, and of  course,  in
   Victoria, you can get it from the Royal B.C. Museum gift shop
   or from The Field-Naturalist.

Cannings,  R.  &  S. Cannings. 1996. BRITISH COLUMBIA: A NATURAL
   HISTORY. Graystone Books, Vancouver. 310 p. ISBN 1-55054-497-
   7 [hard cover] Price CND$45.00
   Some time ago I admired a book on natural history of  Alberta
   and I wished British Columbia would have a similar treatment.
   Richard  and  Syd  Cannings  came with this fine summary. The
   first chapters deal with geology,  oceanography,  glaciation,
   and  post-glacial  history  of  the Province, and establish a
   framework for description of its  major  ecological  regions.
   The  book  is  richly  illustrated with great photographs and
   line drawings, the text is well balanced (you will recognize,
   but forget that the Cannings brothers  are  zoologists!)  and
   the   general  text  is  accompanied  with  numerous  "boxes"
   describing  and  illustrating  various  interesting   special
   aspects  of  our  natural  history. Address of the publisher:
   Graystone Books, Division of Douglas &  McIntyre  Ltd.,  1615
   Venables Street, Vancouver, B.C. V5L 2H1

   THE AMAZON RAIN FOREST. Simon & Schuster, New  York.  537  p.
   ISBN 0-684-80886-2 [hard cover] Price US$27.50

   This  book is a fascinating account of ethnobotanical studies
   done in South America by Prof. Richard E.  Schultes  and  his
   students  (namely  the  late  Tim Plowman). ONLY IN VICTORIA:
   Wade Davis will talk here on  November  25,  in  the  Crystal
   Garden  at 7:30 p.m. Tickets ($5.00 or no charge if you buy a
   book) in the Munro Books and possibly some other bookstores.

Adams, Scott. 1996. THE DILBERT  PRINCIPLE.  HarperCollins  Pub-
   lishers,  Inc.  New  York.  336  p.  ISBN 0-88730-787-6 [hard
   cover] Price $20.00

   Scott Adams is the creator of "Dilbert" -  a  cartoon  serial
   that  is  syndicated  in  many  North American newspapers and
   highly valued for its true reflections of corporate  America.
   Compared  with  the Parkinson's Law or Peter Principle, Adams
   does not try to find how the corporations and similar systems
   work;  he  is  a  passive  observer  of   modern   management
   processes,  such  as downsizing, rightsizing, flattening, and
   creating quality teams. He does not analyze their  functions,
   but  only  shows  the reader what is the accepted norm in the
   modern  management  (or  managerial?)  practices.  It's   not
   without  interest that shortly after the publication of "Dil-
   bert Principle" the Government of British  Columbia  launched
   its  Blitz  reorganization in order to get even closer to the
   norms described in the book.
(BEN # 149   8-November-1996)
From: Kerry Joy <>

J.E.  (Ted)  Underhill died at the beginning of November in Vic-
toria at age 77. Ted worked in British  Columbia  Parks  as  the
first  park's  naturalist  from  1958 to 1982. He researched and
built many of the fine displays presented to  park  visitors  in
nature houses throughout the park system. Many of those displays
live  on  in  concept  form  and are still on display today. His
seemingly unlimited enthusiasm, innovation, and energy  inspired
many  others  to provide British Columbia Parks with fresh ideas
for interpretation programs, signs, and brochures. In his  spare
time,   Ted   wrote  many  popular  books  on  natural  history,
wildflower and mushroom identification, and wine  making.  These
were  illustrated  with  his own photos, drawings and paintings.
Many of the interpretation pamphlets  B.C.  Parks  produces  for
public use today were originally written and illustrated by Ted.
(BEN # 150   22-November-1996)
From: Rachel c/o Robyn Ryman <>

I  am amazed to see that I am part of your Newsletter. The prin-
cipal of my school and my teacher thought it was very cool  too!
My  Mummy  said to tell you that the URL is not quite correct as
you missed out our school's name. Here is the correct one:
(BEN # 150   22-November-1996)
From: Official Bulletin  of  the  Society  for  Preservation  of
   Native Plants of British Columbia, 5(1937): 4-5.

(The  following  segment is selected from statements made by the
Chief Forester to the Forestry Committee, XIXth Session  of  the
British Columbia Legislature, November 3, 1937)

Present conditions are a definite menace to the future of:
(1)  Our recreational interests
(2)  Our forest industries

1. The  TOURIST TRADE is important, and to maintain it satisfac-
torily, forest cover must be maintained to meet the requirements
of the HUNTER, the FISHERMAN and the man who delights merely  to
CAMP and regain his health in God's great outdoors.

   "When the land along the banks of the stream is denuded of
   timber,  the moisture is not held in the ground and in the
   streams throughout the year, which condition  causes  many
   of  the  valuable  fisheries' streams to dry up in the hot
   summer months." (Major  Motherwell,  Chief  Supervisor  of

   "It  is  a  well-known  fact  that  where an area has been
   logged off and no suitable cover is provided for the game,
   there is very little possibility of  obtaining  or  seeing
   game  in  such  logged-off  areas  until the second growth
   appears." (Mr. R.F. Butler, Game Commission)

2. FOREST INDUSTRIES: Today  the  South  Coast  region  of  B.C.
supplies 55% of the total lumber production in Canada; last year
the lumber was worth 36 million dollars.

With  only 3% of the area of British Columbia tillable; with her
small  population;  with  her  greatest  manufacturing  industry
dependent  upon forest products, - will she realize before it is
too late that there is only one course open to her? She  has  no
other choice than to manage her forests.

Our  Economic  Council finds that out of every dollar now circu-
lated in the Province by our primary industries,  including  all
our manufacturing, 37 cents is derived from forest resources.


(a) Our  great Douglas fir lumber industry will be definitely on
    the down grade within fifteen years at the present  rate  of
(b) There are 1.5 million acres of logged-over land in the Coast
    District, at least half of which are leaving to our children
    in a barren or only semi-productive condition.
(c) Probably  60% of the areas being logged under present condi-
    tions will remain barren or unsatisfactorily stocked  for  a
    long  time. If we permit this piling up of barren areas, the
    province is going to  suffer  serious  economic  and  social
(d) We are now losing a million dollars a year in labour on logs
    exported, over which we have no control.

Forest policy:

In  1910 the Royal Commission of Forestry found that "there must
be exercised a firm control over methods under which the present
crop is removed."

To date, little control has been exercised over logging  on  the
coast.  The  application  of this finding to present day logging
operations means that British Columbia must  make  up  her  mind
where private privileges end and obligations commence.

The  question at issue is simply this: where the public interest
is so greatly involved, has the logger the right to  remove  his
timber  in  such  a  manner as to destroy the chances of the new
crop on the land for decades to come?

Mr. H.R. MacMillan, first Chief Forester of this  Province,  now
one  of  the  Province's  leading lumbermen, said in public this

   "We have not yet taken steps to ensue  the  permanency  of
   our forest industries ..."
   "The  adoption  of  forest  policies  adequate to maintain
   employment is as important as the  setting  up  of  social
   services ..."
   "We  should have a forest policy and put it quickly before
   the public, clearly, forcibly, constantly."
(BEN # 150   22-November-1996)
From: Diane Gertzen <>

A  membership  meeting  of  the  NPSBC  Native  Plant Society of
British Columbia was held in Kamloops on Saturday, November  23,
1996.  In  spite  of  weather  warnings and road conditions, 140
persons attended the meeting at the University  College  of  the
Cariboo.  Participants  represented  a  cross  section  of those
interested in Native Plants from amateur  botanists  to  profes-
sionals  in  various  aspects  of plant endeavours. This year of
note was the attendance of students from the University  College
of  the  Cariboo,  University of Victoria and Institute of Urban
Ecology at Douglas College in New Westminster.

Presentations in the morning  included:  Biodiversity  &  native
grasslands  by  Don  Gayton,  Food  for  Thought by Mary Thomas,
Amateur Botanists in BC by Adolf Ceska,  Native  Plants  as  Or-
namentals  by Wilf Nicholls, Revegetation by Tom Wells and Urban
Landscaping by Ross Waddell. The program  was  varied  and  well
received by the audience.

The afternoon break-out sessions were biodiversity and research,
ethical  use  guidelines,  communication and education and First
Nations perspective. Each group had  active  participation  from
the  membership  and an outline of future objectives and initia-
tives were presented to the assembled group after coffee.

The group decided that the First Annual General Meeting of NPSBC
Native Plant Society of British Columbia would be held  in  con-
junction  with  the  Native  Vegetation Symposium in Victoria on
Sunday, March 9, 1997.  

New  members  are welcome  at any time  and follow up committees 
of the  break-out sessions will  continue  to  provide input  to 
the  Society.  For more  information  on the  NPSBC Native Plant 
Society of BC  please contact:  Wilf  Nicholls  1-604-822- 4188, 
Tom Wells  1-604-528-7897, Carolyn Jones 1-604-257-8659 or Adolf 
Ceska 1-250-356-7855.

   Diane Gertzen
   Nursery Extension Services
   14275-96 Ave.
   Surrey, B.C.  V3V- 7Z2
   Ph. 1-604-930-3309, Fax 1-604-775-1288

Membership (December 5, 1996)

   Individual members 126
   Associate members 29
   Corporate members 8
(BEN # 151   13-December-1996)

Klinka, K., H. Qian, J. Pojar & D.V. Meidinger. 1996.
   Classification  of  natural  forest  communities  of  coastal
   British Columbia. Vegetatio 125: 149-168.

Abstract. In comparison to countries with a tradition of vegeta-
tion  studies,  a  comprehensive, hierarchical classification of
plant communities in the province of British  Columbis  has  not
yet  been  developed.  Such  a classification is needed for sys-
tematic  ecological  studies  and  coordinated  conservation  of
vegetation.  As  the culmination of fifty years of detailed sur-
veys, tabular and  multivariate  analyses  of  3779  releves  of
natural,  old-growth,  submontane,  montane and subalpine forest
communities in coastal British Columbia were used to developed a
hierarchy of vegetation units according  to  the  Braun-Blanquet
approach.  At  the highest level, we distinguished seven orders:
Quercus garryana, Pseudotsuga menziesii-Mahonia  nervosa,  Tsuga
heterophylla-Rhytidiadelphus  loreus,  Tsuga  mertensiana, Tsuga
plicata-Tiarella  trifoliata,  Populus  trichocarpa,  and  Pinus
contorta-Sphagnum.  Diagnostic  table,  ordination, and climatic
and edaphic regimes were used to show floristic affinities among
the orders and to  interpret  their  relationships  to  regional
environmental  gradients.  Plant  communities of each order were
briefly characterized by their floristic  composition,  physiog-
nomy,   succession,   and  environment.  The  synopsis  for  all
delineated vegetation  units  (order,  suborder,  alliance,  and
association) of coastal British Columbia is included.
(BEN # 151   13-December-1996)
From: Hisao Fujii <>

[This  note  was  originally  published  in  Transactions of the
Japanese Forestry Society, No.105, 417-422,423-428,  No.106,389-
390  (in Japanese with no English abstract) and kindly submitted
to BEN by Dr. Fujii. - AC]

In Japan, the health of tree foliage  has  been  decreasing  for
more  than  20 years. In conifers, major leaf color changes have
become even more obvious in last several years.

The foliage decrease (tree-top  dieback  or  leaf  loss  of  the
overall  foliage)  of  conifers and others have been observed in
lowlands  on  Cryptomeria   japonica   (Japanese   red   cedar),
Chamaecyparis  obtusa  (hinoki  cypress), Chamaecyparis pisifera
(sawara cypress) and many other  species,  which  are  important
silvicultural  species of Japan. The decline is also observed in
the montane and sub-alpine zones on Abies firma, Abies mariesii,
Tsuga diversifolia. Deciduous tress, such as  Fagus  crenata  or
Betula ermanii, sometimes die due to defoliation.

In the lowlands, the leaf color changes have been also observed,
mainly  in  conifers such as Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis
obtusa, Chamaecyparis pisifera, etc. In Cryptomeria japonica, it
is the stomatal zone of old leaves and its adjacent zone that is
usually damaged, and turns brown. In Chamaecyparis, a  yellowing
of  the old leaves is observed, and in some cases, a grey fungus
colonizes old leaves. Some parts of new  leaves  are  also  par-
tially damaged. Mites and scales can also accelerate the damage.
In  1993,  about 60% of Cryptomeria's previous year's leaf area,
on the average (max almost 100%), was damaged in the Kanto area.
Old needles and some new needles of pines (Pinus densiflora  and
P.  thunbergii)  are  also  damaged.  Some evergreen broadleaved
species such as Pieris japonica show  symptoms  similar  to  the
conifers in some years.

I  conducted  a  survey  of the regional distribution of foliage
decrease in Cryptomeria japonica, and Chamaecyparis,  mainly  in
the  lowland  Kanto area (Tokyo and adjacent prefectures). About
30% of the foliage in these conifers was lost, on  the  average,
in  stand-alone  trees,  and  trees  in  the  stands  have  also
declined. The decline occurred is areas with high  concentration
of secondary pollutants (acid deposits), though the site-to-site
dispersion  was very large and the correlation coefficients were
small. Shallow rooted species (such as  Chamaecyparis)  tend  to
decline  more  and  this may indicate that the main cause of the
decline is the accumulation of acid deposits in the soil.

My research on the regional distribution  of  the  leaf  damage,
mainly  in  the Kanto area, showed that the damage is correlated
with both primary  pollutants  (SO2,  NO2,  SPM)  and  secondary
pollutants  (oxidants  or acid substances of SO4, NO3). The leaf
damage  also  becomes  heavier  near  the  roads,  and  is  less
pronounced  in  sheltered  areas. From these observations I con-
clude that the damage is  caused  by  air  pollutants  and  acid

I  suppose the main cause of the foliage damage in lowland Japan
is the acidification of soils with  the  consequent  release  of
phytotoxic  aluminium  and  I  have started to study the fate of
mobile toxic aluminium in soils.

   Hisao Fujii  <>
   Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute
   Ibaraki, Japan  TEL 0298-73-3211(ext475)

[Dr. Josef Rusek reported his observations of a dramatic drop in
pH of soils in the High Tatra  Mountains,  Slovakia:  Rusek,  J.
1993.  Air-pollution-mediated  changes  in alpine ecosystems and
ecotones. Ecological Applications, 3(3): 409-416. - AC]
(BEN # 151   13-December-1996)
From: Mark Sytsma <> originally posted on

Potential graduate student support for  aquatic  vegetation  re-
search and management is available at Portland State University.
Students  interested  in  the  biology and management of aquatic
plants may contact Dr. Mark Sytsma ( For infor-
mation on graduate programs at PSU see the following homepages:

   Dr. Mark Sytsma
   Portland State University
   PO Box 751
   Portland, OR 97207
   503-725-3833; 503-725-3888 (fax)
(BEN # 151   13-December-1996)
From: Adolf Ceska <>

The North American branch of the  Koeltz  Scientific  Books  has
been closed because of disagreement between their main office in
Germany and the North American partner, Dr. Pamela Burns-Balogh.
In  October  1996 the Koeltz Scientific Books, Koenigstein, Ger-
many established their own web site at the following address:

All the book data are available on line and on-line ordering has
been  made  quite  easy.  Any  catalogue  can  be  selected  and
downloaded  to  the  customer's  own computer. Customers may pay
with credit cards (VISA, American Express,  Access,  Mastercard,
Eurocard, but not Diners).

The Koeltz Scientific Books have an agreement with

   Lubrecht & Cramer, Booksellers & Publishers
   P.O.Box 3110, Port Jervis, NY 12771/USA
   Fax 914-856- 5990

to  sell  books  published  by  the Koeltz Scientific Books. The
Lubrecht & Cramer Booksellers stock all  recent  IAPT  (Interna-
tional  Association  for  Plant Taxonomy) publications, and they
will also allow the IAPT discount to IAPT-members, which is  20%
for private members.

The address of the Koeltz Scientifc Books in Germany is

   Koeltz Scientific Books
   P.O.Box 1360
   D - 61453 Koenigstein / Germany
   Fax: (+49) 6174 937240  / Phone: (+49) 6174 93720

P.S.  The former partner of the Koeltz Scientific Books in North
America, Dr. Pamela Burns-Balogh is continuing her own  booksel-
ler business, Balogh Scientific Books. Their address is:

   Dr. Pamela Burns-Balogh <>
   Balogh Scientific Books
   phone: +1 217 355 9331 fax: +1 217 355 9413
(BEN # 151   13-December-1996)

Many  thanks  to  all  of  you  who contributed to BEN with your
articles in 1996. I browsed through all thirty (or so) issues of
BEN 1996 and  was  surprised  how  many  different  topics  were
covered.  Thank  you, Alwynne, Art, Bruce, Bill, Charles, Craig,
Diane, Frank, Hans, Hisao, Hugues, Ingolf,  Jan,  Jenifer,  Jim,
Kathy,  Kerry, Mary, Rachel, Rene, Suspa, Tara (still married, I
hope), Thor, Toby, Tom, Trevor, Wilf, etc., for  your  contribu-
tions. I was glad that in most cases I acted as a moderator, not
as an editor.  I  would  like to  thank  all of you who read BEN
regularly, and I think it is now too late to thank all of  those
who  delete BEN as soon as they get it. I would like to wish all
of you happy and successful new year 1997.
(BEN # 152   26-December-1996)

The following message sneaked through my BEN mailing system:

> Could someone please tell me the name of the Greek mythical 
> character who displeased Zeus and whose consequent punishment 
> was that s/he would always predict future events correctly, 
> but no one would believe him/her?
> ...
> Sizwe Cawe [South Africa]

The first correct answer came from  Roger  Whitehead,  Director,
Office Futures, Oxted, UK:

Cassandra, daughter of King Priam of Troy. It was Apollo, in the
guise  of  Loxias,  the god of prophecy, whom she upset. He gave
her the gift of prophecy to win her over  but  she  spurned  him
(she  obviously  didn't  see  a tall, handsome stranger in _her_
future!), so he arranged for her always to be disbelieved.

Such good losers those Greek gods. 8-)


[Cassandra had a bad luck in  botany  too:  the  name  Cassandra
seems   to   be   a  mere  synonym  of  the  genus  Chamaedaphne
(Ericaceae/Vacciniaceae). - AC]
(BEN # 152   26-December-1996)
From: Hamel, Kathy <> originally on

The conference will  be  held  in  the  Crowne  Plaza  Hotel  in
downtown  Seattle  on  March  27 and 28th. The morning of the 27
(Thursday), we will be holding a Brazilian elodea (Egeria densa)
symposium. The afternoon of the 27th  and  the  morning  of  the
28th, we'll have our regular paper session. Papers are short--15
minutes with 5 minutes for questions. Anything having to do with
aquatic plants and their management are accepted.

Registration  costs  are  low  $35-$40. We have a reception with
"finger food" on Thursday evening and I  have  found  that  this
makes  a  good  dinner  and gives everybody a chance to meet and
talk. Conferences usually end about 2:00 so that people can make
plane connections or drive home.

If you would like more information, or  "call  for  papers"  an-
nouncement, please reply to this E-mail or call me at (360) 407-
6562. Thanks Kathy
(BEN # 152   26-December-1996)
From: Mary Stensvold / Don Muller <>

The  Alaska Rare Plant Working Group will hold its annual spring
meeting from April 2 through 4 at the  Chugach  National  Forest
3rd floor Conference room in Anchorage.

The  Alaska Rare Plant Working Group is soliciting agenda items.
Agenda items could include the results of your 1996 field  work,
descriptions  of your 1996 field trips, proposals for 1997 field
work, presentations describing ongoing plant work, or any  topic
that  would  be  of  interest to the group. If you would like to
give a presentation, please send a general description  of  your
presentation  and  its approximate length to Debbie Blank - Dis-
trict Botanist, Bureau of  Land  Management;  6881  Abbott  Loop
Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99502 (phone, 907-267-1227, fax 907-267-
1267,  e-mail  DBlank@AK.Blm.Gov). The final agenda will be sent
out during the middle of March.
(BEN # 152   26-December-1996)
From: "Woodsworth,Eric [Sas]" <Eric.Woodsworth@EC.GC.CA>

Believe it or not, it has happened!  Wildnet  is  back  on  line
after taking a rest for a year. A lot has happened on the Inter-
net  in a year, and mailing lists are quickly being overtaken by
other vehicles like web sites. However I  don't  mind  providing
this forum and contributing to it, for the original purposes.

The  Wildnet electronic mailing list was established in 1987 for
the exchange of ideas, questions, and solutions in the  area  of
fisheries  and  wildlife computing and statistics. Possibilities
include reviews of literature, reports on conferences, questions
on experimental design and analysis, field techniques,  relevant
hardware,  software, databases, discussions on geographic infor-
mation systems, biological information management, and so on.

To subscribe WILDNET, send

   subscribe WILDNET


(BEN # 152   26-December-1996)
From: Bart Sbeghen (Originally in  the  Biological  Conservation
   Newsletter,  No.  161, Nov. 1996, distributed on CONSLINK and
   edited by Jane Villa-Lobos <>)

Fall is upon us and fair weather birds of the United States  are
leaving  in droves for Mexico and Central America in search of a
patch of forest in which to sit out the harsh winter  until  the
next  breeding season. Unfortunately less and less forest awaits
them every year due to clearing. As little as ten percent of the
original forest cover remains in some Latin American  countries,
so  many birds have sought refuge in the next best thing: coffee
farms. Traditional coffee farms to be more exact.

In traditional coffee farms the shade-tolerant coffee shrubs are
grown beneath a canopy of native forest trees intermingled  with
fruit  trees  (tangerines, avocados, bananas, plantains, lemons)
and other plants. A  wide  range  of  migratory  birds  such  as
tanagers,  orioles,  warblers,  and vireos as well as year-round
residents such as parrots, toucans, trogons and woodpeckers (few
of which actually eat  coffee  berries)  find  this  environment
attractive.  And  little  wonder  as the multilayered ecosystems
that result resemble pseudo-forests with coffee  shrubs  as  the
understory, fruit trees at the middle level and native hardwoods
such  as  Mexican cedar as the canopy. This structural diversity
is linked, as it often is, to species diversity in animals  such
as  birds, invertebrates and mammals. The number of bird species
supported by traditional coffee farms is sometimes only exceeded
in undisturbed tropical forests.

The ecologically  diverse  coffee  farms  also  benefit  farmers
economically  by  providing a variety of products for local con-
sumption and for sale, plus some insurance if coffee prices  are
low.  Costs  for  the  farmers  are reduced too as the virtually
self-sustaining ecosystems  require  little  or  no  pesticides,
fungicides,  irrigation  or fertilizers. These are supplanted by
such phenomena as natural predation of insects  by  the  diverse
animal  life,  a  mulching leaf litter that reduces evaporation,
erosion and weed growth and a  protective  canopy  that  buffers
against drying winds and eroding rain.

Despite  these advantages these seemingly safe havens are becom-
ing scarce as many farmers convert to modernized  coffee  farms.
This  process started in the early 1970s as coffee farmers began
to adopt modern methods that relied on new, high yield,  densely
packed  coffee  plants.  These dwarf plants are usually grown in
evenly spaced rows in full sun, nurtured  with  fertilizers  and
protected against attack by an array of insecticides, herbicides
and  fungicides.  The  higher  density  of  plantings and use of
fertilizers results in up to four times the production per  land
area of traditional farms.

Seduced by the higher yields and, initially at least, protection
against a fungal pest known as leaf rust, many farmers willingly
dismantled  their traditional farms along with the overstory and
replanted modern, full sun coffee plant varieties. At  the  same
time  they exposed bare soils to rain, sun and wind. The results
have been increased erosion,  polluted  run-off,  a  substantial
reduction in wildlife habitat, and increased exposure of workers
to  hazardous  chemicals. These modern "technified" farms repor-
tedly suffer significantly more soil  erosion  than  farms  with
shade trees, especially on steep slopes where coffee is commonly
grown in Latin America.

Overall,  the  conversion  from shade to full sun coffee renders
coffee farms as useless for wildlife as other tropical  monocul-
tures  and  mimics  the agricultural transformation that has oc-
curred in the production of other crops such as corn,  rice  and

Perhaps  one  way to assure the prosperity of traditional coffee
farms and the biodiversity they support is to develop  a  market
for  the type of coffee they produce. If shade or bird- friendly
coffee could be distinguished from coffee from  technified  non-
shade  farms  (and  this  is easier said than done as there is a
continuous graduation of degrees of shade) then consumers may be
willing to pay a premium for it. This could negate  the  impetus
for farmers to switch to full sun coffee with its higher produc-
tion levels.

Several advocates of shade and organic coffee production methods
such  as  the  Organic Crop Improvement Association Inc. and the
Rainforest Alliance are  attempting  to  provide  some  type  of
classification  system  to allow this to happen. They were among
the co-sponsors of the first  Sustainable  Coffee  Congress  or-
ganized  by  the  Smithsonian  Migratory  Bird  Center  held  in
Washington, D.C. in September. The hope is that one  day  buying
"shade coffee" will be like buying dolphin-free tuna.

For  more  information  on  the  Congress  or the Migratory Bird
Center,  contact:  Russell  Greenberg,   Director,   Smithsonian
Migratory  Bird  Center, National Zoological Park, 3000 Block of
Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC  20008;  Tel.:  (202)  673-
4908; Fax: (202) 673-4916.
(BEN # 152   26-December-1996)
From: Adolf Ceska <>

I learned a very disturbing news that Dr. Bill Weber was ordered
to  move  out  from  the Herbarium of the University of Colorado
Museum in Boulder, Colorado. Today, January  9,  1997,  was  the
deadline given to him by the Herbarium Curator Dr. Tom Ranker.

BEN  readers know Dr. Weber from his "diatribe" (his own words!)
on vernacular names in botany [BEN # 109], historical notes, and
they read his ideas on  voucher  collections  and  databases  in
herbaria.  He  was  and  is  a  botanical giant, equally good in
vascular plants as in bryophytes or lichens. I wonder  how  many
of  us  have  turned to him with questions, problems and discus-
sions; we always  got  a  clear,  nice,  and  very  professional
answer.  His  Flora  of  Colorado  [BEN  # 134] is a landmark in
botany of western North America. If you meet Dr. Weber  you  are
overwhelmed by his encyclopedic knowledge.

It would be a great honour for any botanical institution to have
Dr.  Bill  Weber working there as a volunteer. The University of
Colorado Herbarium in Boulder (COLO) is a very special place  to
him: he built it and has worked there for more than fifty years.
Recently,  Dr. Weber  is  working  on several manuscripts on the
history of Colorado botany, as well  as  on  treatments  of  two
genera  of  bryophytes,  and three genera of vascular plants for
the Flora of North America. The expulsion is quite a setback  to
him. After he leaves the herbarium, he will be able to enter the
herbarium  only during the working hours (no work on weekends or
holidays as he used to do), and won't be able to  use  the  copy
machine or the phone.

This  decision came in the worst possible time: Dr. Weber's wife
of 56 years died on November 17, 1996.

Is there any way to wake up the institution and tell  them  that
they  are  doing a grave mistake? I don't know, but try to write
to the Director of the University of Colorado  Museum.  The  ad-
dress is:

Dr. Linda S. Cordell, Director, University of Colorado Museum
Campus Box 218, Boulder, CO 80309
e-mail: Linda.Cordell@Colorado.EDU phone: (303) 492-0666.

I  know  that  BEN readers appreciated Dr. Weber's contributions
and I wish for many more to come. - Adolf Ceska
(BEN # 153    9-January-1997)

A Strategy for  Measuring  Biodiversity  in  British  Columbia's

We have: habitat fragmentation and loss; species extirpation and
extinction; genetic erosion and loss of flexibility to cope with
future  change;  and  ethical,  aesthetic,  moral  and  economic
reasons for concern.

We need measures of  biodiversity  to  quantify  the  extent  of
change.  The  objective  is to hold a workshop bringing together
practitioners and theoreticians working on biodiversity measure-
ment. A strategy document will be produced from the  proceedings
of  the workshop which can guide biodiversity assessment initia-

Who: Dr. Gene Namkoong, Chair of Department of Forest Science at
   UBC is Project Leader. Other Principal Investigators  at  UBC
   are Drs. Geoff Scudder, Jamie Smith and Fred Bunnell.

Why:  There  is a need for development of a common understanding
   on optimal measures of biodiversity,  identification  of  the
   institutions  engaged  in  biodiversity assessment, and iden-
   tification of institution strengthening  (training,  facility
   development  and  recurrent  budgets) necessary to enable ap-
   propriate measurement of  biodiversity  of  British  Columbia

When:  A two day workshop will be held Wednesday and Thursday 19
   & 20 February 1997

Where: The meeting will be held at  the  University  of  British
   Columbia in Vancouver B.C.

Who  should  attend:  Those  in  the  province who are measuring
   biodiversity and those who are contemplating doing so.

Contact: Drs.  Jean  Brouard  and  Sally  John,  Isabella  Point
   Forestry  Consultants,  670  Isabella Point Road, Salt Spring
   Island, B.C. V8K 1V2 Phone: (250) 653-2335, Fax:  (250)  653-
   2338, e-mail:
(BEN # 153    9-January-1997)
From:   Erik   Jules  <>  originally

The First Conference on Siskiyou Ecology will be held on May  30
-  June  1,  1997  in Cave Junction, Oregon. The conference will
include presentations on a broad spectrum of  topics,  including
past  and  current  research  on  regional  flora and fauna, the
botanical significance of the area, unique geological  features,
and  historical changes influencing the integrity of the region.
Keynote speakers will include Dr. Art Kruckeberg of the  Univer-
sity  of Washington, and Dr. Frank Lang of Southern Oregon State
College. We encourage anyone interested in presenting  talks  or
posters  at  the  conference to send an abstract of 300 words or
less by March  1,  1997.  Send  abstracts  and/or  requests  for
registration  information  to:  attn:  Jennifer  Beigel and Erik
Jules, Conference on Siskiyou Ecology, c/o SREP, P.O.  Box  220,
Cave  Junction,  OR 97523, or e-mail: The con-
ference is sponsored by the Siskiyou Regional Education Project,
Southern Oregon State College Biology Department, and the Oregon
Caves National Monument.
(BEN # 153    9-January-1997)

In  order  to resolve the conflicts in the CU Herbarium (which I
have determined actually predate the  present  curator,  and  go
beyond  individual  personality  disputes), and to underline the
authority of the Curator of the Herbarium, the CU administration
has agreed to move the office of Emeritus Prof. William Weber to
another Museum facility. The Director of  the  Museum  has  made
alternative  accommodations,  including  a computer hook-up, and
assistance of University personnel to move Prof. Weber's  office
materials and personal belongings. He retains the same access to
the  Herbarium  as  would  be  afforded  to  any  other visiting
scholar, and the use of a modest Univesity research  account  to
support  his  ongoing  scholarship.  These  space  and  research
priviledges have been extended to Prof. Weber in recognition not
only of his professional reputation and  many  contributions  to
botany  in  Colorado,  but  also  because we value his continued
productivity and collaborations.

   Carol B. Lynch
   Associate Vice Chancellor for Research
     and Dean of the Graduate School
   Campus Box 26
   University of Colorado
   Boulder, Colorado 80309-0026
   (303)492-2890, (303)492-5777(FAX)
(BEN # 154   23-January-1997)

Cody, W.J. 1996. Flora of  the  Yukon  Territory.  NRC  Research
   Press,  Ottawa. xvii + 643 p. ISBN 0-660-16406-X [Hardcover],
   0-660-15898-1  [Softcover].  Cost  [CND$   in   Canada,   US$
   elsewhere]:  $79.95 [Hardcover], $49.95 [Softcover]. Canadian
   customers add 7% GST.
   Order from: Subscription Office, NRC  Research  Press,  M-55,
   National Research Council Canada
   Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0R6
   Phone: 613-993-9084, Fax: 613-952-7656

A  vast  area  of  the Canadian North has a new Flora. The Yukon
Territory covers about 482.7 square km (about 1+1/3 of  Califor-
nia,  almost  as  big  as  France) and hosts over 1,100 vascular
plant species. W.J. (Bill) Cody, a former Curator  of  the  Vas-
cular Plant Herbarium of the Department of Agriculture in Ottawa
(DAO),  started  his field work in the Yukon Territory in 1960's
and since 1980 he concentrated  his  efforts  in  compiling  and
writing this Flora.

This  is  an important book, and a thorough treatment of Yukon's
flora. It gives keys for identification, and for each species it
provides a detailed  description,  information  on  habitat  and
distribution.  Each  species  is illustrated and each species is
accompanied with a Yukon distribution map. The layout and typog-
raphy is superb.

The taxonomy employed in this book is conservative in  the  best
sense  of the word. D.F. Murray contributed the treatment of the
genus Papaver, R.J.  Bayer  the  genus  Antennaria.  The  Arabis
treatment  follows  that  of  G.A. Mulligan. The author used the
wealth of the largest botanical library in Canada and  the  book
has  an extensive bibliography. Cody recognized several new taxa
previously either not reported from North  America  or  reported
only  in footnotes on general distribution in the Russian Arctic
Flora. As an example I would like to point out  Potentilla  vil-
losula  Yurtzev  (alpine  plants  of  "Potentilla villosa") that
occurs from Yukon throughout British Columbia to Washington.

The major problem that I had with this Flora was that the author
only rarely refers to the taxonomical works cited in the  Bibli-
ography.  I  would  have  liked  to have had a short note on the
taxonomy  or  nomenclature  of  some  species  or  genera.   The
references to "further reading" in appropriate places would have
improved the book. Some of the discussion published by W.J. Cody
in  his  earlier  paper (Canadian Field-Naturalist 108: 428-476.
1994) should have been repeated in this book.

In several cases the author avoided the  taxonomical  discussion
by  putting  "s.l."  behind  the species name. This abbreviation
means "sensu lato" (= "in a broad  sense")  and  indicates  that
this  "species"  is  a  taxonomical  complex  that needs further
study. If you are a young ambitious botanist, pick up an  "s.l."
taxon for your thesis, if you are not so ambitious, dig into the
literature and keep collecting more specimens (in Yukon, though,
you need a collecting permit - see below).

This  Flora  is  a  magnificent  edition  to  the North American
botanical literature. Congratulations to Bill Cody, the Canadian
Department of Agriculture (what used to  be  the  Biosystematics
Research  Institute),  and  to  the  NRC  Research  Publications
(BEN # 154   23-January-1997)
From: Bruce Bennett <>

To legally collect within the Yukon you require a  Yukon  Scien-
tist  and  Explorer  License  which can be obtained at no charge
from the Yukon Ministry of Tourism Heritage Branch  211  Hawkins
Street,  Whitehorse,  Y1A 1X3  attention  Jeff Hunston, Director
(403) 668-5363. Anyone from Outside the Territory should apply.

[Erratum posted on BEN # 158:

BEN # 154 - YUKON COLLECTING PERMITS -I made a mistake in  phone
   number  for  the collecting permits. It was given as 668-5363
   it should be 667-5363. I hope you can distribute  the  change
   with my apology. - Bruce Bennett

End of the Erratum - inserted in the archived file.]

There are no species that have any protection, so  anything  can
be  collected  however  the license would be passed to Catherine
Kennedy and it the  collecting  would  be  occurring  on  native
lands, the local band councils would also be contacted.

Voucher specimens should be sent to:

   Bill Cody
   Agriculture Canada
   Centre for Land and Biological Resources Branch
   Edifice Wm. Saunders Bldg.
   C.E.F. Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0C6

and/or to

   Catherine Kennedy
   Renewable Resources, YTG
   #10 Burns Road
   Whitehorse, YT Y1A 4Y9
   (403) 668-5407
(BEN # 154   23-January-1997)
From: UnCover Reveal <>

On  January 20, 1997, an enhancement to the UnCover Reveal serv-
ice was released: Books-in-Reveal. This enhancement was  created
in partnership with Academic Book Center (AcBC).

Each  week,  the  Books-in-Reveal feature will automatically run
the search terms (both words and names) that you currently  have
stored  for  new  articles against new book titles as well. AcBC
will typically be supplying UnCover an average of 600 new titles
each week. E-mail Reveal book alerts will be sent to you for any

After reviewing the e-mailed book alerts, Reveal users can order
the book(s) by replying to the  book  alert  message.  All  book
order  requests will be forwarded on to Academic Book Center for

The Books-in-Reveal feature will be  made  available  to  Reveal
users  at  no  additional cost. If one of your searches matches,
you will get an e-mail. If  no  matches  are  found,  no  e-mail
messages will be sent.

You  may  wish  to  modify  or add new search strategies to your
profile to utilize this new feature. If you have any  questions,
please  contact  UnCover  by phone (800-787-7979 or 303-758-3030
for  callers  outside  the  U.S.  and  Canada),  or   by   email

[To  connect  with  CARL  and  use  the UnCover features, make a
telnet connection to - and follow  the  menue.  You
will be asked to identify your terminal: VT100 works well for my
PC.  See  also  BEN  #  75 and # 95 for more on CARL and UnCover
Reveal. - AC]
(BEN # 154   23-January-1997)
From: "Peter H. Pache" <> originally
   posted on ECOLOG-L <ECOLOG-L@UMDD.UMD.EDU> [abbrev.]

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service seeks public input  and  com-
ment  on  a revised National List of Plant Species That Occur in
Wetlands. A wetland indicator was assigned to each species  that
expresses the fidelity to wetlands by region and sub-region.

Copies of the  revised  National  list  including  its  regional
subdivisions  are  available on February 15, 1997, from the Fish
and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands  Inventory,  Suite  101,
Monroe Building, 9720 Executive Center Drive, St. Petersburg, FL
33702-2440.  Electronic  copies of the above lists are available
for downloading from the World Wide Web at   

Written comments may be submitted by April 30, 1997 to 

Fish and Wildlife Service,  National  Wetlands Inventory,
Suite  101,  Monroe Building , 9720 Executive Center Drive, 
St. Petersburg, FL 33702-2440
fax:  (813)  570-5409

For  further  information contact: Mr. Porter B. Reed, Jr., Fish
and Wildlife Service, at (813) 570-5425,  Dr.  Russell  Theriot,
U.S.  Army  Corps  of  Engineers, at (601) 634-2733, Mr. William
Sipple, Environmental Protection Agency, at (202)  260-6066,  or
Dr.Norman  Melvin,  Natural  Resources  Conservation Service, at
(301) 497-5933.
(BEN # 154   23-January-1997)
From: AR Kruckeberg <> originally
      printed in Douglasia Winter 1997

A  novel  botanical gathering occurs annually over the border in
Canada. Novel, indeed, in the waning years of this century, when
botanists now most often gather  to  share  their  findings  and
techniques  from laboratories equipped to probe the mysteries of
DNA molecules and proteins. Rather, Botany BC harks back to  the
days when field botany (read, Natural History!) was a common and
respected  pursuit.  Especially in the study and appreciation of
regional floras is the "gel jock" botanist supplanting the field
botanist. Yet Botany BC is hardly  an  anachronism;  it  thrives
each  year on the premise that total immersion in one's regional
flora can be fun and an unforgettable learning experience.

From my attendance this summer at a 3-4 day excursion  in  north
central  British  Columbia  with  about  thirty women and men of
Botany BC, I learned that its diverse clientele all leave  their
appointed  tasks  in  land  management, recreation, forestry and
rehabilitation ecology to renew  their  contact  with  the  real
world  of  BC's  biodiversity.  Most  attendees  work for the BC
government: Ministries of Forestry, Environment, the  Endangered
Species program and the like; academics are in the minority. The
annual  gathering  of  self-motivated BC naturalists is hardly a
conference; much more it is: "Botany BC, a very  informal  group
whose  sole  purpose is to put together an interesting, informa-
tive, fun-filled trip each year. It brings  together  interested
botanists  from  throughout BC and adjacent areas from many dif-
ferent fields (forestry,  mine  reclamation,  etc.)"  [Craig  De
Long,  the  1996 convener]. Besides fascinating habitats visited
during the day, evenings combine an informal botanical talk with
social activities.

This year Botany BC  focused  on  unusual  habitats  within  the
Prince  George  area.  We  visited  a serpentine outcrop (Murray
Ridge) and a limestone habitat  (Pope  Mountain),  both  located
near  Fort  St James and the scenic Stuart Lake. With the aid of
botanists  familiar  with  the  local  flora,  we  put  together
creditable  check lists for these two, and other, edaphic sites.
I had given a talk the night before on Pacific Northwest serpen-
tine ecology, so all were primed to encounter a  unique  vegeta-
tion.  And  it  was! On Murray Ridge we witnessed the serpentine
form of maidenhair fern (Adiantum aleuticum) in a subalpine  fir
(Abies  lasiocarpa)  forest.  Then  at  the  summit  a  sparsely
vegetated serpentine outcrop with a number of exceptional  herbs
and  shrubs.  The  uniqueness  of  the flora was repeated on the
limestone of Pope Mountain. No endemics, but a peculiar  mix  of
wide-ranging  species.  Then  back  to  Prince George for a fine
catered dinner, followed by an evening  talk  on  forest  mycor-
rhizae (Hugues Massicotte). And the night  before, it was Canad-
ian folk singing by Andy  McKinnon  around the  campfire at Lake

The next day again focused on unique habitats: wetlands,  dunes,
and  the  like,  in  the  Rocky  Mountain  Trench east of Prince
George. I saw my first tamarack (Larix laricina) in a  bog  set-
ting;  it  was  the  dominant  tree,  mostly  dwarfed by the bog

In yet another bog, we saw a rich wetland  flora:  club  mosses,
ericaceous shrubs and sedges. After bog-slogging in the morning,
we entered a remarkable habitat that could have been on the west
side  of  the  Olympic Peninsula: the West Twin Creek old-growth
cedar-hemlock forest, and here we  were,  almost  to  the  Rocky
Mountains!  Notable  absentee  in  this  mesic western hemlock -
western red cedar forest was vine maple. At  this  stop  we  had
Trevor Goward, lichenologist, regale us with a novel notion that
lichens  serve  as  indicators  of  stages in forest succession.
Goward claims that some lichens  are  only  found  in  very  old
growth  forests,  what he calls "antique forests". The last stop
of the day was just west of  Valemont,  where  the  highway,  BC
Route  16,  borders  a  thinly forested duneland along the upper
Fraser River. Scattered lodgepole pine grows here with kinnikin-
nik and Juniperus communis in the pine understory,  as  well  as
herbs (including a rare sedge and locoweed - Astragalus sp.).

So the three days of rich botanical fare in the field and in the
informal  lecture- discussion sessions came to an end; it was an
exciting experience for me to be with Canadian  companions  who,
freed from their appointed daily chores, reveled in the devotion
to  fun  with  botany.  An added thrill for me was an all-day BC
Rail trip from North Vancouver  to  Prince  George.  It  gave  a
kaleidoscopic view of BC vegetation and scenery from wet coastal
forest up into the dry interior (ponderosa pine and sagebrush at
Lillooet),  then  on  east to the Cariboo Plateau for a taste of
the subboreal spruce forest. There is "method"  in  my  relating
this  delightful  event.  I  believe it can be matched below the
border. Washington state has the flora, the requisite  amenities
for hostelry, and above all a potential clientele. We could pull
it  off here, just as well as the Canadians do it! Our potential
clientele: botanists, ecologists, and wildlife specialists  with
the  federal  and state agencies (USFS, BLM, NPS, DNR, etc.), as
well as junior college and high school botany/biology  teachers,
graduate  students  - yes, and even academics from the four-year
colleges and universities.

Botany BC's organization is simple, especially as it is divorced
from any government agency. One host  convener  per  year  at  a
given meeting area; their own bank account, and modest registra-
tion  fees  to cover housing, meals and transport. I could envi-
sion our version of Botany BC  holding  annual  outings  in  the
Columbia Gorge, the Hanford Reach, the Columbia Plateau country,
the  Okanogan  Highlands,  the  North  Cascades, and the Olympic
Peninsula, and elsewhere, well into the future. So  let  us  in-
itiate  a  "Botany  Washington"  field tour some time before the
century plays out. We have the botanists and the botany to  make
it  work!   I am  willing to be  the "point - person"  to get it
Art Kruckeberg, University of Washington, Botany, Box 351330, 
Seattle, WA 98195. 
Phone: (206) 543-1976.   E-mail: 
(BEN # 155   31-January-1997)
From: Jiri Sindelar & Josef Frydl c/o <FORINST@MS.ANET.CZ>

Forests cover 34.4% or 4 626  million  hectares  of  the  former
Czechoslovakia,  with 33.4 and 39.9%, respectively, in the Czech
Republic and Slovakia. Development of  these  forests  has  been
influenced by human activity.

The health of forests in the Czech Republic forests is declining
quickly,  mainly due to air pollution. For example, 54.5% of the
forests in 1986 were affected by  air  pollution  while  only  6
years  later about 58.3% were affected (Domes, 1992). Air pollu-
tion results in the acidification of soils  and  depositions  of
harmful  substances  including  compounds  of sulphur, nitrogen,
fluoride, chlorine, and heavy metals.

The damage is most severe in Northern Bohemia.  For  example  in
the  Ore  Mountains  (Krusne  hory  Mountains)  and Orlicke hory
Mountains, soil pH can be as low as 2.2 ( Materna, 1978). Norway
spruce, the predominant tree species in these  areas,  is  quite
susceptible to air pollution.

To  alleviate  the  problem  in  forests  in  the Czech Republic
forests, it is necessary to reduce the effects of air  pollution
and  then  to  regenerate forest stands using tree species which
are genetically and economically suitable for  the  sites.  Good
tending  of  young  stands,  especially  on  an ecological-sound
basis, is also very  important  for  re-establishing  productive
forests  in  the  regions affected by air pollution. Our results
with larch inter-specific hybrids progenies in the Ore Mountains
region indicate that they are good candidates  for  regenerating
the forest stands in air pollution damaged areas.

For more than 50 years, intensive provenance testing of European
larch  (Larix  decidua  Mill.) and Japanese larch (L. leptolepis
Gord.) has provided basic information on the natural variability
of these species (Paques,  1992).  In  the  Ore  Mountains,  two
research  plots  with  larch  inter-specific hybrids were estab-
lished in  1970  as  a  part  of  a  program  to  determine  the
feasibility of using such trees for reforestation in areas which
have been heavily damaged by air pollution.

Observation  made on 18-year old trees show that growth was slow
on sites heavily affected by air pollution, but that  the  trees
were  otherwise  healthy.  Our  results indicate the possibility
that using inter-specific hybrids  of  larch  for  reforestating
disaster areas will be successful in the Ore Mountains. Compared
to European larch progenies, hybrids grow more quickly, avoiding
the detrimental effect of ground frosts, competition from weeds,
and  animal damage. We propose the establishment of larch hybrid
seed orchards to provide seed for reforesting these areas.


Domes, Z. 1994. Forestry of the Czech Republic. Workshop Country
   Report, FAO, Rome, 1994, 25 p.
Materna, J. 1978. The effect of industrial pollutants on  forest
   trees:  Physiological  and  ecological  aspects. UVTIZ Praha,
   Lesnictvi, 5, 76 p. [In Czech]
Paques, L. 1992. Current status of inter-  and  intra-  specific
   hybridization.  Pp.  108-122 In: Results and future trends in
   Larch breeding on the basis  of  provenance  research.  Proc.
   IUFRO Centennial Meeting of the IUFRO Working Party S2.02-07.
Sindelar,  J.  1987.  State of health and growth of Larch (Larix
   sp.) progenies from open pollination  and  controlled  cross-
   breeding in the Ore Mountains. race VULHM, 70(1987): 37 - 69.
   [In Czech]

Authors' address:
   Ing. Jiri  Sindelar, C.Sc.  and  Ing. Josef  Frydl, C.Sc.
   Forestry and Game Management Research Institute
   Jiloviste - Strnady
   156 04  Praha 5 - Zbraslav nad Vltavou
   The Czech Republic
(BEN # 155   31-January-1997)
From: Emily L. MacQuarrie c/o <>

At The School for Field  Studies'  Center  for  Coastal  Studies
located in Bamfield British Columbia.

Experienced  in: Cost benefit analysis, Sustainable development,
Extensive experience developing survey  tools,  Experience  with
First  Nations  peoples, Knowledge of local politics in a social
and cultural context, Assessment and evaluation methodology, The
Social Science of natural resources,  The  human  dimensions  of
wildlife  and  conservation  biology.  All faculty positions are
residential and require faculty to live on site  with  students.
Programs  are  offered  to  32 college students for semester and
summer programs. Faculty will teach the equivalent  of  one  and
one  half  courses  per  semester, oversee students directed re-
search projects and participate  in  all  daily  living  at  the
center.  Room  and  board are provided by SFS. Salary is $25,000
American, and health insurance is provided.

Requirements: Ph.D or Masters degree with at least  4  years  of
applied  experience.  Relevant work/living experience in British
Columbia or similar ecosystem. At least 2 years  at  the  under-
graduate  level  with  full  course  responsibility (writing and
grading exams, lecturing, etc.), a  demonstrated  commitment  to
conservation  and experience working  with applied  conservation
and management issues.

To apply: Send cv and a detailed letter  explaining  skills  and
experience to:

   SFS BC Search, 16 Broadway, Beverly, MA 01915
   Fax: (508) 927-5127, Phone: (508) 922-7200 ext. 304
(BEN # 155   31-January-1997)

Dr.  Vojtech  Holubec, the Czech botanist and expert alpine gar-
dener, will speak on Sunday, February 16, 1997, at 2:30 p.m., in
room A240 of the Human & Social Resources Building at UVIC.  His
topic will be

   Kamtchatka  -  A  land of fire, ice, beautiful alpines and
   fantastic dwarf willows.

Admission is $5.00 and tickets are available  at  the  door,  at
Ivy's Books and at all Dig This stores.
(BEN # 156   10-February-1997)
From: Adolf Ceska <> &
        the CDC Newsletter No. 5 - December 1996

Seek  and  ye  shall find! On September 18, 1996, Jane Wentworth
(Washington Natural  Heritage  Program)  took  botanists  George
Douglas  and Jenifer Penny (both from the B.C. Conservation Data
Centre [CDC]) to a site of  tall  bugbane  (Cimicifuga  elata  -
Ranunculaceae)  on  Vedder  Mountain  in Washington, in order to
survey the plant's habit and habitat. This paid off nicely  next
day,  when  Jane,  George, and Jenifer discovered over 50 plants
growing in a 6-hectare area of a  70-100-year-old  western  red-
cedar  (Thuja  plicata)  stand  in  the British Columbia part of
Vedder Mountain near Cultus Lake. Tall  bugbane  was  considered
extinct  in British Columbia since the last collection came from
the late 1950's, and the plant has not been seen lately [cf. BEN
# 10]. The plant is on the rare  plant  lists  over  its  entire
range in Oregon, Washington and British Columbia.

There  was  initial  concern for the viability of the new Cultus
Lake site, since it fell partly within a small business  logging
sale  area  in  the Chilliwack Forest District. This concern was
quickly alleviated when Ian Blackburn and Greg George (from  the
B.C.  Ministry  of  Environment)  took  immediate action. Within
days, a site inspection by the logging  company  and  CDC  staff
resulted  in  alteration  of  the  sale  area boundaries and the
establishment of  a  Wildlife  Tree  Patch  for  the  Cimicifuga

After  this  find  was  published  in  the  British Columbia CDC
Newsletter  (No.  5  -  December  1996),  Rob  Scagel   (Pacific
Phytometric  Consultants) reported to the CDC another population
of Cimicifuga elata in the cut  blocks  on  the  north  side  of
Vedder  Mountain,  in experimental plots established by the B.C.
Ministry of Forests. He also mentioned  the  occurrence  of  the
species  near  the  junction  of the Tamihi Creek with the Chil-
liwack River, and along the ridge top trail from Chipmunk  Creek
to  Mt.  Cheam.  (The early botanist J.R. Anderson collected the
plant from "Mt. Cheam" in 1899.)

Both Rob Scagel and George Douglas urge botanists  to  look  for
new  sites of this plant. Mt. Liumchen of the B.C. Cascade Range
is another area where the plant has been seen in  the  past  and
not  collected  since  1957.  Please  contact Dr. George Douglas
(phone 250-256-5019, e-mail for
more information on how  to  gather  data  needed  for  the  CDC
database of rare and endangered plant species. For more informa-
tion on the ecology and conservation of Cimicifuga elata see BEN
# 121.
(BEN # 156   10-February-1997)
From: Art Guppy, P.O.Box 7216, Stn. "D", Victoria, B.C. V9B 4Z3

[Adolf  asked  me  to  write  a short note on the cultivation of
Castilleja levisecta. That is a difficult assignment. In fact it
is impossible for me to do it as a short note.]

Castillejas are hemi-parasites which  attach  to  the  roots  of
other plants. Identifying host plants is difficult. I have in my
garden  8  Castilleja  species that have reached flowering size,
and another 4 are coming along, but are still  quite  small.  Of
these  12  species I found in the literature only one host plant
identified. Castilleja linariifolia (the state flower  of  Wyom-
ing)  can  sometimes  be  seen growing with Artemisia tridentata
(sagebrush) with no other plants  nearby,  so  identifying  that
parasite-host   pair  was  not  difficult.  By  doing  a  little
plantwatching, I have been able to identify common hosts of  two
castillejas  frequently  seen  at low altitudes on southern Van-
couver Island. Castilleja miniata commonly grows on Alnus rubra,
and C. hispida is often on Symphoricarpus albus or on Holodiscus
discolor. Frequently these castillejas are found where rock  and
hard  clay  keeps the roots of the trees or shrubs near the sur-
face. I have grown these castillejas in pots  with  their  hosts
and  observed  them  to  thrive and flower very well. I have ob-
served that at the edges of  subalpine  meadows  C.  miniata  is
often  associated  with  willows,  but  have not yet tested that

When I have not known the natural host for a castilleja, I  have
tried  a  substitute  host  and  often these are successful, but
sometimes there are problems that probably would not arise  with
the  natural host. Castillejas on substitute hosts seem prone to
wilting on warm days as if unable to get sufficient  water  from
their hosts.

This  brings me to the problem that I have writing about Castil-
leja levisecta. I don't know its natural host. I do  have  a  C.
levisecta thriving in a pot on Symphoricarpos albus, but I don't
suppose anyone would want Symphoricarpos albus in a garden as it
is  a  very  invasive weed. In my garden I have two plants of C.
levisecta growing on a dwarf form of Spiraea japonica, and  last
May  one  produced  13  inflorescences, though these were not as
plump as they are in nature, likely because the  plant  was  not
getting enough water from its unnatural host.
[In  the  Beacon  Hill  Park, where Castilleja levisecta used to
grow, and on Trial Island, two plants that regularly accompanied
Castilleja levisecta were Eriophyllum lanatum  and  the  coastal
variety of Festuca rubra. - AC]

Recently  I  have  been  trying  Symphoricarpos mollis as a host
plant for several castillejas, and the first results are  excel-
lent.  I doubt this is ever a host plant in nature as its choice
of habitat probably would not suit castillejas. I  have  a  very
showy,  semi-dwarf  form  of C. hispida from the Oregon Cascades
growing on this host, and it is  doing  extremely  well.  Unlike
Symphoricarpus albus, S. mollis seems not to be invasive provide
one  cuts  back the long runners. I have great hopes for success
using this host with C. levisecta.  When  I  have  the  sunshine
yellow  of  C.  levisecta  next to the blinding red of Oregon C.
hispida, you will need sunglasses to view them.

All of the 12 species of castilleja growing in my garden and  in
pots  have  been raised from seed. I do not recommend collecting
castilleja plants from the wild as the combination of the  shock
of  being  moved  to  a new host would almost certainly kill the
castilleja. Certainly growing from  seed  is  much  quicker  and
easier.  Twice  I  have  had a castilleja in a bloom within less
than 6 months of the germinating of the seed.

There are several ways of growing castillejas from seed,  but  I
can  only  describe the two I have used. Several books recommend
what I call the "sow and pray  method";  that  is  one  takes  a
handful  of seed, goes out in the garden, and scatters it about.
That might succeed if you are good with prayer.

I have used what I call the "improved sow and pray method." This
requires some preparation. You must propagate a number  of  pos-
sibly  suitable  host  plants (strong growing perennials). These
should be young seedlings and rooted cuttings, quite small,  and
with  roots near the surface. Tastefully space these prospective
hosts about where you hope to have castillejas, and then sow the
castillejas seeds close to the host roots. Choosing the time for
sowing requires luck and judgment; it must be  early  enough  in
the  winter  to allow the seeds a sufficient period of cold, but
the earlier you sow, the more time the rain has to wash away the
seeds. With an easy species such as Castilleja miniata, provided
you use plenty of seed, your chances of success are very good.

I no longer need to sow seeds of Castilleja miniata because  the
plants self-sow prolifically, and I frequently pull up seedlings
as  weeds.  With other species I generally do not have much seed
to spare, and I use the more painstaking method which follows.

You will need clean, sterilized sand, a suitable container  such
as  500  gram yogourt container and, as a cover, a piece of thin
plastic cut from a plastic bag. Put about 2 cm of moist sand  in
the  bottom  of the container, level it, and sow the seed evenly
over the surface. Sprinkle on enough dry sand  to  almost  cover
the  seeds. (The dry sand will immediately take up moisture from
the moist sand.) Place the covered  container  in  a  fridge  at
about 5 degrees C.

Germination  will usually take place in the fridge after about 1
to 4 months. If there has been  no  germination  after  3  to  5
months,  depending on what seems a reasonable period of cold for
the species, bring the container out of the fridge and place  it
in  a  window or in a green house. Some castillejas seem to ger-
minate  best  in  the  cold;  others  need  warmth.   Castilleja
levisecta  seeds  will  germinate  in  the fridge within about 2

While the seeds are in the fridge, you need to get  host  plants
ready.  Fairly  young seedling host plants or small rooting cut-
tings are best as their roots are  near  the  surface  and  they
won't  cut  off  light to the tiny castilleja seedlings. Pot the
hosts in a well-drained, light, sandy soil. Deep  clay  pots  of
about  14  cm  diameter  are  suitable.  The potted hosts can be
plunged in the garden until the castillejas need them.  At  that
time  submerge  the pots in water for at least 24 hours to drown
any unwelcome guests; then allow them to drain for some hours.

When the seedlings castillejas have unfolded their seed  leaves,
they  are ready to plant, but they can be left in the fridge for
some time after that without suffering harm. Make several  small
hollows  in  the  soil near the host roots. Use a spoon to scoop
out the tiny castillejas with their roots enclosed in moist sand
and place them in the hollows. Dry sand can be used to  fill  in
around them, and this should immediately be moistened. Place the
pot  in  a clear plastic bag, and close the bag above the pot to
form a tent. If the host is tall it may protrude from  the  bag.
Place  the  pot  where  it  will  get plenty of light but little
direct sun. After the seedlings are growing  you  can  gradually
open  the  bag and then roll it down. Thin the seedlings down to
no more than three in a pot. When  the  castillejas  are  sturdy
young  plants,  they and their host can be removed together from
the pot and planted in the garden.
(BEN # 156   10-February-1997)
From: M. J. Dallwitz, T. A. Paine, and E. J. Zurcher

Computer-based  multi-access  keys,  also  known  as interactive
keys, can offer several advantages over conventional keys:

    A correct identification can be made in spite of errors by
    the user or in the data.

    Characters can be used, and their values changed, in any

    Numeric characters can be used directly, without being
    divided into ranges.

    The user can express uncertainty by entering more than one
    state value, or a range of numerical values.

Other desirable features include:

    Advice on the most suitable characters to use at  any  stage
    of an identification.

    Character  dependencies:  certain  character  values  making
    other characters inapplicable.

    Provision for  gaps  in  the  values  recorded  for  integer
    numeric characters.

    Storing, searching, and displaying free-text information.

    Locating errors which were circumvented by the
    error-tolerance mechanism.

    Use of probabilities.

    Provision for restricting any operations to subsets of the
    characters and taxa.

    Glossaries and notes on interpretation of characters.

    Illustrations of characters and taxa.

    Provision for information retrieval.

    Finding the differences and similarities between taxa.

    Finding diagnostic descriptions.

    The ability to handle large data sets efficiently.

    Data sharing with other description-based applications:
    description writing, generation of conventional keys, and
    phenetic and cladistic analysis.

It  is  an inevitable consequence of the flexibility of interac-
tive keys that much of the strategy involved in carrying out  an
identification  is  left  to  the  user. Good strategies must be
learnt if the keys are to be used to the best advantage.

M. J. Dallwitz, T. A. Paine, and E. J. Zurcher
Division of Entomology, CSIRO, GPO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601,
Australia. Fax +61 6 246 4000. Email
Home Page
(BEN # 157   15-February-1997)
From: Alex Inselberg <>

[This is an  abbreviated  abstract  of  the  Forest  Renewal  of
British Columbia funding proposal.]

RAPID  will  be  an  interactive  plant  identification computer
program which will greatly accelerate the process of identifying
vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens within B.C. The  program
and  its  database  will  continue  to grow and evolve, and will
possibly  become  our  most  valuable  and  readily   accessible
resource for plant identification. Images and line drawings will
be  an  integral  part  of  RAPID.  In addition to the program's
primary function, it will also be a useful teaching aid.

The random access approach to plant  identification  is  dynamic
compared  with  the restrictive dichotomous key approach used in
traditional paper-based methods. This  will  allow  greater  ex-
ploration  of  the  rich  descriptive  attributes  of plants, in
addition to their  ecological  characteristics.  RAPID  will  be
constructed  as  a relational database, which is a sophisticated
and efficient way to store and quickly retrieve information.

Plant identification will begin with the selection of any  of  a
variety  of  characteristics  from an introductory menu. For ex-
ample, identification will involve decisions on  the  following:
location  in the province, type of site, plant life form, physi-
cal size features, and a variety of properties  associated  with
stems,  leaves, inflorescence types, flowers, fruits, and roots.
If you have an idea of the plant family or genus,  you  will  be
able  to  begin your search from that point. With each selection
of a characteristic feature the list of likely candidate species
is potentially shortened. The program will also advise on  those
characters  most  likely  to  discriminate  amongst  the species
remaining. For example, if the type of leaf margin  is  able  to
discriminate  amongst  the  remaining  species in your candidate
list, it will automatically move to the  top  of  your  list  of
"best" characters.

In  the  event  a  given  plant characteristic cannot be clearly
defined, e.g. a leaf is pubescent or possibly tomentose, you can
ask the program to include all species with either  description.
Likewise if you are unsure your sample is considered a tree or a
shrub,  you can include both trees and shrubs in your selection.
For those species which may be indistinguishable without  exper-
tise  and  access  to  materials such as a microscope or special
chemicals, the user will be notified  with  a  warning  message.
Likewise  if  a crucial plant component must be present in order
to make a positive identification, the user will be notified.

Plant names may be displayed  in  either  common  or  scientific
names,  along  with the correct Latin code used to enter species
names on field data forms. Explanation of any of the terminology
used in the menus and keys will also be readily available in the
form of text, diagrams and images.

Approach: Efforts are being made to learn about similar  systems
and  initiatives  in  other parts of the world. RAPID's features
will be carefully selected to ensure it meets the needs of field
personnel here in B.C., as well as the broader goals and  stand-
ards  of  international  data exchange. RAPID will ultimately be
the property of the B.C. Government.  Wherever  possible,  RAPID
will  be  a  cooperative effort with other developers of similar
initiatives and databases within and outside of the province.

When this project goes ahead, a web page will be constructed for
the purpose of information exchange and updates.

For more information on interactive plant identification see the

[For interactive identification programs  see  also  BEN  #  96,
March 25, 1995.]
(BEN # 157   15-February-1997)
From: Mike Dallwitz <>

The  DELTA  programs,  and  several data sets, are available via
anonymous ftp from (directory: /pub/delta) and via WWW from

The file Index.txt (note the upper-case I) contains  a  list  of
the  available  programs and data. Most of the subdirectories of
delta contain text files *.1st which contain  information  about
downloading  and  installing  the  programs or data in that sub-
directory. When using ftp, always enter the command `binary'  at
the start of the session.

When downloading the program distribution files, place them in a
directory  \DELTA.  To install the programs, follow the instruc-
tions in Delta.1st.

The programs are supplied with documentation files, sample data,
and a list of references. The conditions of use are  in  a  file
delta.use,  and  the prices in delta.reg. These files are within
both of the self-extracting archive  files  delta1@.exe  (MS-DOS
INTKEY) and deltaw@.exe (MS-Windows INTKEY).

There  is  a  mailing list, DELTA-L, for discussion of DELTA and
announcements of updates. To subscribe, send the message
    SUBSCRIBE DELTA-L your-first-name your-last-name by email to
(BEN # 157   15-February-1997)
From: Mann, H.E. & M.V.S. Raju (1996) - Blue Jay 54(4): 192.
       [abbreviated introduction to the paper cited bellow]

Parasites,  in  general,  are organisms that live on or in other
individuals and draw their nourishment from  their  hosts.  Most
plants,  on the other hand, are autotrophic, and can manufacture
their own complex nutrients independently from simple  naturally
occurring   substances.   But  even  here  in  the  green  (with
chlorophyll),  self-sustaining  plant  kingdom,  evolution   has
perhaps been diverted several times to produce a small number of
saprophytes and parasites.

The  saprophytes  are  those  that  survive on a wide variety of
complex organic substances without depending  on  other  plants.
Their  aerial  parts are non-green (lacking chlorophyll) and the
underground roots become  variously  modified  by  showing  very
irregular  branching.  Often  these  irregularly  branched roots
morphologically resemble  corals,  and  hence  they  are  called
coralloid  roots,  as in some plants such as Pine Sap or Indian-
pipe (Monotropa)  of  the  family  Monotropaceae,  or  Coralroot
Orchid (Corallorhiza) of the family Orchidaceae. Their roots are
usually  associated externally and/or internally with fungi, and
such an association is called mycorrhiza.

Unlike the  saprophytes,  parasites  depend  directly  on  other
plants  for  their  growth,  development  and  reproduction. The
parasites can be classified into two  types  -  a)  complete  or
holo-parasites  and  b)  semi-  or  hemi-parasites. The complete
parasites are those that depend on autotrophic plants for  their
living.  They  are non-green and cannot photosynthesize. [Broom-
rapes (Orobanchaceae),  Dodders  (Cuscutaceae),  and  Mistletoes
(Loranthaceae) can be given as an example.]

The  semiparasites  do  contain  chlorophyll but depend on other
living plants for water and other  simple  nutrients.  [A  large
group of genera in the Scroph family (Scrophulariaceae), includ-
ing  Indian  Paintbrush (Castilleja), some member of the Santal-
wood family (Santalaceae) such as Bastard  Toadflax  (Comandra),
can be given as an example.] Some semiparasites in nature may or
may  not depend on hosts for their living. The former are called
obligate semiparasites; the latter, facultative  or  circumstan-
tial  semiparasites.  In  all  parasites  the roots, usually the
lateral roots, become modified to form haustoria  (the  part  of
the  root  that penetrate the host), which facilitate the uptake
of water and other nutrients from the host plant.  The  faculta-
tive  semiparasites, under favourable growth conditions, may not
produce haustoria. (In some instances, haustoria of the parasite
become attached to its own root, causing some destruction.  This
phenomenon  is  called self-parasitism, which is not uncommon in
parasites, especially in semiparasites.)

Mann, H.E. & M.V.S. Raju. 1996. Some parasitic  plants  of  Sas-
   katchewan. Blue Jay 54 (No. 4 - December 1996): 192-198.
(BEN # 158   22-February-1997)
From: Mary Barkworth <>

My  advisor - Marion Ownbey commented that he had simply planted
Poa pratensis in the plots where he was growing  Castilleja.  At
least, that is what I think he said - it was a long time ago ...
But  the  experimental garden did not have shrubs in it. Has Art
Guppy tried grass (as a host)?
(BEN # 158   22-February-1997)
From: Loren Russell, Corvallis, Oregon <>

In my  experience,  Castillejas  do  not  have  restricted  host
ranges, nor are the hosts necessarily woody plants. I have grown
C.levisecta  on  for about 6 years, from a seed population given
me by Mrs. Florence Free, of Seattle Washington. Mrs.  Free  had
obtained  seed of this species on Whidbey Island Washington, and
had maintained it in the garden for about 20 years when she gave
me the seed. She has since had to give up her garden.

Mrs. Free had started both Castilleja levisecta and  C.  miniata
in  her  garden  by  rubbing  seed directly into mats of the New
Zealand composite Raoulia levisecta, growing in her rock garden.
Both Castillejas had become self-seeding in  this  rock  garden,
among a great variety of exotic and native plants.

I  sow  Castilleja  levisecta  in 4-inch pots in mid-winter, and
germination is usually complete by mid-March; seed sown  outside
after  the  end  of February will not germinate. (This and other
observations indicate that this is a D-40 germinator  in  Norman
Deno's  terminology.)  The  seed of C.levisecta, and probably of
most Castillejas is very long-lived in dry storage. Some of  the
original  batch  of seed from Mrs. Free's garden germinated last
winter, about 6 1/2 years  after  harvest.  The  seed  had  been
stored  dry  in a basement room at about 15-20 C, without desic-

Castilleja levisecta grows on very  well  to  about  the  6-leaf
stage,  after which it is necessary to transfer the seedlings to
a host. Acceptable  hosts  have  included  Raoulia  tenuicaulis,
Festuca  ovina,  Aster alpinus, Potentilla megalantha. While all
of these are exotic species, it is clear  that  C.levisecta  can
successfully  establish  root  connections with a great range of
host plants of diverse taxonomic groups.
(BEN # 158   22-February-1997)
From: Jon Splane <jons@EFN.ORG> originally posted to
        Alpine-L the Electronic Rock Garden Society

I have grown and bloomed for a couple of years several clones of
what I identified as C. hispida. These were grown from  seed  in
pots  of  a soilless mix based on composted fir bark with a sub-
stantial amount of pumice added. No "host" plants were  present,
although  weeds frequently appeared. Weeds were removed whenever
noticed. Moss also colonized the pots  and  was  pretty  much  a
permanent  fixture. I doubt the Castillejas were able to use the
moss as a host.

The seedlings made very slow growth  for  most  of  their  first
season, but appeared healthy. The pots were constantly moist and
fed  with  slow  release  fertilizer  and  an occasional shot of
soluble. They were well, but not extravagantly  fertilized.  The
second season they got the same culture and grew moderately well
and bloomed in mid summer.

The  following  spring  a  took some cuttings from these plants.
When the new shoots were just poking up  through  the  ground  I
removed  half  a dozen of these right were they were attached to
the crown. These rooted easily under cover in a mix  similar  to
the  one  growing  the mature plants but with more pumice and no
fertilizer. Most grew on after being potted  up  and  eventually

These  Castillejas  were  around a couple more years and bloomed
but never looked like they were  happy.  They  might  have  done
better in the ground. When I've seen this species in the wild it
has  been growing in a fairly clayey loam with good drainage and
little organic material in the soil. I don't think  their  even-
tual demise was due to lack of a host.

[Similar observations were reported  by L.R. Heckard in 1962, in
the  article on "Root parasitism in Castilleja" published in the
Botanical Gazette, 124: 21-29.]
(BEN # 158   22-February-1997)

BEN # 154 - YUKON COLLECTING PERMITS -I made a mistake in  phone
   number  for  the collecting permits. It was given as 668-5363
   it should be 667-5363. I hope you can distribute  the  change
   with my apology. - Bruce Bennett

BEN # 156 - Apologies for the German spelling of Kamchatka. - AC
(BEN # 158   22-February-1997)

The  first  Annual  General  Meeting of the NPSBC - Native Plant
Society of British Columbia was held in Victoria on  March  9th,
1997 and ellected the first board of directors:

   President:       Douglas Justice
   Vice President:  Tom Wells
   Treasurer:       Sylvia Mosterman
   Secretary:       Ross Waddell

The remaining directors are:
Adolf Ceska, Theresa Duynstee, Pam Meneguzzi, Verna Miller, Wilf
Nichols, John  Olafson,  Bruce  Peel,  Giles  Stevenson,  Paulus
Vrijmoed, Josette Wier, and David Williams.

The aim of the Native Plant Society of British Columbia is to 
encourage  knowledge, responsible  use  and  conservation of 
British Columbia's native plants and habitats (cf. BEN # 144)

If you want to become a member, please,  send  your  application
and the membership fee (Individual - $20.00, Associate - $15.00,
Corporate - $75.00) to

   Ross Waddell, NPSBC Secretary
   2012 William Street
   Vancouver, B.C.  V5L 2X6
   Telephone: 604-255-5719


Special  Botany Night:   Wednesday,  April  2,  1997, 7:30 p.m., 
Swan Lake Nature Centre. (Free admission)

Elisabeth Beaubien (Research Associate of the  Devonian  Botanic
Garden,  University  of  Alberta  in  Edmonton)  will talk about
"Plantwatch 97" - a phenology program launched by  the  Devonian
(BEN # 159   17-March-1997)

Anna  Roberts  (Williams  Lake,  B.C.) was inspired by fruits of
Cyperaceae and created what she called  the  "biomorphic  sculp-
tures"  of  various  Cyperaceae achenes and Carex perigynia. Her
exhibit "SEDGES" will open  in  the  Station  House  Gallery  in
Williams  Lake,  B.C. on April 3rd, 1997, and will last till the
end of April. Don't miss it!
(BEN # 159   17-March-1997)
From: Frank Lomer, Honourary Research Associate, UBC
         Herbarium, Vancouver, B.C. c/o <>

Grand Coulee owl-clover, Orthocarpus barbatus Cotton, an attrac-
tive yellow-flowered species endemic to central Washington,  was
collected on May 27, 1995 in low ground in Stipa-sagebrush hills
south  of  the  golf  course west of Highway 97 in Osoyoos. Many
hundreds of plants grew at this site in one small  area  at  the
foot  of  115th  Street  on the south side of a cattle fence ad-
jacent to a new and  very  destructive  subdivision  (Lomer  95-
198).  In 1996 I revisited this site and the population seems to
have increased.

A second Canadian site for this species was found about 5 km due
east of the first site, on June 16,l996 in sagebrush flats south
of Highway 3, 49 0'25" N, 119  24'18"  W  (Lomer  96-079).  This
population  was considerably larger and covered a wide area near
an old cattle corral. Orthocarpus barbatus was collected earlier
at this same site by George Douglas and J.M. Illingworth on June
24, 1994 (Douglas # 12848).
(BEN # 159   17-March-1997)
From: Adolf Ceska <>

Stettler,  R.F.,  H.D.  Bradshaw,  Jr.,  P.E.  Heilman,  &  T.M.
   Hinckley  [eds.] 1996. Biology of Populus and its implication
   for management and conservation. NRC Research Press,  Ottawa,
   Ontario,  Canada.  539  p.  ISBN  0-660-16506-6  [hard cover]
   Price: CND$49.95 (in Canada), US$49.95 (other countries).

The study of poplars has been the focal theme of the  University
of   Washington/Washington   State  University  Poplar  Research
Program since 1978. This book offers a summary of the results of
these studies. The  twenty  chapters  (authored  by  forty-seven
researchers)  are  divided into two principal parts: 1) chapters
dealing  with   systematics,   evolution,   molecular   biology,
hybridization, ecology, fungal pathogens, and herbivore interac-
tions of poplars (Chapter 1 through 11), and 2) chapters dealing
with  the  physiology, growth, productivity, and stress response
of various poplar species and their hybrids (Chapter 12  through

The  book  covers a wide range of topics with poplar as a common
denominator. Although this  book  is  a  valuable  reference  to
everything  related to poplars, it also contains valuable infor-
mation on applications of molecular biology, hybridization,  and
physiological  assessments  of  deciduous  tree  species. Anyone
interested in these fields will find it as a valuable reference.

The book is reasonably priced and very well produced. A  general
subject  index  and  an index of authors would have improved the

Order information:
The book can be ordered from

   Monographs Orders
   NRC Research Press, M-55
   National Research Council of Canada
   Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0R6
   Telephone: 613-993-0151  Fax: 613-952-7656
   Web site:

Authorized distributor (USA)

   Aubrey Books International Ltd.
   Telephone: 301-587-3950

(BEN # 159   17-March-1997)
From: Adolf Ceska <>

Flora of the Russian  Arctic.  Volume  2.  Translated  from  the
   original  Russian  "Arkticheskaya Flora SSSR" by G.C.D. Grif-
   fiths, edited by J.G. Packer. University  of  Alberta  Press,
   Edmonton. 1996. 233 p. ISBN 0-88864-270-9 [hard cover] Price:

This  volume  of an English translation of the Russian "Flora of
the Soviet Arctic" contains original volumes III  (Cyperaceae  -
published  in  January  1966)  and IV (remaining monocots - pub-
lished in April 1963). The most important parts of  this  volume
are  the  classical  treatment  of  sedges (genus Carex) by T.V.
Egorova and Tolmachev's treatment of Juncaceae.  Egorova's  dis-
cussions  of  taxonomical problems of sedges growing in the Rus-
sian Arctic are relevant to Canadian and North American  readers
and  anybody with even only a slight interest in Carex will find
an important reference  in  this  publication.  The  translator,
G.C.D  Griffiths,  and  the English edition editor, J.G. Packer,
should be commended for their work on this volume.

The price of this volume is  prohibitive  and  put  this  useful
publication  out of reach of many students who should have it in
their reference library. According to the  Acknowledgements  and
according  to  the  promotional note, only a part of this volume
was funded by the NSERC grant. As a result,  this  volume  costs
almost  twice  as  much as the first volume (cf. BEN # 132), and
yet it is only about two thirds the size of  the  first  volume.
The  University of Alberta Press did an excellent job in produc-
ing the first two volumes of this English edition. Compared with
the paperbacks printed on ugly newsprint paper  of  the  Russian
edition,  this  English edition looks like a limited bibliophile
edition, but we have to pay comparably high price  for  it.  Can
NSERC  help  again?  (NSERC  =  Natural  Science and Engineering
Research Council, the  principle  academic  granting  agency  in

Please send orders to:

   6344 Memorial Drive
   Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6G 1Z2
   Tel.: (604) 822-5959
   Fax: 1-800-668-0821 (toll-free within North America)
   Fax: (604) 822-6083 (outside North America)

**Special Price for Two Volume Purchase**
Flora of the Russian Arctic, Vol. I & II        $175.00

**Special Price for Complete Series**
Order the entire series now and save $200!
Flora of the Russian Arctic, Vols. I-VI         $500.00
(If you already own Volume I, deduct $65.00)

ADD  Shipping & Handling ($5.00 per book)
*Canadian orders only* add 7% GST
**Orders from outside Canada are payable in US dollars.**

MasterCard and VISA accepted. Please make cheques payable to UBC
Press. Orders from individuals must be prepaid.

For more information visit the following web site:

(BEN # 159   17-March-1997)
From: Phil or Carla Burton <>

Symbios  Research  and  Restoration  is  looking  for  two field
botanists / ecologists to work on  vegetation  surveys.

Activities will involve  transect  and  plot  layout;  recording
tree,  snag  and  windthrow  diameters  and  height; determining
seedling and sapling densities and recent leader growth; vegeta-
tion sampling  using  line  intercept  method;  and  lichen  and
bryophyte surveys on rotting logs, tree bases, and (possibly) in
the  canopy.

These positions are based in Smithers, B.C. You will be  respon-
sible for your own accommodation and meals.

We  are  particularly looking for individuals with strong LICHEN
will continue to the end of August, 1997.

If interested in one of these positions, please contact me prior
to April 30:

   Carla  Burton,  Symbios  Research  and  Restoration 
   Box 3398, Smithers, B.C. V0J 2N0 
   Tel. 250-847-0247 Fax. 250-847-0278 
(BEN # 159   17-March-1997)

The  BC Conservation Data Centre is organizing this year's meet-
ing and we are excited to offer an opportunity to do  some  high
country  botany at Cathedral Lakes Park. We have booked space at
Cathedral Lakes Lodge,  and  space  is  limited  in  the  lodge,
chalets,  and  cabins.  There are camping sites in the park, and
the lodge can accommodate limited numbers of campers for  meals.
We  are still working on the details, but the registration forms
will be mailed out early next week.
(BEN # 160   22-March-1997)
From: "D. Ross Priddle" <>

One Sunday afternoon in February of 1997 I went for  a  walk  at
McNeil  Bay,  Victoria,  B.C.  I walked east and north along the
rocky shoreline. A ways along (before the point) and  back  from
the  shore  at  the  vegetation margin on the sandy soil beneath
small shrubs I discovered a tiny bulbiform moss  which  appeared
to  have  included  sporophytes.  I collected a small sample and
later  identified it  as Acaulon muticum var. rufescens  (Jaeg.)
Crum.  I  sent  the  specimen  to Dr. R.H. Zander at the Clinton
Herbarium in the Buffalo Museum of Science, New York  (BUF)  who
confirmed my identification and deposited the specimen there.

This  moss has not been previously reported in British Columbia.
Crum & Anderson (1981) illustrate this taxon and give the  range
as  "Quebec  to  Michigan, Iowa, Kansas and south to Florida and
Texas; California and (according  to  Grout)  Arizona."  On  the
Canadian  Checklist (Ireland et al., 1987) the taxon is verified
only for Ontario, with literature reports from  Quebec and  Sas-

Dr. Zander is the recognized expert on Pottiaceae and is working
on  the  treatment of Acaulon for the forthcoming Flora of North
America. He offers this key:

1. Leaves awned; laminal cells papillose abaxially
   .............  1. Acaulon schimperianum (Sull.) Sull. & Lesq.

1. Leaves cuspidate or blunt; laminal cells smooth.

   2. Plant  often  three-angled,  about  1.0 mm  high;   leaves
      keeled; seta about as long as the diameter of the capsule;
      spores about 30 um, finely papillose
      .....................  2. Acaulon triquetrum (Spruce) C.M.

   2. Plants  flattened-globose  or three-angled; leaves broadly
      channeled; seta short,  about  0.3  the  diameter  of  the
      capsule; spores 30-50 um, smooth or papillose
      .........................  3. Acaulon muticum (Hedw.) C.M.

      3. Spores  shortly  ellipsoidal, brown, densely papillose-
         .....................  3a. Acaulon muticum var. muticum

      3. Spores nearly spherical, yellow, smooth
         ......  3b. Acaulon muticum var. rufescens (Jeag.) Crum

Acaulon muticum var. muticum seems to be rare in North  America,
although  it  is  more  common  in  northern and central Europe.
Acaulon muticum var. rufescens seems to be common plant in parts
of North America (see above).

Crum, H.A. &  L.E.  Anderson.  1981.  Mosses  of  eastern  North
   America. Columbia University Press, N.Y. 1328 p.
Ireland, R.R., G.R. Brassard, W.B. Schofield, & D.H. Vitt. 1987.
   Checklist of the mosses of Canada II. Lindbergia 13: 1-62.
(BEN # 160   22-March-1997)
Toby Spribille <Spribille_Toby/>

A  bryological excursion day is planned for 10 May 1997 near the
northwest Montana  town  of  Bigfork,  led  by  Drs.  Dale  Vitt
(University of Alberta, Edmonton) and Lars Soederstroem (Univer-
sity  of  Trondheim, Norway). The object of the field trip is to
bring together people with interest in mosses and liverworts  to
meet  and  exchange ideas and information while inventorying the
bryoflora of the bottoms of the Porcupine  Creek  drainage  just
southeast  of  the town of Bigfork in the beautiful Swan Valley.
This is an area with high  species  diversity  and  many  unique
phytogeographic  elements,  including  boreal and coastal. There
are several calcareous fens in  the  area.  The  excursion  will
include  guided  visits to these unique habitats as well as sur-
rounding upland terrain.

Excursion participants will meet at the  Forest  Service  Ranger
Station  in Bigfork at 8:00 AM on the morning of the 10th of May
and will carpool to go to the  field  sites.  The  excursion  is
planned to last until about 4:00 PM. Participants are advised to
bring  raingear and rubber boots, a boxed lunch, collecting bags
and hand lenses.

Accommodations and restaurants are found in abundance in Bigfork
and nearby Kalispell.

Registration is free of charge. To register, please provide your
name, mailing address (incl. e-mail!) and phone/fax to

   Toby Spribille
   Fortine Ranger District
   Kootenai Nat'l Forest
   P.O. Box 116
   Fortine, MT 59918

   Phone: (406) 882 4451  Fax: (406) 882 4835
   e-mail: Spribille_Toby/

This will  allow  us  to  anticipate  turnout  and  better  plan
specific  activities.  In  addition,  this will allow us to mail
vicinity maps to registrants to help them plan their attendance.
(BEN # 160   22-March-1997)
From: Marshall Crosby <> originally posted to [abbrev.]

Schenk, G. 1997. Moss gardening, including lichens,  liverworts,
   and  other  miniatures. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis,
   MO. 261 pages, 97 beautiful color plates. Hard cover. Prices,
   postpaid: $38.50 U.S. addresses; $39.50, all other addresses.

At last, a comprehensive, up-to-date, sensible book  on  growing
mosses  and similar things. The perfect answer to those frequent
queries from gardeners about how to grow  mosses.  Or  for  that
matter  to  those  who want an introduction to mosses, including
what's not a moss. Sections include transplanting,  propagating,
and  growing  mosses  in  containers,  for bonsai, and as ground

See our web site,, for additional bryophyte
(and other) titles.

Send order to:

      Department Eleven          Phone: (+1) 314-577-9534
      Missouri Botanical Garden  Fax:     (+1) 314-577-9594
      P.O. Box 299               E-mail:
      St. Louis, MO 63166-0299   Web:

(BEN # 160   22-March-1997)
From: Marilyn Light <>

Reddoch, Joyce M. & Allan H. Reddoch. 1997. The orchids  in  the
   Ottawa   District:   Floristics,  phytogeography,  population
   studies and historical review. Special Issue of The  Canadian
   Field-Naturalist, vol 111, no. 1: 1-186.

This  186-page  work  describes  the 44 orchid species that have
been found within 50 km of Canada's National  Parliament  Build-
ings  in Ottawa. It contains information on identification, past
abundance, population changes, development cycles  and  relative
stability  of colonies. It is presented as a baseline study from
which to design further research and prepare effective  planning
measures to protect wild orchid populations.

The Introduction describes the history of collecting and record-
ing  since  1856,  principal orchid habitats, local distribution
patterns, rare species, colour forms, capsules and seeds, bloom-
ing dates and other topics.

Each species account provides detailed information on the  above
topics,  as  well as a brief description of the plant. A drawing
and a spot distribution map accompany each account. Correlations
of some species with the Canadian Shield  or  the  St.  Lawrence
Lowlands,  or  with  calcareous rock, sandstone or sand deposits
are shown. Long-lived colonies of many  species  are  described,
and  population  studies  are included for Corallorhiza striata,
Goodyera pubescens, G. tesselata, Platanthera  hookeri,  P.  or-
biculata and Spiranthes cernua.

To obtain copies of this journal issue, send CAN $10. plus $2.50
(postage and handling) for each copy to

   The Canadian Field-Naturalist
   P.O. Box 35069, Westgate P.O.
   Ottawa, Canada K1Z 1A2
(BEN # 160   22-March-1997)