1     	<ONLINE MODERN HISTORY REVIEW>                  January 1994
2     	
3     	
4     	     Manuel Azana's <Memorias>: The "Missing" Portions
5     	
6     	                         by
7     	
8     	         Albert A. Nofi and Felix Alvarez-Martinez
9     	
10    	                 ======================
11    	
12    	Beginning shortly after the establishment of the Spanish
13    	Republic, in April of 1931, Manuel Azana kept a diary, recording
14    	on a more or less regular basis the principal political and
15    	military developments of the day, with occasional personal items
16    	as well.  Many years after the Spanish Civil War, with the full
17    	cooperation of Azana's widow and her brother, his life-long
18    	friend, Cipriano Rivas-Cherif, Prof. Juan Marichal of Harvard
19    	included this diary as <Memorias politicas y de guerra,
20    	1931-1939> in his edition of Azana's <Obras Completas>, published
21    	in 1966-1968.+1+
22    	
23    	Scholarly opinion on the value of the <Memorias> has generally
24    	been favorable.  For example, in a lengthy article, James A.
25    	O'Connell+2+ observes "Simply put, the diary is an extraordinary
26    	political, social and moral document."+3+  Noting that the
27    	anecdotes, observations, and comments in the <Memorias> are "of a
28    	generally informative nature,"+4+ O'Connell concludes, "Such is
29    	the range, insight and sensitivity of Manuel Azana's diary that
30    	it will be some time before its entirety can be properly
31    	synthesized into a more complete understanding of the
32    	Republic."+5+  Prof. Marichal himself has observed that the
33    	<Memorias> "have an exceptional value."+6+  Hugh Thomas praises
34    	the <Memorias> as "more honest and better written, and altogether
35    	the most emotive political diary ever written at any time by any
36    	chief of government."+7
37    	
38    	These views are not misplaced, as the <Memorias> do provide an
39    	unusually candid insight into the views of Manuel Azana. 
40    	However, there are some problems with the official version of
41    	Azana's diary, as it appears in the <Obras completas>.
42    	
43    	As published, the <Memorias> suggest that Azana was by no means a
44    	faithful diarist.  An examination of the work indicates that he
45    	would sometimes fail to make an entry for several days or would
46    	occasionally conflate several days' activities into one long
47    	entry.  Moreover, from time to time he would seem to have
48    	completely abandoned the undertaking for lengthy periods, only to
49    	resume it again much later.  The coverage of the published
50    	<Memorias> can be conveniently summarized in tabular form.
51    	
52    	                      Table 1
53    	     Pattern of Azana's Entries in the <Memorias>
54    	
55    	Year   Coverage             Azana's Activity
56    	-----------------------------------------------------
57    	1931   April-December     War Minister, Prime Minister
58    	1932   1 January-22 July  War Minister, Prime Minister
59    	1933   1 March-31 July    War Minister, Prime Minister
60    	1934   none               In opposition+8+
61    	1935   none               In opposition
62    	1936   19-20 February     Reappointment as Prime Minister
63    	1937   1 January-31 July  President, Civil War
64    	1938   1 March-31 August  President, Civil War
65    	1939   January            President, Civil War
66    	         
67    	The nature of the gaps is somewhat curious.  The long hiatus
68    	beginning in late July of 1932 seems understandable, given that
69    	this was the period of the <sanjurjada>, during which Azana was
70    	presumably too busy to attend to such details as maintaining a
71    	diary.  Yet he must certainly have been as busy on 19-20 February
72    	of 1936, when he was hastily putting together a government in the
73    	aftermath of the Popular Front electoral victory and the surprise
74    	resignation of Manuel Portela's caretaker government, in a
75    	politically tumultuous atmosphere rife with rumors of imminent
76    	military insurrection.+9+  Nor could he have been less pressed
77    	during the disastrous January of 1939, when the Republic was
78    	breathing its last.  Although in their respective introductions
79    	to the <Memorias>, neither Marichal nor Rivas Cherif make note of
80    	it; portions of Azana's diary were lost and are not included in
81    	the authorized edition.  There is ample evidence for this, which
82    	has generally been neglected.
83    	
84    	On 21 August 1937, in the midst of the Civil War, the <ABC>, the
85    	conservative Madrid daily, then being published at Seville, in
86    	the Nationalist zone, began a series of articles, "Las memorias
87    	secretas e intimas de Azana."+10+  This contained what purported
88    	to be excerpts from the diary of the President of Republic.  In
89    	the very first installment of this series there appeared the
90    	enigmatic note, ""Por caminos que no podemos decir llegaron a la
91    	zona nacional y, concretamente a Salamanca, unos cuadernos de las
92    	Memorias que Azana escribe . . . ."+11
93    	
94    	Then, in 1938 a small volume was published anonymously in
95    	Santiago de Chile entitled <Memorias intimas y secretas de Manuel
96    	Azana>.+12+  This was a year before the end of the Civil War. 
97    	The contents of this slender volume (only 128 octavo pages) are
98    	substantially the same as those published earlier in the <ABC> of
99    	Seville.+13+ 
100   	
101   	Finally, in 1939, shortly after the conclusion of the Civil War,
102   	Joaquin Ararras, a monarchist, pro-Franco historian,+14+
103   	published a volume entitled <Memorias intimas de Azana>,+15+
104   	purporting to be excerpts from the diary of the President of the
105   	<soi disant> Spanish Second Republic.  Thus, by 1939 there were
106   	three works in print claiming to include excerpts from the diary
107   	of Manuel Azana.  This was, of course, a generation before the
108   	authorized --and ostensibly first-- edition of Azana's diary.
109   	
110   	None of the three unauthorized versions of the <Memorias> is
111   	organized as a diary.  Rather, each consists of a series of
112   	excerpts describing various persons prominent in the Republic or
113   	events of importance during the history of the Republic.  As the
114   	selections were designed to show how inept or unscrupulous these
115   	people were, or how ridiculous the Republic was, the materials
116   	are somewhat scurrilous,+16 and thus could readily be considered
117   	of dubious authenticity,+17+ if not an outright forgery.+18+  
118   	
119   	Nevertheless, although rarely used as sources, these three
120   	versions of the <Memorias> appear to be genuine.+19+  Working
121   	entirely from internal evidence, a number of important points can
122   	be made to demonstrate that these three manifestations of Azana's
123   	<Memorias> are precisely what they purport to be.+20+  The
124   	version appearing in the <ABC> in the summer of 1937 and that
125   	published in Santiago de Chile the following year are virtually
126   	identical.  All the materials included in these two versions are
127   	also to be found in the much longer Arraras edition, on which the
128   	following analysis is based.
129   	
130   	             1. Virtually all the excerpts in the Arraras edition
131   	             fall between 22 July 1932 and 24 February 1933 or
132   	             between 1 August 1933 and 24 November 1933, periods
133   	             missing from the official edition.+21
134   	
135   	             2. A few entries in the official edition make
136   	             reference, albeit obliquely, to events which are cited,
137   	             by date, in the Arraras edition.+22+
138   	
139   	             3. All three of the unauthorized versions reproduce
140   	             photographically a portion of the diary in Azana's
141   	             handwriting, which can be read as being identical to
142   	             various passages in the book.  In addition, the
143   	             handwriting appears the same as similar samples of
144   	             handwriting reproduced in the <Obras completas>.+23+
145   	
146   	             4. The pattern of capitalization and punctuation found
147   	             in the unauthorized versions shows it to be
148   	             substantially identical with that in the authorized
149   	             edition.+24+
150   	
151   	             5. The tone and style of the entries reproduced by
152   	             Arraras are quite in keeping with the sort of thing
153   	             that can be found in the official edition.+25+
154   	
155   	
156   	As if this were not sufficient evidence, there is more.  In his
157   	introduction to the <Memorias>, which makes no reference to
158   	Arraras' work, Marichal states that Azana's diary comprised eight
159   	notebooks, five of which, covering the period from 1931 to the
160   	end of July 1933, consist of about 400 lined pages, while the
161   	three covering the later period are different.+26+  In the
162   	introduction to his edition of the <Memorias>,+27+ Arraras states
163   	that in the autumn of 1936, when, with the Nationalist armies
164   	advancing on Madrid, Azana entrusted his diary, in nine
165   	notebooks, to Rivas Cherif to take to safekeeping in Geneva,+28
166   	where he served as the Spanish consul.  In Geneva three of the
167   	notebooks were stolen.+29+  Arraras, who wrote, it will be
168   	recalled, a generation before Marichal, describes the physical
169   	character of the notebooks as each being of 400 ruled pages.+30+ 
170   	
171   	There can be no question that the items published by Arraras are
172   	genuine, and indeed, they were accepted as such at the time.  For
173   	example, in his 1963 biography of Azana, Frank Sedwick observes
174   	that at the time of publication they caused Azana considerable
175   	embarrassment because of his frequent use of ridicule when
176   	describing various prominent Republican political leaders. 
177   	Sedwick goes on to detail the story of the theft of the
178   	diaries.+31+ Similarly, Emiliano Aguado, in his 1972 biography of
179   	Azana, discusses the Arraras edition and concludes that they are
180   	genuine.+32+
181   	
182   	What is particularly surprising is that when editing the
183   	remaining portions of the <Memorias> for publication in the
184   	<Obras Completas>, Professor Marichal did not make clear that
185   	three of the notebooks in which Azana was wont to keep his diary,
186   	those covering the period from 22 July 1932 through 1 March 1933,
187   	and that covering the period from 1 August 1933, passed into the
188   	hands of Joaquin Arraras.+33+  Interestingly, however, in the
189   	course of his description of the notebooks, Marichal uses a very
190   	peculiar turn of phrase with regard to the those covering the
191   	period 1931-1933, saying "the five notebooks reproduced here,"
192   	which certainly suggests that there may be others, not
193   	reproduced.+34+  
194   	
195   	Despite this evidence as to their legitimacy, the portions of the
196   	<Memorias> published by Arraras have generally been neglected.  A
197   	survey of several works published on the occasion of the fiftieth
198   	anniversary of Azana's death reveal that Arraras' edition is
199   	generally ignored or glossed over by most.+35+  Clearly an
200   	important resource is being neglected.
201   	
202   	It is unfortunate that Arraras did not publish the notebooks
203   	which fell into his possession in their entirety, being satisfied
204   	with making selections of the juicier materials.  Since the
205   	materials he did publish were only excerpts from the lost
206   	diaries, we are missing a good deal of material dealing with some
207   	of the most important moments in the life of the Second Republic,
208   	including the <sanjurjada>.  Nevertheless, the portions that
209   	Arraras did publish apparently comprise about a third of the
210   	missing materials, and there is much of value in them+36+
211   	
212   	Needless to say, ascertaining the location of the missing
213   	notebooks would be of enormous value.  The papers of Joaquin
214   	Arraras were dispersed long ago.+37+  However, in 1984 a portion
215   	of the papers of the former President were discovered in the
216   	<Escuela de policia>, where they were microfilmed before being
217   	returned to Azana's widow.  
218   	
219   	Although these did not include the missing diaries, the discovery
220   	offers some hope that they may yet be found.+38+
221   	
222   	
223   	                       <Notes>
224   	      
225   	      +1+ Manual Azana, <Obras Completas>, edited by Juan
226   	Marichal, with an introduction by Cipriano Rivas-Xerif [sic]
227   	(Four volumes, Mexico City: Oasis, 1966-1968).  For convenience,
228   	this discussion will ignore the more recent two volume edition of
229   	the <Memorias>, <Memorias politicas y de Guerra> (Barcelona:
230   	Inelvasa, 1978) and subsequent reprints and editions of the
231   	<Memorias>, all of which are identical to the version in the
232   	<Obras completas>.
233   	      
234   	      +2+ James A. O'Connell, "Republican Spain, the Provisional
235   	Government, and Manuel Azana: A Consideration of His Diary,"
236   	<Iberian Studies>, III, 2 (Autumn, 1972), 70-78.
237   	      
238   	      +3+ Ibid., 70.
239   	      
240   	      +4+ Ibid., 74.
241   	      
242   	      +5+ Ibid., 75.
243   	      
244   	      +6+ Azana, <Obras completas>, I, xi.
245   	      
246   	      +7+ Hugh Thomas, "El Presidente desposeido," in <Azana>,
247   	edited by Vincente Alberto Serrano and Jose Maria San Lucar
248   	(Madrid: Edoscal, 1980), 290 ["Thomas, 'El Presidente'."].
249   	      
250   	      +8+ It was, of course, during this period that Azana was
251   	briefly imprisoned, as a result of "Revolution of 1934." 
252   	However, while under arrest he managed to write <Mi rebelion en
253   	Barcelona>, best found in <Obras completas>, III, 23-172.
254   	      
255   	      +9+ For a review of the efforts of Major Generals Manuel
256   	Goded, Joaquin Fanjul, and Rodriguez del Barrio and others to
257   	stage an immediate military coup to prevent the seating of the
258   	Popular Front government see, among others, Julio Merino, <La
259   	tragedia de los generales espanoles, 1936> (Espluges de
260   	Llobregat: Plaza & James, 1985), 305; Manuel Goded, <Un
261   	'faccioso' cien por cien> (Zaragoza: Editora Heraldo de Aragon,
262   	1938), 26-27; Stanley G. Payne, <Politics and the Military in
263   	Modern Spain> (Stanford: Stanford University, 1967), 311.
264   	      
265   	      +10+ <ABC>, 21 August 1937, 11, with further installments
266   	over the next several weeks.  Citing no source, Hugh Thomas, <The
267   	Spanish Civil War: Revised and Expanded Edition> (New York:
268   	Harper & Row, 1977) [Thomas, <SCW: 2nd>"], 760, states that
269   	Joaquin Arraras, on whom see below, was the editor of these
270   	articles, which, however, are not found in the bibliography of
271   	this volume.
272   	      
273   	      +11+ Thomas, 760.
274   	      
275   	      +12+ <Memorias intimas y secretas de Manuel Azana>
276   	(Santiago de  Chile: n. p. 1938), 128pp.
277   	      
278   	      +13+ For example, the "Estudio grafologico" found on page
279   	11 of the 21 August 1937 <ABC>, is exactly the same as that found
280   	on page 10 of the Chilean volume.
281   	      
282   	      +14+ Arraras' works include, <Historia de la Cruzada
283   	Espanola> (eight volumes; Madrid: Ediciones Espanolas, 1940-1943)
284   	and <Historia de la Segunda Republica espanola> (fifth edition,
285   	four volumes; Madrid: Editora Nacional, 1970).
286   	      
287   	      +15+ <Memorias intimas de Azana, con anotaciones por
288   	Joaquin Arraras> (Madrid: Ediciones espanoles, 1939), 330pp.,
289   	which will be cited herein as "Azana/Arraras <Memorias>".
290   	
291   	      +16+ Thus, Hugh Thomas (<SCW: 2nd>, 760) says that the
292   	comments accompanying the <ABC> and Arraras editions established
293   	"a new low standard of personal invective."
294   	      
295   	      +17+ For example, Hugh Thomas, uses the word "pretended" to
296   	describe the versions of the <Memorias> published 1937-1939:
297   	Thomas, "El Presidente," 291.
298   	      
299   	      +18+ In this regard it is worth noting the text of a
300   	telegram sent from Havana to Azana in September of 1938 by
301   	Marcelino Domingo, then a roving ambassador for the Republic in
302   	Latin America: "Ruegole envie por esta via cable dirigido a
303   	director revista "Bohemia" afirmando que no existe ningun diario
304   	intimo en poder de los franquistas PUNTO Se trata de destruir
305   	infundiosa afirmación de periódicos que nos combaten en este país
306   	PUNTO Gracias. Saludos. Marcelino Domingo."
307   	
308   	There is no evidence that Azana made a reply.  [Text copied on 8
309   	November 1990 in Madrid, from the original, displayed as part of
310   	an exhibition of documents relating to Azana on the occasion of
311   	the 50th anniversary of his death.]  Domingo was, incidentally,
312   	the subject of several scurrilous passages in the various
313   	unauthorized versions of the <Memorias>, as on 51-56 of the
314   	Chilean edition.
315   	      
316   	      +19+ Only one of the three unauthorized editions of the
317   	<Memorias> has been used as a source, the Arraras version, which
318   	may be found in the bibliographies of several works, such as
319   	Stanley G. Payne's <Politics and the Military in Modern Spain>
320   	(538) and Hugh Thomas' <The Spanish Civil War> (New York: Harper
321   	and Row, 1961), 645: curiously, Thomas does not repeat the entry
322   	in the 1977 edition of his work, although he does include the
323   	<Obras completas>, which saw publication between the two
324   	editions.  Professor Edward Malefakis of Columbia University has
325   	observed (5 October 1990) that he has occasionally cited the
326   	Ararras work, though it is not a very good source, due to the
327   	fragmentary nature of the entries and to Ararras'purposes, which
328   	was to show various Republican leaders in the worst possible
329   	light.
330   	      
331   	      +20+ It is interesting that although O'Connell, cited
332   	above, makes several references to Arraras' <Historia de la
333   	Segunda Republica Espanola> in his essay on Azana's diary
334   	(O'Connell, 76, notes 4, 5, 10, etc.), he makes no mention of
335   	Arraras' <Memorias intimas de Azana> nor the earlier versions.
336   	      
337   	      +21+ There is also an overlap on 22 July 1933
338   	(Arraras/Azana, 184).
339   	
340   	      It is possible that Azana repeated the entry from the end
341   	of one notebook at the beginning of the next.  In addition,
342   	Azana/Arraras as entries for 9 December 1931, 17 February 1932,
343   	and 1 May 1933.  For the first and last of these there are
344   	entries in the authorized edition of the <Memorias>, which in no
345   	way correspond to the citations in Arraras/Azana, while for the
346   	second there is no entry whatsoever in the authorized version. 
347   	Since the referencing of the entries in Azana/Arraras is in the
348   	form "17 II 32," it is possible that these are the result of
349   	typographical errors, of which there are more than a few in the
350   	text proper: the entries would not be out of place shifted by one
351   	year.  Interestingly, the July 1933 entries do not overlap with
352   	those for July 1932, which also suggests a typographical gremlin. 
353   	A list of such discrepancies, with emendations, is found in
354   	Appendix 1.  An outline list of entries by date in the Chilean,
355   	Arraras, and authorized versions will be found in Appendix 2.
356   	      
357   	      +22+ Thus, for 24 February 1933 (310), Arraras has Azana
358   	write that Franco seemed overly concerned about the revision of
359   	seniority and will be sent to the Balearic Islands to get him out
360   	of the way, while under 1 March of the authorized edition, Azana
361   	notes that Franco, although apparently still annoyed about the
362   	revisions in seniority, talked of nothing else but his new post
363   	as commanding general of the Balearics.
364   	
365   	      +23+ Granted that comparing various samples of handwriting
366   	reproduced photographically in reduced form in a book does not
367   	provide the clearest evidence for passing on the genuineness of
368   	one of them, nor that the present writers make any claim to
369   	expertise in handwriting analysis.
370   	      
371   	      +24+ For example, in the authorized edition of the
372   	<Memorias> Azana regularly used lower case letters when referring
373   	to positions, such as <ministro>, <presidente> (other than when
374   	making reference to the <Presidente> of the Republic),
375   	<gobernador>, <director>, <capitan>, <comandante>, <general>, and
376   	so forth, but he used capital letters when referring to
377   	institutions such as <Consejo>, <Cortes>, <Parlamento>,
378   	<Gobierno>, <Republica>, <Congreso>, <Palacio>, and so on.  The
379   	same style is used in the Arraras edition.
380   	      
381   	      +25+ Compare, "Incompetent, half-crazy, a disaster even to
382   	the way he dresses. . . . he practices naturism and walks naked
383   	among the pines, . . . with an aide to alert the neighbors," on
384   	Major General Pedro de la Cerda (Azana/Arraras, <Memorias>, 27
385   	August 1932 [160-162]), with "A fool, in whom there is nothing of
386   	importance," on Brigadier General Jose Varela Iglesias (Azana,
387   	<Memorias>, 29 December 1931-4 January 1932.  Similarly, on
388   	Colonel Julio Mangada, "crazy . . . a vegetarian, Esperantist,
389   	and spiritualist" (Azana, <Memorias>, 4 July, 9 September 1931),
390   	and "That nut Mangada" (Azana/Arraras, <Memorias>, 28 July 1932
391   	[136]).
392   	      
393   	      +26+ <Obras completas>, Vol. IV, vii.
394   	      
395   	      +27+ Azana/Arraras, <Memorias>, 1-43.
396   	      
397   	      +28+ Ibid., 30.
398   	      
399   	      +29+ Ibid., 42.  The thief was apparently one Antonio
400   	Espinosa, the vice-consul (see Jose Fernandez Cormenzana, "El
401   	Laberinto de los documentos de Azana," <El Pais>, 24 February
402   	1991, 26).  Emilio Gonzalez Lopez, now Professor Emeritus at the
403   	City University of New York and then a member of the Spanish
404   	delegation to the League of Nations, was present in Geneva at the
405   	time, and confirms details of the theft of the notebooks from the
406   	consulate: conversation, 12 October 1990.
407   	      
408   	      +30+ Ibid., 30.
409   	      
410   	      +31+ Frank Sedwick, <The Tragedy of Manuel Azana and the
411   	Fate of the Spanish Republic> (Columbus: Ohio State University:
412   	1963), pp. 225-226.
413   	      
414   	      +32+  Emiliano Aguado, <Don Manuel Azana Diaz> (Barcelona:
415   	Mauta, 1972), pp. 271-272.
416   	      
417   	      +33+ <Obras completas>., IV, vii.  Curiously, later in this
418   	same volume Marichal terms the fifth notebook, "the fifth (and
419   	final one of the series 1931-1933)": see xiii.
420   	      
421   	      +34+ This leaves unresolved the question of how many
422   	notebooks existed.  Deducting the three which Arraras gives as
423   	stolen [Thomas, "El Presidente," 291, says two.] leaves six, yet
424   	Marichal says there were eight, only five of which dealt with the
425   	period prior to the outbreak of the Civil War.  Based on the
426   	published portions, the stolen notebooks were number five (22
427   	July 1932-19 September 1932), seven (28 November 1932-28 February
428   	1933), and nine (1 June 1933-28 August 1933).  On page 125 of the
429   	Chilean edition of the stolen portions of the <Memorias>, there
430   	is a photographic reproduction of the cover of one of the
431   	notebooks, captions "Portada y fragmentos del primer cuaderno de
432   	las Memorias de Azana, que se reproducen en este volumen."  In
433   	the illustration the dates "28 November 1932-28 February 1933"
434   	can just be made out, indicating that the notebook in question
435   	was number seven.
436   	      
437   	     It seems probable that notebook number six, which would have
438   	covered the period from 19 September-28 November 1932,
439   	disappeared entirely. For an outline description of the probable
440   	contents of the several notebooks, see Appendix 3.
441   	      
442   	      +35+  While Jose Maria Marco's <Azana> (Madrid: Mondadori,
443   	1990), cites  the Arraras edition twice, and Jose Pena Gonzalez'
444   	<Manuel Azana> (Alcala de Henares: Fundacion Colegio del Rey,
445   	1991), does so several times, it is merely listed in the
446   	bibliography of Santos Julia's <Manuel Azana> (Madrid, Alianza,
447   	1990) and not mentioned at all in Jesus Ferrer Sola's <Manuel
448   	Azana> (Barcelona: Anthropos, 1991).  Most surprising is that
449   	Jose Maria Marco does not deal with the excerpts in the Arraras
450   	edition in his <La creacion de si mismo: ensaya sobre la
451   	literatura autobiografica de Manuel Azana> (Madrid: Biblioteca
452   	Nueva, 1991), although he does discuss portions of the Marichal
453   	edition, and Maria Angeles Hermosilla Alvarez, does not mention
454   	it in her <La prosa de Manuel Azana> (Codoba: Universidad de
455   	Cordoba, 1991).
456   	      
457   	      +36+  Based on the line length of the entries in the
458   	authorized version of the <Memorias>, Azana seems to have written
459   	an average of 2,436 lines per month in 1931, 1,084 in 1932, and
460   	1,888 in 1933. Assuming that entries were of approximately the
461   	same length in the two diaries which form the basis of the
462   	unauthorized editions and in the one which may have been lost, it
463   	is probable that these totalled 10,500-11,000 lines.  As the
464   	total lineage included in the unauthorized versions does not
465   	exceed about 4000, the still missing portions seem to total
466   	6,500-7,000 lines.
467   	      
468   	      +37+ <Sra>. C. Martinez Caro, the daughter of Joaquin
469   	Arraras, very kindly confirmed this fact when one of the authors,
470   	Felix Alvarez-Martinez approached her about the matter in early
471   	1991.
472   	
473   	      +38+ Unfortunately for scholarship, <Sra>. Azana died soon
474   	after the cache of papers from the Police School were returned to
475   	her.  As a result, access to them has been denied due to legal
476   	entanglements involving her heirs: See, among others, Emilio
477   	Manzano, "La polemica por el legado de Azana enrarece el ambiente
478   	de los colquios de Montauban: No se puede consultar la
479   	documentacion hallada en la Escuela de Policia," <ABC>, April 11,
480   	1990, 59; Javier Barrio, "Documentos sobre Manuel Azana han
481   	desaparecio afirma en Montauban un sobrino del politico espanol,"
482   	<El Pais>, November 3, 1990, 22; Jose Fernandez Cormenzana, "El
483   	Laberinto de los documentos de Azana," <El Pais>, 24 February
484   	1991, 26-27; Ignacio Alvarez Vara, 'Los papeles de Azana,'
485   	<Cambio 16>, 637 (February 8, 1991), p. 83.
486   	      
487   	
488   	                            <Appendices>
489   	      
490   	      Appendix 1: Discrepancies in the Dating of Entries
491   	      
492   	      
493   	      The following discrepancies have been detected in the dating of
494   	      entries in the unauthorized Santiago de Chile (1938) and Madrid
495   	      (1939) collections of excerpts from the missing portions 
496   	      of the <Memorias>.
497   	
498   	      In some cases the same entry bears a different date in the two
499   	      different versions, while in others the date duplicates one in
500   	      the authorized edition.
501   	      
502   	
503   	        1938 Edition     1939 Edition
504   	        ------------------------------------------------------------
505   	        <Date      Page   Date      Page Comment>
506   	
507   	        27.01.32    29    27.01.32  144  27.01.33 is probably correct
508   	        17.02.32    16    -------------  17.02.33 is probably correct
509   	        07.07.32   102    27.07.33  298  27.07.33 is probably correct
510   	        19.08.32   035    11.08.32  122  One date is incorrect.
511   	        22.08.33   051    22.09.33  089  One date is incorrect.
512   	        28.11.32   055    28.10.32  095  28.11.32 is probably correct.
513   	        15.12.32   107    12.12.32  304  One date is incorrect.
514   	        15.12.32   107    14.12.32  304  One date is incorrect.
515   	        13.01.33   107    01.01.33  302  One date is incorrect.
516   	        19.01.33   054    09.01.33  094  One date is incorrect.
517   	        24.01.33   054    24.02.33  095  One date is incorrect.
518   	           --       -     01.05.33  325  01.06.33 is probably correct.
519   	        16.06.33   051    06.06.33  090  One date is incorrect.
520   	        06.06.33   065    16.06.33  151  One date is incorrect.
521   	        21.07.33   079    21.06.33  172  One date is incorrect.
522   	        04.07.33   107    14.08.33  303  One date is incorrect.
523   	        24.02.33   064    24.11.33  148  24.02.33 is probably correct.
524   	        29.12.33   063    23.12.33  148  One date is incorrect.
525   	        21.12.33   101    24.02.33  298  24.02.33 is probably correct.
526   	        06.06.36   083    06.06.33  166  06.06.33 is probably correct.
527   	      
528   	      
529   	    
530   	      Appendix 2: Dates of Entries in the Various Editions of Azana's
531   	      <Memorias>, 1931-1933
532   	      
533   	      On this table:
534   	
535   	            M  = entries in Marichal's edition of the <Memorias>
536   	            A  = entries in the Chilean or Arraras editions.
537   	            B  = entries in the Marichal & Arraras editions
538   	            .  = days on which Azana made no entries.
539   	            X = entries which cover more than one date.
540   	 
541   	     
542   	
543   	                    Year --      1931
544   	
545   	                          11->                 21->                 31 
546   	     1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9|10|1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9|20|1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9|30|31
547   	     ---------------------------------------------------------------
548   	Jul  M-M-M-M-M-M-M-M-M- M-M-M-M-M-M-M-M-M-M- M-M-M-M-M-M-M-M-M-M- M- M
549   	Aug  M-M-.-M-M-M-M-M-M- M-M-M-M-M-M-.-M-M-.- M-M-M-.-M-M-M-M-M-M- M- .
550   	Sep  M-M-M-M-M-.-M-M-M- .-M-M-M-.-M-M-M-M-.- .-M-M-.-.-.-M-.-.-M- .
551   	Oct  M-M-M-.-.-.-.-.-M- .-M-M-M-M-.-.-.-M-.- .-.-.-M-.-M-M-M-M-M- M- M
552   	Nov  M-M-M-M-M-M-M-M-M- .-.-.-M-M-M-M-M-M-M- .-M-.-.-M-.-.-M-.-.- M
553   	Dec  M-M-M-M-M-M-M-M-M- M-M-M-M-M-M-M-M-M-X- X-X-X-X-M-M-M-M-.-.- .- M
554   	      
555   	      From 18 to 21 December Azana was on a journey to Barcelona.
556   	      From 29 December 1931 to 4 January 1932 Azana was in Cordoba,
557   	      Seville, and Cadiz.
558   	
559   	
560   	
561   	
562   	                            Year --      1932
563   	
564   	                          11->                 21->                  
565   	     1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9|10|1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9|20|1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9|30|31
566   	     ---------------------------------------------------------------
567   	Jan  X-X-X-X-M-M-M-M-M- M-M-M-.-.-.-.-M-.-.- .-.-.-M-.-.-.-M-.-M- .- M
568   	Feb  M-.-M-M-.-M-M-.-.- .-.-M-.-M-M-M-.-.-M- M-.-M-.-M-M-M-M-M-.
569   	Mar  .-.-.-.-M-.-M-.-.- .-.-.-M-M-M-.-M-M-M- M-M-.-M-.-M-.-.-M-.- .- M
570   	Apr  M-M-M-M-X-X-X-M-.- .-.-.-.-M-.-.-.-.-M- .-M-M-.-.-.-M-M-.-.- .
571   	May  .-.-M-M-M-M-M-M-M- .-M-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- M-.-.-.-.-.-M-M-.-.- .- M
572   	Jun  .-.-.-.-.-.-M-M-M- M-M-.-M-M-.-.-M-M-M- M-M-M-M-M-M-.-M-M-M- M
573   	Jul  M-M-M-.-M-M-M-M-M- .-M-M-M-.-M-M-M-.-.- M-M-B-.-.-.-.-A-A-.- .- .
574   	Aug  A-.-.-A-A-A-.-.-A- A-A-A-A-.-A-.-.-.-A- A-.-.-A-A-A-.-A-A-A- .- .
575   	Sep  .-.-.-A-.-.-.-A-A- .-.-A-.-.-.-.-.-.-A- .-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- .
576   	Oct  .-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- .-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- .-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- .- .
577   	Nov  .-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- .-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- .-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-A-A- A
578   	Dec  A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A-A- A-.-.-.-A-A-A-A-.-A- .-.-.-.-A-A-.-.-.-A- .- A
579   	      
580   	
581   	
582   	
583   	
584   	                            Year --      1933
585   	
586   	                          11->                 21->                 
587   	     1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9|10|1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9|20|1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9|30|31
588   	     ---------------------------------------------------------------
589   	Jan  A-.-.-A-A-.-.-.-.- .-A-.-A-.-A-.-.-A-A-.-.-A-A-A-A-.-A-A-.-  .- .
590   	Feb  .-.-A-.-A-A-A-A-A- .-A-.-A-A-A-A-A-A-A- A-A-.-A-A-.-.-.-.
591   	Mar  M-M-M-M-M-M-M-M-M- M-.-.-.-.-.-M-M-M-M- .-.-M-M-M-.-.-M-.-.- .- .
592   	Apr  .-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- .-.-.-.-M-M-M-.-.-.- .-M-M-M-.-.-.-.-.-.- M
593   	May  M-M-M-M-M-.-M-M-.- M-M-M-.-.-.-M-M-M-M- M-.-M-.-M-M-M-M-M-M- .- M
594   	Jun  A-A-.-A-A-A-A-A-A- A-A-A-A-.-A-A-.-.-A- .-A-A-A-.-.-A-A-.-A- .
595   	Jul  A-.-.-A-.-A-A-.-.- .-A-A-A-A-A-.-.-.-.- .-A-.-.-.-.-.-A-A-.- A- .
596   	Aug  A-.-.-.-.-A-.-.-.- A-.-.-.-.-A-.-.-A-A- .-.-A-A-.-.-A-.-A-.- .- .
597   	Sep  .-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- .-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- .-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- .
598   	Oct  .-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- .-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- .-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- .- .
599   	Nov  .-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- .-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- .-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- .
600   	Dec  .-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- .-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- .-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.- .- .
601   	      
602   	
603   	
604   	      
605   	      
606   	      Appendix 3: Outline of the Probable Coverage of Azana's
607   	      Notebooks, 1931-1933.
608   	      
609   	      Notebooks are identified by the numbers "1" through "9." 
610   	      Note that there are occasional entries which run from 
611   	      one notebook to the next.
612   	      
613   	      Notebook 1:  1 Jul 1931-31 Aug 1931
614   	      Notebook 2:  1 Sep 1931- 5 Nov 1931
615   	      Notebook 3:  6 Nov 1931-14 Feb 1932
616   	      Notebook 4: 15 Feb 1932-22 Jul 1932
617   	      Notebook 5  22 Jul 1932-30 Sep 1932
618   	      Notebook 6:  1 Oct 1933-27 Nov 1933
619   	      Notebook 7: 28 Nov 1933-28 Feb 1934
620   	      Notebook 8:  1 Mar 1934-31 May 1934
621   	      Notebook 9:  1 Jun 1934-31 Aug 1934
622   	      
623   	
624   	
625   	The apparent fate of Azana's original notebooks can easily be
626   	sumamrized:
627   	      
628   	Notebook 1  Published by Marichal
629   	Notebook 2  Published by Marichal
630   	Notebook 3  Published by Marichal
631   	Notebook 4  Published by Marichal
632   	Notebook 5  Partially published by Arraras, with the balance now lost.
633   	Notebook 6  Presumably now lost.
634   	Notebook 7  Partially published by Arraras, with the balance now lost.
635   	Notebook 8  Published by Marichal
636   	Notebook 9  Published by Marichal
637   	
638   	ONLINE MODERN HISTORY REVIEW  ISSN 1181-1151      c. January 1994
639   	                       ==========================