16.11) Jujutsu


Old, practical, fighting art.  A parent to Judo, Aikido, and Hapkido.

Origin:         Japan

The begining of Ju-jutsu can be found in the turbulent period of Japanese
history between the 8th and 16th Century.  During this time, there was
almost constant civil war in Japan and the classical weaponed systems were
developed and constantly refined on the battle field.  Close fighting
techniques were developed as part of these systems to be use in 
conjunction with weapons against armoured, armed apponents.  It was from 
these techniques that Ju-jutsu arose.

The first publicly recognised Ju-jutsu ryu was formed by Takenouchie
Hisamori in 1532 and consisted of techniques of sword, jo-stick and dagger
as well as unarmed techniques.

In 1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu brought peace to Japan by forming the Tokugawa
military government.  This marked the beginning of the Edo period of
Japanese history (1603-1868), during which waring ceased to be a dominant
feature of Japanese life.

In the beginning of this period there was a general shift from weaponed
forms of fighting to weaponless styles.  These weaponless styles were
developed from the grappling techniques of the weaponed styles and were
collectively known as ju-jutsu. During the height of the Edo period, there
were more than 700 systems of jujutsu.

The end of the Edo was marked by the Meiji Restoration, an abortive civil
war that moved power from the Shogun back to the Emperor.  A large
proportion of the Samurai class supported the Shogun during the war.
Consequently, when power was restored to the Emperor, many things related
to the Samurai fell into disrepute.  An Imperial edict was decreed,
declaring it a criminal offence to practice the old style combative 
martial arts.  During the period of the Imperial edict, Ju-jutsu was 
almost lost. However, some masters continued to practice their art 
"under-ground", or moved to other countries, allowing the style to 
continue.  By the mid twenty century, the ban on ju-jutsu in Japan had 
lifted, allowing the free practicing of the art.


The style encompasses throws, locks, and striking techniques, with a 
strong emphasis on throws, locks, and defensive techniques.  It is also
characterized by in-fighting and close work.   It is a circular, 
hard/soft, external style.

Training:       Practical with a heavy emphasis on sparring and 
mock 	        combat.

There are many, each associated with a different "school" (Ryu).  Here is 
a partial list: Daito Ryu, Danzan Ryu, Shidare Yanagi Ryu, Hokuto Ryu, 
Hontai Yoshin Ryu, Sosuishi Ryu, Kito Ryu, Kyushin Ryu.

A more modern addition to this list is "Gracie Jujutsu", so named because
of its development by the Gracie family of Brazil.  Gracie Jujutsu (or GJJ
as it has come to be known on rec.martial-arts) has a heavy emphasis on
grappling/groundfighting.  The Gracies have come into public promenence
over the past year or two through a series of "no rules" martial arts
contests known as the Ultimate Fighting Championships (UFC), some of which
have been won by Royce (pronounced "Hoyce" in the Portugese language) Gracie.