Whereas it appears that a state of war exists between 
Austria, Prussia, Sardinia, Great Britain, and the United 
Netherlands, of the one part, and France on the other; and 
the duty and interest of the United States require, that they 
should with sincerity and good faith adopt and pursue a 
conduct friendly and impartial toward the belligerant Powers; 
     I have therefore thought fit by these presents to declare 
the disposition of the United States to observe the conduct 
aforesaid towards those Powers respectfully; and to exhort and 
warn the citizens of the United States carefully to avoid all 
acts and proceedings whatsoever, which may in any manner tend 
to contravene such disposition.
     And I do hereby also make known, that whatsoever of the 
citizens of the United States shall render himself liable to 
punishment or forfeiture under the law of nations, by 
committing, aiding, or abetting hostilities against any of the 
said Powers, or by carrying to any of them those articles which 
are deemed contraband by the modern usage of nations, will not 
receive the protection of the United States, against such 
punishment or forfeiture; and further, that I have given 
instructions to those officers, to whom it belongs, to cause 
prosecutions to be instituted against all persons, who shall, 
within the cognizance of the courts of the United States, 
violate the law of nations, with respect to the Powers at war, 
or any of them.
     In testimony whereof, I have caused the seal of the United 
States of America to be affixed to these presents, and signed 
the same with my hand.  Done at the city of Philadelphia, the 
twenty-second day of April, one thousand seven hundred and 
ninety-three, and of the Independence of the United States of 
America the seventeenth.

April 22, 1793


  France declared war against Great Britain and Holland 
early in April, 1793.  President Washington called a special 
cabinet meeting, which resulted in this declaration of 


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