1               ONLINE MODERN HISTORY REVIEW, December 1992
     2               -------------------------------------------
     5         Erving, E. Beauregard
     9                   IN ABOLITIONISM AND ANTIMASONRY
    12                  --------------------------------------
    15         The United States of America in the nineteenth century
    16    harboured movements filled with passion and arousing counterrage;
    17    at one end of the political stage stood the antislavery advocates
    18    William Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips, whose thunderous
    19    orations moved men and women to the cause; at the other end stood
    20    the antimasons, William H. Seward and Thaddeus Stevens, who waged
    21    a more ephemeral, but yet momentarily effective, onslaught
    22    against the secrecy and presumed power of the Freemasons.  In the
    23    charged and passionate atmosphere of the time, combining fervent
    24    abolitionism and uncompromising antimasonry was an uncommon
    25    occurrence, yet one extraordinary crusader--Robert Hanna--joined
    26    combat for both on the local, state, and national scenes.
    29         Historiography, sadly, has neglected Hanna.  This is true of
    30    works on abolitionism by such writers as Gilbert H. Barnes,
    31    Dwight Lowell Dumond and Louis Filler.+1+  Hanna also has escaped
    32    recognition by scholars of antimasonry, including Charles
    33    McCarthy, William Preston Vaughn, and George Hubbard
    34    Blakeslee.+2+
    37         Robert Hanna was born in 1800 at Green Township, Harrison
    38    County, Ohio.  For several years he laboured on the family farm,
    39    but in 1819 his father concluded that Robert should receive an
    40    education in preparation for a professional career.  Thus he was
    41    enrolled at newly founded Alma Academy, New Athens, Harrison
    42    County, Ohio.+3+  Under the guidance of the Reverend John Walker,
    43    the Academy's founder and pioneer Associate Presbyterian
    44    missionary in eastern Ohio, Hanna was immersed in the Bible and
    45    the Declaration of Independence, immortal masterpieces which,
    46    Walker impressed on his charge, faced "critical onslaughts from
    47    the minions of the Evil One," i.e., slaveowners and
    48    Freemasons.+4+
    51          In 1821, Hanna enrolled at Jefferson College, Canonsburg,
    52    Pennsylvania.  Very soon double disappointment gripped him; his
    53    encounters with the sons of slaveowners and Freemasons scarred
    54    his freshman year.  In letters to his brother, he described the
    55    sons of slaveowners "as strutting peacocks who delighted in
    56    praising that heinous institution, slavery."+5+  The sons of the
    57    Freemasons he labelled "terrible poseurs" and acidly remarked
    58    they "hypocritically asserted that their fathers and relatives
    59    belonged to that most human order, Freemasonry, which most self-
    60    sacrificingly advances the cause of mankind."+6+  At the end of
    61    his unhappy freshman year Hanna decided to abandon Jefferson
    62    College.  However, his father prevailed upon him to remain one
    63    more year.  When that expired, Hanna gladly left.+7+
    66          In 1822, Hanna enrolled at Greeneville College; affiliated
    67    with the Presbyterian Church U.S.A., the institution was located
    68    in eastern Tennessee, an area unfriendly to slavery.  At
    69    Greeneville Hanna felt much more at home.  He thought well of the
    70    Greeneville faculty, but none had the fascination for him as had
    71    the Reverend John Walker at Alma Academy.+8+  Many of his
    72    classmates shared his antislavery ideas; however, some were
    73    indifferent on the issue and, characteristically, Hanna attempted
    74    to bring them over to his side.  Inevitably, Hanna also broached
    75    his antimasonic outlook to fellow students, but this matter drew
    76    less response for few were cognizant of Freemasonry or secret
    77    orders in general.  
    80          After receiving the Bachelor of Arts in 1824 Hanna set on a
    81    legal career under the critical eye of Chauncey Dewey at Cadiz,
    82    Harrison County, Ohio.  A graduate of Union College,
    83    Schenecdtady, New York, Dewey was a distinguished lawyer whose
    84    learning and activity impressed Hanna.  Nevertheless, the latter
    85    did not kowtow to his mentor on one issue--slavery.  Dewey upheld
    86    the gradual abolition of slavery and compensation to the
    87    slaveowners whereas Hanna demanded immediate abolition and no
    88    reparation to slaveowners; indeed, Hanna insisted that the
    89    slaves, once freed, should be indemnified for their bondage
    90    through fines levied on their ex-masters.  Hanna's zeal
    91    occasionally irritated the gentlemanly Dewey, but he continued to
    92    tutor his promising student.+9+
    95          Hanna entered the legal profession to further the
    96    destruction of slavery and Freemasonry.+10+  He longed to defend
    97    indigent clients in their just causes;  yet he had the sense to
    98    take affluent clients to augment his income from the farm he
    99    inherited from his father.
   102          Slavery, he considered, an utterly atrocious abomination
   103    that must be eradicated tooth and branch and he proposed
   104    atrocious means to this end.  "The slaves must rise.  They must
   105    revolt," he wrote, 
   108         They must kill their masters who will try to suppress their  
   109         just uprising.  The good white people must join in smashing  
   110         the odious slavocracy.  There cannot be, indeed must never 
   111         be, any compromise with that most obnoxious of human
   112         inventions, slavery.  Practically every means, every
   113         device, every way must be employed to eradicate it.+11+
   116          Similarly, Hanna advocated violence against the Masons. 
   117    Echoing the Reverend John Walker, he declared:
   120         Freemasonry is Satanism incarnate.  It exists for
   121         Satan's minions to overthrow the agencies of decency
   122         and inaugurate a regime of unholy orders.  It is
   123         controlled by impious wretches whose blasphemous rites-
   124         -oaths, handshakes, candles, jewels--bind them to
   125         further their obscene scheme to manipulate the
   126         world.+12+
   129    "Burn the lodges of utterly wicked Freemasonry," was his solution
   130    to the Freemason blight.+13+
   133          However, the firebrand Hanna shifted to moderation in
   134    action.  He concluded that it was wise and, truly, proper to
   135    defer to the cautionary counsel coming from three sources: his
   136    wife, Sara, the Reverend John Walker, and Thaddeus Stevens.  Mrs.
   137    Hanna, a Quaker, abhorred violence.  Ordinarily reticent, she
   138    would wax eloquent on the appropriate course against slavery and
   139    Masonry.  "My beloved spouse," he wrote, "a gentle and kind
   140    person, would severely remonstrate with me when I sought her
   141    attention for my opinions.  She would invoke the time-long
   142    admonitions of her faith on conflict in the world.  Ultimately, I
   143    would bow to her sageness."+14+
   146          The advice of his teacher and good friend, the Reverend
   147    John Walker, was highly valued.+15+  The latter vehemently
   148    assailed and actively worked against slavery and Freemasonry.+16+ 
   149    Hanna was convinced by Walker's argument that the "Deity's
   150    Design" meant that perceptive persons who discerned the inequity
   151    of both slavery and Masonry would ultimately persuade the
   152    electorate to abolish those "unholy entities."  Hanna acceded to
   153    that belief because "John Walker embodied Biblical and secular
   154    rationale that was flawless."+17+
   157          Counselled by wife and mentor to rein in his violent
   158    proclivities, Hanna eventually concentrated on civil devices at
   159    the local, state and national level.
   162          In 1834, he became a founding father of the Cadiz Anti-
   163    Slavery Society and often served as an officer.  In collaboration
   164    with his brother, A. F. Hanna, he advanced the abolition cause. 
   165    Hanna participated frequently in the operation of the
   166    "Underground Railroad," taking particular pride in frustrating
   167    the efforts of a notorious bounty hunter of escaped slaves, James
   168    McCaskey of Wheeling.+18+
   171          Hanna's immersion in abolitionism involved participation in
   172    the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society.  In 1835, he served as one of its
   173    organizers.  At its first convention, held in 1836 at Granville,
   174    the 192 delegates elected him a "manager" for the coming
   175    year.+19+  He was also named a member of the Ohio delegation to
   176    the meeting of the American Anti-Slavery Society in New York in
   177    1836.+20+  In three subsequent conventions of the Ohio Anti-
   178    Slavery Society he played a leading role.+21+  There Hanna felt
   179    the need to advocate violence, but demurred because of the
   180    Reverend John Walker's counsel.+22+  As an officer of the Ohio
   181    Anti-Slavery Society Hanna devoted considerable effort to
   182    organizing branches.  Therein he had considerable success.+23+ 
   183    Indeed, Ohio ranked only second to New York in state antislavery
   184    society membership.+24+
   187          Hanna also shone in the Harrison County Historical Society. 
   188    As one of its officers he played an important role in the
   189    creation of abolitionist cells throughout the country. 
   190    Furthermore, he led the Society against the local branch of the
   191    American Colonization Society which he described as an "Augean
   192    stable in the march against slavery."+25+  Inclined to the
   193    "proper use of tar and feathers" against "the minions" of the
   194    Colonization Society, he harkened to his spouse's advice, on this
   195    occasion, to use less drastic measures.  However, at times he
   196    almost repudiated her counsel.+26+
   199          In his capacity as trustee of Franklin College at New
   200    Athens, Hanna, in league with fellow trustee and friend, the
   201    Reverend John Walker, succeeded in forcing the resignations of
   202    two successive presidents, the Reverend Joseph Smith and the
   203    Reverend William Burnett; both men refused to advocate immediate
   204    emancipation.  Eventually, 1840, Walker and Hanna found a kindred
   205    soul in the form of the Reverend Edwin H. Nevin.  Thereupon,
   206    Walker, Hanna and Nevin made Franklin College a bastion of
   207    immediate abolitionism and directed administration, faculty and
   208    students in a crusade for the immediate abolition of the
   209    slaves.+27+
   212          For the next three years Hanna and Walker lobbied college
   213    presidents throughout Ohio.  The Reverend William McGuffy,
   214    president of Ohio University and the famous author of the
   215    <Readers>, and the Reverend George Junkin, president of Miami
   216    University, were polled for support; McGuffy would only concede
   217    that slavery should not be allowed to spread farther than the
   218    present states in the south while Junkin refused to bend to their
   219    cause.+28+  One measure of their success against the foes of
   220    immediate emancipation was the demise of Providence College of
   221    New Athens in 1843.+29+
   224          On the national scene of abolitionism Robert Hanna preached
   225    what he promoted in eastern Ohio, immediate, uncompensated
   226    abolition, resistance to the slavocracy, integration of the
   227    blacks, and full American citizenship for all races.  While he
   228    approved of the American Anti-Slavery Society's campaign to flood
   229    Congress with antislavery remonstrances, he disagreed with the
   230    content of the petitions: ending slavery in the District of
   231    Columbia, repealing the Three-Fifths Compromise in the
   232    Constitution, and opposing the admission of new slave states to
   233    the Union.  Thus Hanna stood in company with William Lloyd
   234    Garrison in demanding immediatism+30+ and "No Union with
   235    Slaveholders."+31+
   238          However, Hanna would not enter Garrison's camp because of
   239    the stringent theological barrier.  By 1837 Garrison's
   240    mouthpiece, <The Liberator,> had essays questioning the literal
   241    truth of Scripture, condemning denominationally organized
   242    religion, denying the authority of ministers, and attacking the
   243    sanctity of the Sabbath ("that pernicious and superstitious
   244    notion.")+32+  For Hanna such views were those of "Anti-
   245    Christ."+33+  In May 1840, Hanna attended the convention of the
   246    Anti-Slavery Society in New York City, determined to meet with
   247    Garrison to wean the latter from his religious views.  However,
   248    Garrison would not change.+34+
   251          When the American Anti-Slavery Society split in 1840, Hanna
   252    went his own way.+35+  While he agreed with the radicals'
   253    immediatism platform, he could not stomach their anticlericalism. 
   254    The conservatives, while pro-clerical, were committed to a
   255    gradualist approach.  Thus Hanna found himself with a foot in
   256    each camp, but ideologically isolated in both.
   259          At the root of Hanna's antimasonry campaign was the
   260    sentiment that Freemasonry, like slavery, constituted a monster
   261    that had corrupted humanity and undermined the God-designed
   262    order.  Throughout his career, Hanna maintained that Freemasonry
   263    had corrupted the political systems and that its agents were
   264    found at every level of society.+36+
   267          As a leader in the Antimasonic Party, Hanna laboured
   268    assiduously in Ohio's Jefferson, Belmont and Harrison Counties. 
   269    On one occasion he advocated "torching" Masonic lodges.+37+ 
   270    However, at the conclusion of those remarks the Reverend John
   271    Walker rushed to urge moderation and the audience went along with
   272    that persuasive minister-academician-physician.+38+  At
   273    Barnesville in Belmont County Hanna allied with Quakers in
   274    successful efforts in 1837 to stymie an attempt to revive
   275    Friendship Lodge No. 89, F. & A.M. which had been disbanded in
   276    1833.+39+  In Harrison County Hanna became a pillar of the
   277    Antimasonic Party at Cadiz and New Athens.  At the former his
   278    activity helped to prevent the organization of a Masonic lodge
   279    until 1852.+40+  At New Athens he spread the antimasonic message
   280    to the Franklin College student body.+41+
   283          At the state level Hanna helped organize the first Ohio
   284    Anti-Masonic State Convention held at Canton on July 21-22,
   285    1830.+42+  At that meeting he advised the Reverend John Walker,
   286    delegate from Harrison County.  He served as delegate during the
   287    second Ohio Anti-Masonic Convention held at Columbus on January
   288    11, 1831 and participated on the Committee to Nominate Delegates
   289    to the National Convention and on the Committee to Report
   290    Resolutions.  He immediately rose when a delegate proposed that
   291    the Ohio delegation to the forthcoming national convention
   292    support Henry Clay for the presidential nomination on the basis,
   293    among others, that Clay, Grand Master of the Masonic Grand Lodge
   294    of Kentucky 1820-21, had demitted (resigned) from his Lexington
   295    lodge in 1824.  Hanna contended that Clay was "completely
   296    unworthy" because he was a slaveholder.  However, he gave his
   297    support to the ex-Mason Richard Rush and his running mate, ex-
   298    President John Quincy Adams.+43+
   301          On June 12, 1832, Hanna attended the third Ohio Anti-
   302    Masonic State Convention at Columbus.  He applauded the
   303    Convention's support of William Wirt for president and Amos
   304    Ellmaker for vice-president.  Enthusiastically he backed the
   305    nomination of Darius Lyman, an able state senator, for governor
   306    of Ohio.+44+  His stumping on Lyman's behalf drew favorable
   307    comments and contributed definitely to Lyman's creditable showing
   308    in Belmont County where he won 1,905 votes against "the odious
   309    Freemason," the Democrat Robert Lucas's 2,095; in Harrison County
   310    similar results were obtained, Lyman drew 1,288 votes against
   311    Lucas's 1,441.  Lucas carried the state 71,251 to 63,185 despite
   312    Hanna's efforts in the Antimasonic-National Republican
   313    coalition.+45+
   316          On February 21-22, 1834, Hanna was one of Harrison County's
   317    two delegates to the fourth Ohio Anti-Masonic State Convention
   318    which convened at Columbus.  He was elected president of the
   319    Convention and named to the committee to nominate persons to sit
   320    on the party's Central Committee of Ohio.  He fully supported the
   321    meeting's main objective: passage of a law to suppress all extra-
   322    judicial oaths.+46+  In March 1838, at Columbus Hanna presided at
   323    the fifth and last Ohio Anti-Masonic State Convention.  The
   324    Convention appointed him to a delegation for the party's national
   325    convention destined for Philadelphia in November 1838.  The
   326    delegation was pledged to a presidential ticket of the presumed
   327    antimasons William Henry Harrison and Daniel Webster.+47+
   330          Overall, the efforts of Hanna and allies can be measured in
   331    the closing of subordinate lodges.  In the ten years that Hanna
   332    was active their number in the Grand Lodge of Ohio fell from
   333    fifty-six in 1827 to seventeen in 1837.+48+
   336          Hanna's participation as delegate to the United States
   337    Anti-Masonic Convention at Philadelphia and Baltimore brought him
   338    to national attention.+49+  At the former, the first national
   339    meeting held by any political party in the United States, Hanna
   340    was elected third vice-president.+50+
   343          In 1832 in Ohio, Hanna played a leading role in the
   344    presidential race.  He was a leader in opposing a deal wherein
   345    the Antimasonic Party would support Henry Clay.  Hanna campaigned
   346    vigorously for the radical Antimasonic slate of William Wirt and
   347    Amos Ellmaker.  Their defeat chagrined Hanna.+51+
   350          Hanna became a delegate to the National Anti-Masonic
   351    Convention on May 4, 1836, in Philadelphia.  There he seized the
   352    opportunity to garner support for a party ticket for 1836. 
   353    However, his plan failed because of the opposition of Thaddeus
   354    Stevens.  Eventually Hanna favored the Whig slate of William
   355    Henry Harrison and Francis Granger, both antimasons; the latter
   356    also appealed to Hanna because he was an antislavery
   357    stalwart.+52+
   360          Hanna continued his participation in the Antimasonic Party. 
   361    In September 1837, he attended a national meeting of antimasons
   362    in Washington, D.C.  They voted to hold a presidential nominating
   363    convention in 1838.+53+  At that gathering on November 13-14,
   364    1838, in Philadelphia, Hanna was present. He supported the
   365    unanimous nomination of William Henry Harrison for president and
   366    Daniel Webster for vice-president.  When the Whig Party chose the
   367    William Henry Harrison-John Tyler slate, the Antimasonic Party
   368    replaced Webster with Tyler on its ticket.  Hanna energetically
   369    campaigned for the eventually triumphant Harrison-Tyler ticket in
   370    1840.+54+
   373          While at Philadelphia in November, Hanna privately broached
   374    to his fellow antimason, Thaddeus Stevens, the need to use
   375    violence to uproot Freemasonry.  However, Stevens replied that
   376    the proper method was to use "the ballot box."+55+
   379          Hanna did endeavor to promote antimasonry under another
   380    political guise.  This involved the submission of citizens'
   381    petitions to the Ohio legislature.  These requested that the
   382    latter investigate the "character and operations" of Freemasonry. 
   383    Hanna and others brought many petitions to the legislature. 
   384    Nonetheless, the results were nil.  For example, a House select
   385    committee reported that it had discovered that "Masonry is the
   386    same everywhere that it is here, and here as it is everywhere
   387    else."  The Committee concluded that it was best to remit the
   388    entire question "to the salutary action of enlightened public
   389    opinion. . . ."+56+
   392          Hanna, nevertheless, continued his interest in politics. 
   393    In the 1844 presidential election he blasted the Democrat, James
   394    G. Polk, as both a Freemason and pro-slavery advocate, and
   395    attacked the Whig, Henry Clay, as an unrepentant ex-Mason and
   396    servant of the slavocracy; thus, Hanna campaigned for the Liberty
   397    Party candidate, James G. Birney.  That organization's demise
   398    greatly upset Hanna.+57+  The 1848 presidential election
   399    presented him with a dilemma; he could not support the Whig,
   400    Zachary Taylor, because of his being, allegedly, a slaveholder;
   401    Hanna detested the Democrat, Lewis Cass, as a Freemason and a
   402    puppet of the slavocracy; Hanna regarded the Free Soiler, Martin
   403    Van Buren, as too moderate on the slavery issue.  Ultimately,
   404    Hanna concluded that the least evil was Van Buren.+58+  Again in
   405    1852 the growingly disillusioned Hanna backed the Free Soilers
   406    for he regarded the Whig, Winfield Scott, as vacillating on the
   407    slavery issue; Hanna stigmatized the Democrat, Franklin Pierce,
   408    as "another pea in the Democratic hodgepodge of feeding the slave
   409    masters."+59+  The advent of the Republican Party buoyed Hanna's
   410    faint hopes for eradicating slavery by means of the ballot
   411    box.+60+  However, soon, 1856, death appeared.
   414          Robert Hanna symbolized reform in nineteenth century
   415    America.  Relentlessly he used talent and tenacity against
   416    forces, slavery and Freemasonry, he equated with subversion of
   417    the United States Republic.  In his mind he conjured up terror in
   418    assailing his two institutional foes.  In reality, acceding to
   419    moderate voices, he set aside violence.  Thus Robert Hanna also
   420    embodied nineteenth century American adhesion to common sense
   421    sensitivity.
   425                                      <NOTES>
   428         +1+Gilbert H. Barnes, <The Antislavery Impulse, 1830-1844>
   429    (Gloucester: Peter Smith, 1967); Dwight Lowell Dumond,
   430    <Antislavery: The Crusade  for Freedom in America> (Ann Arbor:
   431    University of Michigan Press, 1961); Louis Filler, <The Crusade
   432    Against Slavery, 1830-1860> (New York: Harper and Brothers,
   433    1960).
   436         +2+Charles McCarthy, "The Antimasonic Party: A Study of
   437    Political Antimasonry in the United States, 1827-1840," <Annual
   438    Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1902>
   439    (2 vols., Washington: Government Printing Office, 1903); William
   440    Preston Vaughn, <The Antimasonic Party in the United States
   441    1826-1843> (Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky,
   442    1983); George Hubbard Blakeslee, "The History of the Anti-Masonic
   443    Party" (Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1903).
   446         +3+A. F. Hanna, "Memoir" (manuscript, n.d.), p. 28, Lloyd E.
   447    Martin Collection, Portsmouth, Ohio.  A. F. and Robert Hanna were
   448    brothers.  Alma Academy was originally named Alma Mater Academy.
   451         +4+Robert Hanna, letter to A. F. Hanna, New Athens, Ohio,
   452    October 7, 1820, Martin Collection.
   455         +5+Robert Hanna, letter to A. F. Hanna, Canonsburg,
   456    Pennsylvania, November 10, 1821, Martin Collection.
   459         +6+Robert Hanna, letter to A. F. Hanna, Canonsburg,
   460    Pennsylvania, December 8, 1821, Martin Collection.
   463         +7+Robert Hanna, letter to Rev. John Walker, Canonsburg,
   464    Pennsylvania, May 4, 1821, John S. Campbell Collection, Cadiz,
   465    Ohio.
   468         +8+Robert Hanna, letter to A. F. Hanna, Greeneville,
   469    Tennessee, February 8, 1823, Martin Collection.
   472         +9+Robert Hanna, letter to Rev. John Walker, Cadiz, Ohio,
   473    July 5, 1828, Campbell Collection.
   476         +10+Hanna, "Memoir," p. 31.
   479         +11+Robert Hanna, letter to Rev. John Walker, Cadiz, Ohio,
   480    July 5, 1828, Campbell Collection.
   483         +12+Robert Hanna, letter to Richard Miller, Cadiz, Ohio, May
   484    9, 1829, Martin Collection.  Hanna and Miller had been classmates
   485    at Greeneville College.
   488         +13+Ibid.
   491         +14+Robert Hanna, letter to Rev. John Walker, Cadiz, Ohio,
   492    October 17, 1829, Campbell Collection.
   495         +15+The Reverend John Walker was pastor of Unity
   496    congregation of the Associate Presbyterian Church near New
   497    Athens, Ohio, and guiding genius of Franklin College, New Athens,
   498    Ohio.
   501         +16+Erving E. Beauregard, <Reverend John Walker: Renaissance
   502    Man> (New York, Bern, Frankfurt am Main, Paris: Peter Lang,
   503    1990), pp. 87-127.
   506         +17+Robert Hanna, letter to Richard Miller, Cadiz, Ohio,
   507    March 6, 1830, Martin Collection.
   510         +18+Hanna's "line" of the "Underground Railroad" ran from
   511    Wheeling (then in Virginia) through Flushing and New Athens to
   512    Cadiz, Ohio.  <Cadiz Sentinel and Harrison County Farmer> (Cadiz,
   513    Ohio), June 16, 1842; <Proceedings of the Cadiz Anti-Slavery
   514    Society> (Cadiz, Ohio: Cadiz Anti-Slavery Society, 1835), p. 10.
   517         +19+Robert Price, "The Ohio Anti-Slavery Convention of
   518    1836," <The Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Quarterly>,
   519    Vol. XLV, 1936, p. 183.
   522         +20+Ibid., p. 181.
   525         +21+<Report of the Second Anniversary of the Ohio Anti-
   526    Slavery Society Held in Mt. Pleasant, Jefferson County, Ohio. On
   527    the Twenty-seventh of April, 1837> (Cincinnati: Anti-Slavery
   528    Society, 1837), p. 5; <Report of the Third Anniversary of the
   529    Ohio Anti-Slavery Society Held in Granville, Licking County,
   530    Ohio.  On the Thirteenth of May 1838> (Cincinnati: Ohio Anti-
   531    Slavery Society, 1838), p. 11; <Report of the Fourth Anniversary
   532    of the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society Held in Putnam, Muskingum
   533    County, Ohio.  On the Twenty-ninth of May 1839> (Cincinnati: Ohio
   534    Anti-Slavery Society, 1839), p. 19.
   537         +22+Robert Hanna, letters to Titus Basfield, Cadiz, Ohio,
   538    May 6, 1837, June 8, 1838, June 14, 1839, Martin Collection.
   541         +23+Rev. John Walker, letter to Titus Basfield, New Athens,
   542    Ohio, March 13, 1840, Martin Collection.
   545         +24+Leo Alilunas, "Fugitive Slave Cases in Ohio," <The Ohio
   546    State Archaeological and Historical Quarterly>, Vol. LXIX, 1940,
   547    p. 163.
   550         +25+<Proceedings of the Harrison County Abolitionist
   551    Society> (Cadiz, Ohio: Harrison County Abolitionist Society,
   552    1836), p. 14.
   555         +26+Robert Hanna, letter to Titus Basfield, Cadiz, Ohio,
   556    September 9, 1837, Martin Collection.  Basfield was an ex-slave
   557    who graduated at Franklin College, New Athens, Ohio.
   560         +27+Rev. Edwin H. Nevin, letter to Rev. Alfred Nevin, New
   561    Athens, Ohio, June 8, 1843, Martin Collection.  The Nevins were
   562    brothers.
   565         +28+Rev. John Walker, letter to Titus Basfield, New Athens,
   566    Ohio, June 2, 1843, Martin Collection.
   569         +29+Rev. Lemuel Fordham Leake, letter to Rev. Moses Allen,
   570    Waveland, Indiana, May 15, 1844, Campbell Collection.  Leake was
   571    the second and last president of Providence College, New Athens,
   572    Ohio.  Allen had been a supporter of that institution.
   575         +30+The term can be traced to a pamphlet by Elizabeth
   576    Heyrick, <Immediate, Not Gradual Emancipation> (London, 1824).
   579         +31+Robert Hanna, letter to Titus Basfield, Cadiz, Ohio, May
   580    6, 1837, Martin Collection.
   583         +32+James Brewer Stewart, "Abolitionists and Slavery," in
   584    Ernest R. Sandeen, <The Bible and Social Reform> (Philadelphia:
   585    Fortress Press, 1982), p. 44.
   588         +33+Robert Hanna, letter to  Titus Basfield, Cadiz, Ohio,
   589    May 6, 1837, Martin Collection.
   592         +34+Robert Hanna, conversation with A. F. Hanna, Cadiz,
   593    Ohio, May 27, 1840, in A. F. Hanna, "Memoir," p. 67.
   596         +35+The conservatives, gradualists and proclericals seceded
   597    to form the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society.  Robert
   598    Hanna, letter to Titus Basfield, Cadiz, Ohio, November 21, 1840,
   599    Martin Collection.
   602         +36+It stood symbolized nationally by the "high Mason,"
   603    President Andrew Jackson, Hanna trumpeted.  In Ohio politics
   604    Hanna pointed to the governorship being held by successive
   605    Freemasons--Duncan McArthur, a National Republican, 1830-32;
   606    Robert Lucas, a Democrat, 1832-36; Joseph Vance, a Whig, 1836-38;
   607    Wilson Shannon, a Democrat, 1838-40 (actually he did not join
   608    Freemasonry until 1846); Thomas Corwin, a Whig, 1840-42; and
   609    Shannon again, 1842-44.  In his own bailiwick, eastern Ohio,
   610    Hanna maintained that Masonry's pernicious influence radiated
   611    into county politics and remained a strong factor in the
   612    compromising camp over slavery in Cadiz.  Robert Hanna,
   613    conversation with A. F. Hanna, Cadiz, Ohio, August 15, 1829, in
   614    A. F. Hanna, "Memoir," p. 53; Robert Hanna, letter to Rev. John
   615    Walker, Cadiz, Ohio, September 12, 1834, Campbell Collection;
   616    Robert Hanna, letter to Titus Basfield, Cadiz, Ohio, November 16,
   617    1844, Martin Collection.
   620         +37+A. F. Hanna, letter to Rev. Richard Campbell, Cadiz,
   621    Ohio, March 20, 1834, Campbell Collection.  A. F. Hanna was
   622    present at the occasion.  Campbell was president of Franklin
   623    College, New Athens, Ohio, 1833-35.
   626         +38+Ibid.
   629         +39+<Belmont Journal and Enquirer> (St. Clairsville, Ohio),
   630    April 9, 1836.
   633         +40+<Liberty Courier and Register of Facts> (Cadiz, Ohio),
   634    January 13, 1853.
   637         +41+<Cadiz Sentinel and Harrison County Farmer>, June 6,
   638    1834.
   641         +42+<Harrison Telegraph> (Cadiz, Ohio), July 17, 1830.
   644         +43+Robert Hanna, conversation with A. F. Hanna, Cadiz,
   645    Ohio, September 17, 1831, in A. F. Hanna, "Memoir," p. 56.
   648         +44+<Harrison Telegraph>, June 22, 1832.
   651         +45+<Columbus Sentinel> (Columbus, Ohio), October 18, 1832;
   652    <National Historian> (St. Clairsville, Ohio), October 27, 1832).
   655         +46+<Cadiz Sentinel and Harrison County Farmer>, February
   656    28, 1834; <Ohio Star> (Ravenna, Ohio), March 27, 1834.
   659         +47+<Harrison Telegraph>, March 31, 1838.
   662         +48+<Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of the Most Ancient and
   663    Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons of the State of
   664    Ohio, At the General Grand Communications From 1808 to 1847,
   665    Inclusive> (Cincinnati, Ohio: M. Review Office, 1857), pp. 174,
   666    275.
   669         +49+The Philadelphia convention met on September 11, 1830
   670    while the Baltimore convention occurred September 26-28, 1831.
   673         +50+<The Proceedings of the United States Anti-Masonic
   674    Convention Held at Philadelphia, September 11, 1830>
   675    (Philadelphia: J. P. Trimble, 1830), p. 1.
   678         +51+Robert Hanna, letter to Richard Miller, Cadiz, Ohio,
   679    October 12, 1832, Martin Collection; Rev. John Walker, <Life and
   680    Writings> (Cadiz, Ohio: privately printed, 1848), p. 98;
   681    <Columbus Sentinel>, October 25, 1832; <National Historian>,
   682    October 13, 1832; <Niles' Register> (Baltimore, Maryland),
   683    October 27, 1832; <Ohio Register and Anti-Masonic Review>
   684    (Columbus, Ohio), October 27, 1832; <Ohio State Journal>
   685    (Columbus, Ohio), June 23, 1832; <St. Clairsville Gazette> (St.
   686    Clairsville, Ohio), October 27, 1832; Charles McCarthy, "The
   687    Antimasonic Party: A Study of Political Antimasonry in the United
   688    States, 1827-1840," Vol. I, pp. 548-49 n.h.
   691         +52+Robert Hanna, letter to Richard Miller, Cadiz, Ohio,
   692    July 16, 1836, Martin Collection.
   695         +53+<Niles' Register>, September 30, 1837; Rev. Dr. Robert
   696    Gowan Campbell, conversation with Robert Hanna, in Campbell,
   697    "Diary" (manuscript, n.d.), p. 104, Campbell Collection. 
   698    Campbell was a student at Franklin College, New Athens, Ohio;
   699    later he became its president.
   702         +54+Rev. John Walker, letter to Titus Basfield, New Athens,
   703    Ohio, September 11, 1840, Martin Collection.
   706         +55+Robert Hanna, letter to Rev. John Walker, Cadiz, Ohio,
   707    November 21, 1838, Campbell Collection.
   710         +56+<Ohio Statesman and Annals of Progress from the Year
   711    1788 to the Year 1900> (2 vols., Columbus, Ohio: Westbote Co.,
   712    1899), Vol. I, p. 166.
   715         +57+Robert Hanna, letter to Rev. John Walker, Cadiz, Ohio,
   716    February 22, 1845, Campbell Collection.
   719         +58+Robert Hanna, letter to Titus Basfield, Cadiz, Ohio,
   720    October 7, 1848, Martin Collection.
   723         +59+Robert Hanna, letter to Rev. Titus Basfield, Cadiz,
   724    Ohio, October 2, 1852, Martin Collection.  Basfield became an
   725    Associate Presbyterian minister in 1850.
   728         +60+Robert Hanna, letter to Rev. Titus Basfield, Cadiz,
   729    Ohio, August 5, 1854, Martin Collection.