WHEREAS recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and 
inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation 
of freedom, justice and peace in the world, 
    WHEREAS disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in 
barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the 
advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech 
and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the 
highest aspiration of the common people,
    WHEREAS, it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have 
recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and 
oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law, 
    WHEREAS it is essential to promote the development of friendly 
relations between nations, 
    WHEREAS the peoples of the United Nations have in their Charter 
reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and 
worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and 
have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life 
in larger freedoms, 
    WHEREAS Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in 
cooperation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect 
for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms, 
    WHEREAS a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of 
the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge, 
Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all 
peoples and all nations, to that end that every individual and every 
organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall 
strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights 
and freedoms and by progressive measures, national  and international, 
to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, 
both among the peoples of Member states themselves and among the 
peoples of territories under their jurisdiction. 
    All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They 
are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one 
another in a spirit of brotherhood. 
    Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in 
this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, 
colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national 
or social origin, property, birth, or other status.Furthermore, no 
distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional 
or international status of the country or territory to which a person 
belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under 
any other limitation of sovereignty. 
    Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. 
    No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave 
trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. 
    No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or 
degrading treatment or punishment. 
    Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before 
the law. 
    All are created equal before the law and are entitled without any 
discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to 
equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this 
Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination. 
    Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent 
national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted 
him by the constitution or by law. 
    No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention, or exile. 
    Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing 
by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his 
rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him. 
    (1) Everyone charged with a penal offense has the right to be 
presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public 
trail at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defense. 
    (2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offense on account of 
any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offense , under 
national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor 
shall a heavier penalty be imposed than one that was applicable at the 
time the penal offense was committed. 
    No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his 
privacy, family, or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and 
reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against 
such interference or attacks. 
    (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence 
within the borders of each state. 
    (2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, 
and to return to his country. 
    (1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy, in other countries, 
asylum from persecution. 
    (2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions 
genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to 
the purposes and principles of the United Nations. 
    (1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
    (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor 
denied the right to change his nationality. 
    (1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, 
nationality, or religion, have the right to marry and found a family. 
They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and 
at its dissolution. 
    (2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free will and full 
consent of the intending spouses. 
    (3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society 
and is entitled to protection by society and the State. 
    (1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in 
association with others. 
    (2) No one shall arbitrarily be deprived of his property.

    Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and
religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief,
and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or
private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice,
worship and observance.
    Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this
right includes to hold opinions without interference and to seek,
receive, and impart information and ideas through any media and
regardless of frontiers.
    (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and
    (2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.
    (1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his
county, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
    (2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his
    (3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of
government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine
elections which shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free
voting procedures.
    Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security
and is entitled to realization, through national effort and
international cooperation and in accordance with the organization and
resources of each State, of the economic, social, and cultural rights
indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his
    (1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to
just and favorable conditions of work and to protection against
    (2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay
for equal work.
    (3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favorable
remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of
human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social
    (4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the
protection of his interests.
    Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable
limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.
    (1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the
health and well being of himself and of his family, including food,
clothing, housing, and medical care and necessary social services, and
to the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness,
disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in
circumstances beyond his control.
    (2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and
assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall
enjoy the same social protection.

    (1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at 
least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education 
shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made 
generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to 
all on the basis of merit. 
    (2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human 
personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and 
fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and 
friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall 
further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of 
    (3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that 
shall be given to their children. 
    (1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural 
life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific 
advancement and its benefits. 
    (2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and 
material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic 
production of which he is the author. 
    Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which 
the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully 
    (1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and 
full development of his personality is possible. 
    (2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be 
subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for 
the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and 
freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, 
public order and the general welfare in a democratic society. 
    (3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary 
to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. 
    Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any 
State, group or person and right to engage in any activity or to 
perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and 
freedoms set forth herein.