Internet Resource Directory, Part 4:

Educational Telecomputing Application/Infusion Ideas

version 2:  August 5, 1993

The information in this file is the result of Internet "prospecting" and 
teamwork by 24 eastern Nebraska teachers and 22 teachers and trainers 
from Texas who were enrolled in graduate Internet-based telecomputing 
courses during the Spring 1992 & 1993 semesters at the University of 
Nebraska at Omaha and the University of Texas at Austin.  Much of their 
work for the course entailed exploring different Internet resource sites, 
then writing, fieldtesting, and revising friendly documentation describing 
online resources that they felt to be of value to teachers, trainers, and their 

Below please find ideas for use of telecomputing tools in education and 
training.  Please forgive any grammatical errors that you find, 
understanding that some of the authors who contributed entries to this 
document are not native English speakers.  Also, please remember that 
Internet sites can change daily, so although the entries that you see below 
were correct and up-to-date when they were created and tested, they may 
not be so when you read them.

**This is NOT meant to be an exhaustive list of all of the sites of use to 
educators**. Rather, it is a beginning of what we hope will be an ongoing 
collaborative effort among telecomputing educators on a larger scale.  We 
invite you to use this, share it with other teachers, amend it, append to it, 
and update it.  We hope that the information that it contains will be useful 
to you.

Judi Harris

& the students of EDC 385G:
"Internet-Based Telecomputing"
University of Texas at Austin		(Spring 1993)

& the students of TED 8000: 
"Computer-Mediated Communications for Educators"
University of Nebraska at Omaha	(Spring 1992)


Lego T.C. Logo and Telecomputing
 Team up for Classroom Excitement.

by Denny Hanley

	  Students learn Science best when they are actively 
engaged doing "real" Science.  Using Lego T.C. Logo and 
telecommunications with young scientists in your classroom 
can provide "real" excitement to solve "real" problems related 
to one of NASA's most exciting projects; "The Mars Mission."

	  The Challenger Space Shuttle tragedy led the American 
people and NASA to re-examine the risks of manned space 
exploration.  A new emphasis on unmanned probes, satellites, 
data collecting devices, and surface rovers emerged.

	It is not surprising that research and development in 
these areas has increased dramatically with promising results.  
Although humans in space will be necessary, under certain 
circumstances we can still "boldly go where no one really 
needs to." 	The JPL, (jet propulsion laboratory) has been 
working on an exciting project for the Mars mission.  Their 
objective is to construct a "Mars Rover" vehicle that will 
enable scientists to explore, collect samples, survey and map 
the surface of Mars by remote control from the Earth.  The 
vehicle is called "Robby" 	The objective of this lesson is 
exactly the same  as the scientists at JPL with one exception; 
the vehicles will be constructed using Lego T.C. Logo kits. 

For this project you will need :

	1) A telecomputing connection with access to the 
	2) The Lego T.C. Logo program.
	3) Plenty of imagination, (student provided).

Step 1: Research

	The current research and possibilities of the future in 
space can be explored in a very dynamic and exciting way right 
in your classroom using an array of resources on the Internet.
        The type of site and their addresses are listed below.  In 
addition, Telnet sites are briefly described as to their 
relationship to the project.  FTP sites containing files 
specifically supporting the research phase of this project are 
discussed in greater detail.

		                       Telnet Sites

1)  NASA Spacelink                    Address:  
	Spacelink.MSFC.NASA.GOV                  or:
	This is an interactive site in which students are able to 
research the current status of every NASA project, including 
the Mars mission.

2) SpaceMet                               Address: 
	SpaceMet.PHAST.UMASS.EDU         or:
	This is an interactive site with a wide variety of 
information on space exploration and space history.  The 
information on the lunar rovers of the Apollo missions will be 
applicable to this project.

3) Lunar Planetary Institute      Address: 
	This site has general information on astronomy and 
specific information on planets.  Read information on Mars.

               			       FTP Sites

1) NASA Archives                      Address:  ftp 

	This FTP site has many documents that you can download 
on space and related topics.  Articles on JPL's research on 
"Robby" can be located using this file sequence; 
SPACE/MARS.ROVER/mr10.26.90. Download all files beginning 
with "mr", which stands for Mars rover.

2) Washington University           Address:  ftp 

	This ftp site has a wonderful collect of Gif graphics that 
can be downloaded.  Detailed NASA photos of Mars taken by 
Viking 1 from a distance and on the surface of Mars are 
available.  Additionally, there are photos of lunar rovers on the 
moon and surface landers on Mars.  The directory sequence for 
each is listed below.

1)  Mars:  Gif / astronomy / L / lander2
2)  Lunar Rover on the Moon: Gif / astronomy / L / lunarrover 
3)  Lander on Mars: Gif / astronomy / M / mars

 	These files and telnet research will be very helpful and 
exciting for your students to get an idea of the task and the 
objectives facing scientists in their endeavor.  It will also set 
the stage for this project.

Step 2: Brainstorming

	It is important that students get a clear understanding  
of the problems facing them and other scientists in trying to 
put a "human presence" on the planet Mars.

	Students will need to brainstorm on the human qualities 
that can manifest themselves in machine form.  Such as: 
mobility, sight, sound, communication, grasping and retrieving 
objects, and the ability to act, react, and interact with the 
environment. 	The students should not be concerned with 
the limitations of the Lego/Logo equipment at this point.  The 
important thing is to let the ideas flow.

	The students will need to make value judgements as to 
which attributes would be essential to a Mars Rover.  Those 
that are deemed necessary would be kept while the others 
would be discarded.

	After finalizing the list of attributes, the students are 
ready to enter the construction and testing phase of the 

Step 3:  Construction and Testing

	As the students begin to experiment with different 
designs that will meet the necessary attributes they felt were 
important, they will also be constantly testing their ideas.  
Some possible areas that could be tested and measured are:

1) Maneuverability - forward, backward, turn.

2) Speed - m/sec

3) Strength -  (Incline test) What is the greatest angle the 
Rover can climb a 1 m  incline.

4) Durability - (Cliff test) What is the highest cliff, (in cm) 
that the Rover can drive off while remaining intact and mobile.

5) Special Features -   Ability to measure distance in cm or m. 
Ability to "feel" objects and react.

6) Programming - The extent and quality to which categories 
1-5 are controlled by the computer.

	Of course these are only a few possible ideas.   Your 
students will supply variations of their own that only they as 
"real" scientists would think of.

Step 4: Sharing the Data

	Students need to share their test results and 
descriptions of their Rovers with their peers within the class, 
and possibly  with colleagues from another class for 

	Using Electronic mail they could quickly share testing 
results and basic designs.  They could also be encouraged to 
suggest improvements to each other and offer programming 
advice.  They might even exchange programming codes.

	The results of the entire project could be electronically 
mailed to JPL scientists for their examination and comments.  
They  would be interested, supportive, and grateful for the 
student efforts.

Step 5: GO TO MARS

	If the proof is in the pudding then there will have to be a 
"Mars Mission" in your classroom.  Students would build a Mars 
landscape and operate their vehicles without being able to 
actually see them. After all isn't that what "real" scientists 


by Kim Burry

     I have never seen my students as motivated, excited, and on 
task as they were when they performed the research needed to 
solve the Earth Day Treasure Hunt (Douglas,C., & Levin,S., 
1992) on April 22, 1992.
     The Earth Day Treasure Hunt is a networking project that 
involves students in history, math, map reading, geography and 
writing.  Participating classrooms were asked to submit clues 
by electronic mail describing a geographical place.  All clues 
from across the country were compiled and sent back to 
participating teams prior to Earth Day. Students were asked to 
conduct the hunt on Earth Day if possible.
     My kids had so much fun compiling clues for their 
geographical place and sending them on to the treasure hunt 
headquarters that I knew that the actual day of the hunt would 
be especially motivating and so I decided to plan for it to be a 
special day.     I met with my building principal and made 
arrangements to work with my students for a four hour block 
of time.  (I work with G/T kids in a pull-out situation.  
Students from grades 4-6 signed up to write clues and work on 
the hunt.)
     In preparation for the day, I collected maps, globes, and a 
variety of reference materials and familiarized my students 
with the Geographic Name Server and the Cleveland FreeNet.  
(My students were familiar with the Geographic Name Server 
because they had utilized it in their clue writing.)
     I accessed the Geographic Name Server for my students 
( 3000) and they were able to type in 
U.S. cities and states as well as some mountains, rivers, lakes, 
and national parks.  This proved to be very valuable to my 
students particularly as a checking device.  Many of the clues 
submitted contained latitudinal and longitudinal clues.  My 
students were able to type in their chosen place and check this 
information relating to elevation, time zones, telephone area 
codes, postal zip codes and population.
     I also switched back and forth and had my students utilize 
the services from the Cleveland FreeNet (telnet  
At the main menu, we chose the Library section, proceeded on 
to the Electronic Bookshelf, then chose #5, Read the World 
Factbook.  This section contains information on Nations, 
Oceans and the World.  My students utilized this section when 
searching for answers to clues in countries other than the U.S.
     The atmosphere in my classroom on Earth Day, 1992, was 
one of excitement.  I must admit that I was a bit apprehensive, 
particularly with the way the kids would handle the use of the 
on-line resources.  I was afraid of the congestion I might have 
with students wanting to use the computer resources above all 
other sources.  However, my students utilized every source and 
took turns using the computer. (Which I might add was 
extremely popular.)
     We had a visit from our local newspaper when we were in 
the heighth of our clue searching.  The kids were so excited 
that they couldn't stop giving him information for his article.  
Needless to say, an article and a picture of some of my 
students appeared in the next "Gretna Guide."
     My students have already asked if we could do this again 
next year.  Of course, the answer was "yes."  Seeing students 
have so much fun and learning at the same time, how could you 


Douglas,C.,& Levin,S.(1992). The Earth Day Treasure Hunt.
     A project designed at the University of Illinois
     Department of Curriculum and Instruction.

"Small World" Telecomputing Infusion Idea:


 by Jane Couture and Sharon South

 	How often have you, as a teacher, heard "Why do I need to 
learn this?"  In order for students to see the relevancy of a 
course of instruction, they need to see some immediate use or 
practical applications of the subject.  Learning is easier, more 
enjoyable and successful if the learners can directly relate 
information to their lives.  Foreign language is one of those 
subjects that is difficult to persuade students to take because 
they cannot foresee using it in the immediate future.  
Transportation and technology seems to have shrunk the world.  
Ours is truely a global community.  People travel from 
continent to continent as easily as they do from state to state.  
Even though they may witness the Berlin Wall coming down or 
watch the Olympics from Albertville, France and Barcelona, 
Spain live on television via satellite, it is still difficult for 
students to see themselves as part of this picture.  We want to 
find a way for students to speak and write to people 
throughout the world without leaving their classroom.  We 
want  them to discover  that communication is not possible 
without a common language;  then they will realize the need 
for the study of foreign languages.  Like "The Man of La 
Mancha", we dared to dream the impossible dream and make the 
dream come true with telecommunications.

     Getting students online with a computer, a modem and a 
telephone line puts the world at their fingertips.  By entering a 
few simple commands on the computer keyboard, they can talk 
to anyone around the world, but only if they speak the same 
language.  At last, we have found our motivating force.  The 
desire to communicate with others, whether they are around 
the corner or half way around the world is so strong that all 
we have to do is gently guide the students in the right 

     To introduce your students to telecommunications we 
suggest our Small World project.  Students choose a country 
where the target language being taught is spoken.  They  
research the country through online telecommunications skills 
using the foreign language.  

     Two different site schools (perferrably one in the country 
being researched) exchange information, ask and answer 
questions and prepare a report all in the foreign language 
through email.  A student bulletin  board such as KIDSnet 
(KIDSnet-Request@VMS.CIS.PITT.EDU) or Kidcafe 
(Listserv@ndsuvm1.bitnet) can be used for this purpose. 

     Several listserv groups will be used to retrieve and send 
information.  We chose MCLR-L (MCLR-L@SMU.BITNET), MEXICO-
(EC@INDYCMS.BITNET).  Here the students will read and write 
messages in the target language to acquire information needed 
about their country.

     Students will also access a variety of telnet and internet 
site to locate reference material on their country.  SERVICES 
(WUGATE.WUSTL.EDU or for example gets them 
into libraries where they can actually do research online and in 
the target language, much like ERIC. Telecommunications can 
also provide exposure to ASCII Art which in turn gives the 
students a chance to be creative, humorous and self-

     There are also many news groups like Soc. Culture Mexico, 
Soc. Culture Spain, Soc. Culture French, Soc. Culture German 
etc. which the students can use to post questions and retrieve 
information for their project in the foreign language.

     The use of new technologies and telecommunications will 
help the students acquire writing, conversational and social 
skills in a foreign language enthusiastically and successfully 
while actively participating  in real communications with 
others.    Learning a new language is now meaningful and 
motivation is no longer a problem.
      All telecommunications addresses were correct at 
publication time, but could change in the future. We urge you to 
explore with your students the new and ever-changing world of 
communication, whether it be a new language, new 
telecommunications or both!

Roberts, N., Blakeslee, G., Brown, M., et al. Integrating 
Telecommunications Into 
Education.  Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 

      Relevant Learning Experiences Using Telecomputing Activities 	 
				by Patricia G. Ross

	Most students and teachers find telecomputing activities very 
exciting at first.  In fact, some many not really care "what" they do as long 
as they are just "on-line."  This type of phenomena is common with almost 
any new experience.  For instance, can you remember what it was like 
when you first got your driver's license as a teenager? You would jump at 
any opportunity to run an errand just for the chance to get to drive the car.  
Getting behind the wheel was fun and exciting, and you didn't care 
"where" you were going just so long as you "got to go"!  However, the day 
probably came when running errands just wasn't fun any more.  Parents 
had to coax you into making the trip, and you probably griped and 
complained about "having" to run another silly errand!  What happened to 
the thrill and excitement?  You had gotten used to it, and the process of 
driving the car was no longer valued in and of itself.  It had just become a 
vehicle for getting you to one place or another.  The "process" was no 
longer fun, and if the "product" of your trip was not deemed beneficial to 
you, it was no longer "worth" the trip.

	Most users of telecomputing systems probably go through a similar 
process.  At first, it is fun and exciting just to be on-line and doing 
something "different."  But after a while, this novelty wears off and 
students want more from the experience.   Students, just like adults, need 
to see relevancy in what they are doing.  If the telecomputing trip serves 
no useful purpose, or the journey is so arduous and the rewards seemly 
so paltry, why even go in the first place?  Besides being a waste of a 
valuable instructional opportunity, having students partake in meaningless 
or "contrived" telecomputing activities presents the risk of having students 
develop a dislike for the very technology we are trying to encourage 
students to appreciate!

Real and Contrived Uses of Telecomputing Tools
	Upitis (1990) described the difference in real and contrived uses of 
telecomputing tools in education.  Basically, contrived activities serve no 
true educational purposes for the students other than as an exposure to 
the technology.  Real activities, as the name implies, provide true 
opportunities for relevant student learning.  She made the very valid point 
that the telecomputing tools "are best used when the need for using the 
tool already exists, rather than where one simply finds ways to shape 
traditional curriculum exercises into electronic forms" (p. 242).  The key 
factor in designing real telecomputing activities is to effectively utilize 
these resource to assist in instruction.  However, the same resources can 
be either fully utilized or woefully mis-used based on the instructional 
design of the activity. 	

	Electronic mail systems have proved their effectiveness in distance 
education programs and in other collaborative projects (Upitis, 1990).  
Many teachers have effectively used email capabilities to run electronic 
pen pal activities with students from other parts of state, nation, or even 
the world.   This timely and personal involvement with individuals from 
other parts of the world can provide many real rewards for students.  
Therefore, collaborative school projects and pen pals activities can be an 
effective use of this electronic medium "if" both classes have full and 
immediate access to computers and the telecommunications system.

	Unfortunately, that time has not yet arrived in many schools. 
Therefore, classes sometimes are limited to using the system only once a 
week, if not even less often.  This results in students being able to send 
and receive messages infrequently.  Students lose interest in the activity 
and see no real benefit of this medium over conventional methods of 
communication (Levin, Rogers, Waugh,& Smith,1989; Upitis, 1990).  
Using email for pen pal communications in this type of situation provides 
no benefits other than as practice and exposure to the technology.  This 
type arrangement also makes it impossible to utilize the strengths of email, 
namely the speed and convenience.  Therefore, this is not an effective use 
of this medium. You might as well let students write letters and mail them 
in the conventional methods.  Or, let the students make and send "video-
tape letters" through the mail.  These video-tapes could possibly provide 
an extra richness not available through traditional letters or email 
messages and would therefore be a more powerful instructional tool. The 
key point is that if the medium (email) is not effective in reaching the 
instructional objective, then it should not be used. 	

	Telecommunication systems such as the Internet open up many 
new tools for use by educators.  The Internet abounds with FTP sites.  
FTP sites allow for transfers of an incredibly large number of files from an 
archive site to your computer. (See "Files for Free! FTP File Transfers on 
the Internet" in the Dec/Jan 1992 issue of The Computing Teacher for a 
full description of how to transfer these files, Harris, 1992)  While these 
files contain an almost unimaginable amount of information, how these 
files are used is the key to their effectiveness as instructional resources.

	For instance, students are usually very interested in popular music, 
and they can obtain the lyrics for thousands of songs by different artists 
from the site Lyric and Discography (address: ftp; 
subdirectory: pub/music). Since it may be time-consuming or expensive to 
obtain these lyrics in a more conventional manner, this site allows 
teachers and students quick and easy access to this resource. 	
A contrived use of this Internet resource would be to have students go to 
this site, transfer files of specified songs, and then complete activities such 
as, "What is the first line of the third song?", or "What year was this song 
written?", or "Name the city this artist describes in this song."  These 
activities serve no instructional purpose for the student; they are strictly 
"read and regurgitate" activities.  There was no benefit for the student for 
having "made the trip" on the Internet, and it was thus a poor use of the 
Internet resources.

	Instead, this resource could be for more meaningful purposes. For 
instance, you could allow the students to go to the site, select several 
songs of their choice, and then ask them, "How does this artist use 
metaphors in her or his songs to convey meaning?", "Identify what you 
think are the most common themes in the songs of this artist, and give 
examples from the lyrics supporting your choices."  You could also ask the 
student to compare or contrast the writing styles of different artists, or 
have them describe the sytlistic changes of one artist over time.   
Remember, having students get the files is of far less importance than 
what you have the students do with them once they have obtained them!  

	Examples of real or contrived activities can be identified for almost 
any Internet site.   If you are teaching a unit in social studies on Supreme 
Court decisions, you could visit the Project Hermes site (address:; subdirectory: hermes/ascii) and obtain files of different 
Supreme Court opinions.  A petty and contrived use for these files would 
be to have students list the dates of the opinions, the dissenting judges, or 
even the number of pages in the opinion.  But the important issue here is, 
"So what?"  Why use the Internet resources for fill-in-the blank exercises?  

	Instead, have students take these opinions and "assume the roles" 
of the different judges and have them hold debates as to why they made 
the judgments they made.  Have students try to identify what values or 
principals seemed evident in the rulings of different cases.  Ask them to 
"sit on the court" and identify what actions they would have taken in the 
same situation, and justify their own decisions by writing opinions  of their 
own.  These "opinions" could then be posted on a conference for viewing 
and debating by others.

	In addition, don't go to an FTP site for information that is readily 
available elsewhere.  For example, the History Archive (address: ftp 
RA.MSSTATE.EDU) provides a wealth of information relating to history.  A 
contrived use of this site would be to have students transfer files of 
information that are readily available in textbooks, video tapes, or other 
resources in the classroom.  Instead, let the students explore the site for 
some of its more current or unique information.  For instance, one 
subdirectory (path:doc/history/USA/ GulfWar) contains the diaries of 
different individuals involved in the recent Persian Gulf War.  Students can 
read an Israelite's personal account of the missile attacks on his city, or 
experience the war through the eyes of a young Iraqi lieutenant.  These 
resources are not readily available elsewhere, and this site would 
therefore provide useful materials to the students.

	Another resource on the Internet are Telnet sites, which allows for 
interactive connections to different sites around the country and the world.  
(See "Telnet Sessions on the Internet" in the October 1992 issue of the 
Computing Teacher for a full description of these resources, Harris, 1992).  
Many of these sites have continuous revisions of information which makes 
up-to-date information readily available to students.  

	For example, the Weather Underground (address at telnet> 
madlab. 3000) provides an on-line weather service 
covering forecasts for U.S. regions and cities, including long range 
forecasts, ski conditions, earthquake reports, hurricane advisories, severe 
weather advisories, and marine forecasts.  I imagine you can already think 
of several "contrived" uses for this site.  You could have students go to this 
site and find the temperatures for several specified cities, or list the snow 
conditions in Colorado, or determine if any U.S. cities experienced an 
earthquake the last month.  But, as you know, all of this information could 
readily be obtained in a newspaper.  But even from this readily- available 
printed source, the information still would be of little educational use to 

	How might you use this great site for instructional uses?  In a 
science class, you could set up a "tracking station" for hurricanes or other 
severe weather conditions.  From the information they received from the 
site, students could do hourly updates and mark on charts and maps in the 
classroom the progression of storms.  They could do projections as to the 
direction or severity of storms based on background knowledge you would 
have already provided them about weather tracking.  This type of activity 
utilizes the timeliness and richness of  information from this site.  It allows 
active student involvement in a "real-time" event, making the learning even 
more exciting and MEANINGFUL!  By exploring the Internet, you will find 
many other Telnet sites which provide similar opportunities for meaningful 
learning activities.

When to Consider Telecomputing Tools
	Telecomputing is still relatively new to most classroom teachers, 
and many teachers may still be struggling with designing meaningful 
activities for their students.  How do you determine if the proposed activity 
is a real or a contrived activity?  One way is to ask yourself the following 
questions as you design your telecomputing activity: 

	*What is the educational goal I want my student to achieve?    
	*Is this a worthwhile educational goal, whether it be in electronic  or 
traditional form?  	
	*Am I trying to make my educational goals conform to the available  
technology, or am I using these tools to more effectively meet my  
instructional goals?  	
	* When compared to other available tools, does this electronic tool 
effectively assist in obtaining this goal?  	
	*Can this goal be reached just as effectively using more traditional 
	*Is this electronic medium an effective way to teach an educational 
goal, or is this activity just a skill-building exercise in the use of the tool?

	Answering these questions should help teachers design 
telecomputing activities which are more meaningful and useful for the 
students.  Also, this process should help reduce the tendency to go "on-
line" without a real educational purpose or need.  

Skill Building as a Foundation for Real Learning

	Some skill-building exercises are needed when introducing 
students to telecomputing activities.  This skill-building and "process" 
learning is necessary in order to learn to use the tools effectively.  As a 
teacher, you should explain, demonstrate, or illustrate a skill to students 
and allow them to practice it before they are expected to utilize the skill.  

	There is nothing "contrived" about designing telecomputing 
activities for the sole purpose of introducing and practicing a skills. One of 
the instructional goals of telecommunications should be for the needed 
processing skills to become transparent.  This "transparency" will evolve 
as students use and refine these skills as they complete meaningful 
classroom activities.  Eventually, little thought or effort is needed by the 
students in "completing the trip" because the processing skills themselves 
have become established and unobtrusive.

	Just like when you learned to drive a car, you needed some formal 
instruction in order to learn how to use your vehicle to get from one place 
to another quickly, effectively, and safely.  But, once you learned how to 
drive and mastered those skills, you wanted to then put them to real use.  
Similarly, after initial introduction to telecomputing skills, there should be 
real instructional purposes to the process, or the activities will be contrived 
and of little benefit to the students.

	We must guard against "stalling" students in their skills by having 
them complete meaningless or redundant activities.  Once they have 
learned a skill, it is not beneficial to have them keep practicing it without 
applying it for a useful purpose.  You could compare it to having them 
drive back and forth in the driveway to pick up the mail from the mailbox 
after they have already learned to drive.  Yes, they got the mail, but was it 
really worth the trip, and was that process really beneficial to the student?  
Couldn't they have put this  "driving skill" to better use?  This question 
brings us to the important  topic of the design of telecomputing activities.

Well-Designed Instruction

	No matter what tool, resource, or instructional medium you are 
using, instruction should be well-planned with specific goals and purposes.  
In planning your telecomputing activities, follow basic lesson design steps 
as you would with any instructional project.  You should plan out relevant 
activities to meet specific instructional goals.  Also, student tasks, 
deadlines, and evaluation methods should be clearly delineated from the 
start of the project.  (Rogers, Andres, Jacks, and Clausen, 1990).  	Also, 
well thought-out projects are likely to be more successful. Teachers should 
first understand what they want to achieve, and how they want to achieve 
it, and what tools or skills are necessary in order for the students to 
successfully complete the activity.  Nothing is more frustrating to a 
teacher, or to his or her students, than to have a much anticipated 
instructional experience "crash and burn" because of a lack of preparation.  
The teacher may not be prepared in the organization of the lesson, the 
students may not be properly prepared with necessary skills or knowledge, 
or unforeseen system restrictions may limit student access when needed.  
For instance, some sites have restricted access during "business hours"; 
therefore, don't try to plan student activities around a site that most likely 
will be closed to them during the school day.  You need to be aware, as 
much a possible in this rapidly-changing medium, what the characteristics 
and restrictions are of different sites and systems.  Even with all the 
telecomputing resources available, you still have carefully design the 
learning experiences for your students.

	This type of  design does not rule out the possibilities for discovery 
or emergent learning as students participate in telecomputing activities.  
There can always be opportunities for students to "explore" as they are 
on-line.  However, well-designed projects help reduce the likelihood of 
presenting contrived activities which are of little benefit to students.

	Sometimes we may get so caught up in the technology that we 
forget that telecomputing activities in and of themselves are not 
necessarily motivating or instructional to students.  It is how these 
activities are designed and carried out with students that makes them 
meaningful.  Systems such as the Internet are no more useful or 
instructional to students than a quick tour of  the library unless the learning 
activities at the site are purposeful and well-designed. Teachers must first 
learn how to use the available telecomputing tools and then use their 
instructional design skills  to provide meaningful telecomputing projects 
and activities for students. 	

	Developing meaningful telecomputing activities is still part trial-and-
error due to the emergent nature of the medium.  Fortunately, more and 
more ideas for activities are being made available to teachers from 
published and on-line sources.   K12Net, Kidcafe, and Kidprojects are just 
a few of the on-line sources for classroom telecomputing projects 
(Rousseau, 1993).

	In addition, as a classroom teacher, you are one of the greatest 
sources for designing instructional activities to meet the needs of your own 
students.  As you become more aware of the telecomputing tools and 
resources available on systems such as the Internet, you can use 
telecomputing activities as a wonderful tool to enrich the learning 
experiences of your students. 


Harris, J. B. (1992). Telnet sessions on the Internet.  The Computing 
	Teacher, 20, (3), 40-43. 
Harris, J. B. (1992).  Files for free!  FTP file transfers on the 	Internet. The 
	Computing Teacher, 20, (5).
Levin, J.A., Rogers, A., Waugh, M., and Smith, K.  (1989). Observations 
	on electronic networks: Appropriate activities for learning. The  
	Computing Teacher, 16 (8), 17-21.
Rogers, A., Andres, Y., Jacks, J., and Clausen, T.  (1990).  Keys to 
	successful telecomputing.  The Computing Teacher, 17 (8), 25-28. 
Rousseau, M. (1993).  Elementary school teachers and 
	telecommunications in the classroom.  Unpublished paper.  The 
	University of Texas at  Austin.
Upitis, R. (1990). Real and contrived uses of electronic mail in 	 
	elementary schools.  Computers in Education, 15 (1-3), 233-343.

Start Your Own Mail Art Club
Bill Rainey

For decades people have been using "snail mail" to exchange small, 
personal works of art.  These artists have usually made postcards which 
might be sent around, added to or changed by a series of people. Others 
will make multiple copies of a work to be sent to a list of mail art 
aficionados.  Whether the completed works are destined for the gallery or 
the refrigerator, mail art is an excellent opportunity for kids and adults alike 
to gain experience in the collaborative production of visual meaning. 	

As its name implies, electronic mail art consists of visual images which are 
sent through electronic mail. This is achieved by the use of encoding 
programs which allow a visual image to be changed into ascii text, sent as 
an e-mail message and then changed back into a picture.  The beauty of 
this approach is that it  requires only limited network access. If you can 
send and receive e-mail, you can become a mail artist. 	

The following discussion will center on Macintosh home computers, 
though all processes described are possible with DOS based machines as 
well. Since the pictures are being changed into text, it is even possible for 
Macintosh and DOS users to trade pictures through electronic mail. 	

Macintosh graphics programs support several different formats for storing 
pictures. The most common is the PICT file. Other types you may run 
across include GIF and JPEG. These are both commonly used 
compression standards, and shareware programs discussed later will 
allow you to freely convert your files between these types.  If you plan to 
exchange mailart with DOS computer users, it will be necessary to use the 
GIF or JPEG formats. 	
So let's get started. As an example, I will take you through the creation, 
encoding, mailing and decoding of a picture.  First of all, you will need to 
create the image to be mailed.  Just about any graphics program will work, 
as long as you can save a file in either PICT, GIF or JPEG formats. I have 
worked with photographic files using Adobe Photoshop and drawings done 
with Kidpix with equal success. 	
For the next step, you will need an encoding program.  A common all 
around encoding scheme used on the Internet is called Uuencode. There 
are several programs out there which will uuencode or uudecode a file for 
you. As long as both you and your recipients use the uuencoding process, 
your files will be readable without a hitch. So let's say I've created a 
picture using Kidpix and saved it as a PICT file.  I want this to be available 
to DOS users, so I use a conversion program such as GIFConverter to 
change it into a GIF file.  Some graphics software will allow you to save 
files as GIF from the outset, making the conversion unnecessary. My next 
step is to open up a uuencoding program, such as Uulite for the Macintosh 
(see descriptions at the end of this article). This shareware program is 
easy to use and will both encode and decode files using the uuencode 
process. >From the program, I open up my GIF file and select "encode". 
This produces a file of the same name with a different ending to indicate 
that it has been uuencoded.  My encoded file is now the original GIF file 
stored as text. The original graphics program will not be able to make 
sense of this file until it has been decoded. If you were to look at it using a 
word processor, you would see line upon line of seemingly random 
characters. These characters contain all the information needed to 
recreate the picture at another site. 	
Now that my picture is represented in text, I can easily upload it to my e-
mail account and send it either as an attachment to a message or in the 
body of the message itself. I may send this message to one or many 
people, depending on who is in my mailart group. While I'm mailing this 
picture, I notice that my friend across the country has sent me a piece of 
collaborative mailart.  If I look at the message from my mail program, I see 
nothing but a header, maybe a short description, and line upon line of 
gibberish. I can't look at it as a  picture until it is downloaded and decoded, 
so I save the message or attached file and download it to my home 
computer as a text file. Once the file transfer has taken place, I start my 
Uuencoding program, and select the decode option. This produces a file in 
the original GIF or PICT format that the sender used. I now run my 
graphics program, open up the file and voila, I have a picture from across 
the country. Now it is up to me to manipulate it to my liking, save it as a 
GIF or other file, uuencode it, and send it to another person as an e-mail 

The following is a list of helpful software for mailart. All programs are 
available for anonymous ftp from

	Graphics: Your favorite program will do, as long as it can save files 
in the PICT or GIF format. If you donŐt have graphics software, programs 
such as Kidpix (the less powerful shareware version) and LightningPaint 
are available at Umich in the subdirectory /mac/graphics/graphicsutil as 
files kidpix1.0.cpt.hqx and lightningpaint1.1.cpt.hqx.

	Uuencode/Uudecode:  There are several shareware encoding 
programs available. Uulite1.4  is a ŇsmartÓ and easy to use program. It is 
available in the subdirectory /mac/util/compression in the file named 
uulite1.4.cpt.hqx and has a registration fee of only $29.

	GIFConverter:  This program is helpful if your graphics program will 
not read GIF files or convert between GIF and PICT files. It is available in 
the subdirectory /mac/graphics/graphicsutil in the file named 
gifconverter2.32.cpt.hqx and has a registration fee of $40.

	JPEGView: This is postcardware (in lieu of a registration, the author 
requests a picture postcard).  JPEGView displays JPEG, GIF and PICT 
files, and has a neat slideshow feature. The file jpegview2.0.cpt.hqx is 
available in the subdirectory /mac/graphics/graphicsutil.

Software Notes:
	All of the software mentioned above, and much more, is available 
for anonymous ftp from: mac.archive. If you are new to the 
site, read the root directory file 00introduction.txt. This file contains many 
helpful explanations of file formats and tips on how to retrieve and 
translate software available by ftp. There are also several helpful files in 
the /mac/00help subdirectory.

	Now that we know the technical aspects of sending and receiving 
mail art, the next step is to find collaborators. Perhaps you already have e-
mail partners at another school who would like to expand into the visual 
realm. As a resource, I will also compile a list of those who would like to 
hook up with others across the country. To put your name on the list, send 
me an e-mail message containing your name, e-mail address, age group 
and any other interests or helpful descriptive information. This information 
will be compiled and sent to all others who replied. Send messages Bill 
Rainey at the following Internet address: While it may 
not lead to works worthy of the Louvre, electronic mail art is an important 
infusion of artistic activity into our everyday lives.  As both producers and 
consumers of visual materials, we need to develop our proficiency in the 
discourse of images. Visual literacy has both a reading and a writing 
component, and mailart is an opportunity for practice in both. 

Archaeology Unit
Carolyn Morris

     One of the most successful units of study in the fifth grade gifted and 
talented classroom of Diana Guarniere and Shirley Dunlap is the study of 
archeology.  When updating the unit, the problem then was not to 
restructure the unit, but to enhance it using the internet.  This can be done 
by using email to subscribe to MUSEUM-L and ARCH-L listserv groups, 
using ftp protocol to get simulated dig software, and using veronica 
searches to enhance the research.  The following is an outline of the unit 
and how it can be injected with a healthy dose of the internet.

     Current student requirements for this unit are to choose a civilization as 
a group and then choose individual topics of study within this civilization.  
The students gather information and write a research paper about their 
topic.  At this time, they also choose one  artifact to create out of clay for a 
class dig.  When this is complete, students plant their artifacts in boxes 
filled with newsprint for another group to "unearth".  The unit is then 
finished in reverse mode with teams swapping artifact boxes (dig sites) 
and repeating the research process in reverse.  Thus each group 
researches two civilizations.  The new group of students apply for specific 
jobs on the dig team and "dig" the site all the time recording their findings 
and developing a dig manual.  Artifacts are plotted as to location in the site 
and a general hypotheses is developed as to which civilization has been 
uncovered. Interpretations are made on the naming of each artifact.  
Students research individual artifacts and write a paper to be included in 
the team dig manual along with a class position paper using assenting and 
dissenting evidence about the civilization gained through the dig and 
research.  The project culminates with the students creating a museum to 
display the artifacts, research manual, and dig manual.

     This well developed unit can be adapted easily to help the students use 
current internet resources.  Perhaps the easiest way for the classroom 
teacher to begin using the internet is by subscribing to a listserv and 
having students monitor the discussions. The two that could easily 
enhance this unit are MUSEUM-L AND ARCH-L.  ARCH-L is a group of 
practicing archaeologist, professors, students, and amateurs interested in 
the field of archeology.  In the past, they have discussed topics such as 
urban dig sites, upcoming conferences, and job opportunities. MUSEUM-L 
is a group of interested museum personnel.  Museums of all sizes are 
represented in this group from very small private museums to the 
Smithsonian in Washington DC.  This group has recently raised questions 
about everything from what is ethical to sell at a museum store to the 
guidelines for developing display cases that are accessible to the 
handicapped.  While the topics discussed by these groups change, they 
have been proven to raise thought provoking topics for class discussion.

     Use the following guidelines to subscribe to these groups:




            1. Send an email letter to

            2. In the message type only:
                 SUBscribe ARCH-L  Your First and Last Names

            1.  Send an email letter to                

            2.  In the message type only: SIGNOFF ARCH-L




            1.  Address an email letter to LISTSERV@UNMVMA
            2.  In the message type only:  SUB MUSEUM-L
                            Your Full Name   HOW TO UNSUBSCRIBE FROM THIS 
            1.  Address an email letter to LISTSERV@UNMVMA.BITNET
                (or LITSERV@UNMVMA.UNM.EDU)
            2.  In the message type only: SIGNOFF MUSEUM-L

     For the more advanced Internet user there are other sources of 
information available through Gopher.  An excavation simulation program  
called SyGraf is available, says listserv ARCH-L owner, Sebastian Rahtz. " 
Connect with gopher to on port 70,and see item 4, 
Archaeology.  This reveals

     1. ANU/
     2. ARCH-L/
     3. ASOR/
     4. Anthropology and archaeology gopher sources (Yale, UWA)/
     5. Archaeological Computing Bibliography (WAIS database)/
     6. Clonehenge/
     7. Conservation OnLine (cool) (WAIS databases)/
     8. SyGraf/
     9. WAC/"
>From there it possible to retrieve the software back to your computer for 
use in the classroom.

     Students can also use the program "veronica" that is accessible from 
many Gopher sites.  By using simple Boolean operations: 'and', 'or', and 
'not', students can find out what is available on the internet about the 
civilization that their group has chosen.

     The above are examples of how the internet can enhance an already in 
place unit of study.  The internet is a fascinating research tool comprised 
of primary sources of information such as the listserves offer and 
secondary sources such as software and traditional written reference 
material.  As teachers become familiar with the tool, it will become obvious 
that the internet does not need to be layered on as another "subject" to 
teach but can be used as a means of adding zest to existing material.  By 
doing this, students will see a direct connection between what they are 
learning and the reality of the work force while preparing themselves to 
use the technology of the information age. 

									Page 1 of 5

Project for 2nd and 3rd Graders

Project completed between two schools in May, 1993

International Community School
Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Africa


Comanche Elementary School
Fort Stockton, Texas, USA

Project Coordinator:
Peggy Wiseman, Librarian
Comanche Elementary School
803 N. Rio  Phone #915-336-8339
Fort Stockton, Texas 79735
									Page 2 of 5

Project Name:  What's the Same?  What's Different?

	* To give 2nd and 3rd graders hands-on use of computers and to 
view a modem as a tool for classroom use.
	* To illustrate to students in two widely separated schools that 
students are much more alike than they are different.  

Content Area:  Social Studies/Math.

Grade Level: 2nd and 3rd graders

Suggested time line: Best as a three week project. 	   
	* One week practice on using a word processor to key in 
information off-line.
	* One week sending and receiving information.
	* One week analyzing and drawing conclusions.

Project requirements:  
	* Email connection between two widely separated schools, 
preferably in different countries. 	   
	* Telecommunication software
	* Computer and printer
	* Connection to a modem
	* Interested and willing teachers
	* Enthusiastic students

1. Teachers at the participating schools will agree upon the information to 
be shared and construct a pool of questions to guide students.  (see 
attachment for possible questions.)
2. Actual dates and times to transmit information will be set in order to 
coordinate transmission of information.  		   

3. Maps will be evident in each classroom to remind students of the 
distance between the two schools.
4. Pretest and postest of student's knowledge of distant school children 
and the use of a modem. 		   

5. There will be at least two exchanges of information.  		
	A. Information about students and their schools.
	B. Questions about the information received.

Possible Project Activities: 		

1. Comparisons of "Sames/Differents" will be done. 		
2. Graphs will be made from information gathered 		
3. Averages and rations made from information.

Evaluation criteria:  
Post Test for information gained and teacher observation of 
computer/modem use.

Other Benefits:  An exchange of information on a personal basis should 
make each group of people more real to the students.  The exchange 
between teachers as they prepare for the project should give them a wider 
perspective of the whole educational and learning process.

								Page 3 of 5

Suggested items of information for each student to send to the other 
school.  Some information which can be used for graphs, averages and 

             Boy or Girl:
             Birth City:
             Birth State:
             Birth Country:
             Eye Color:
             Hair Color:
             Best toy/game:

             Best Book:

             Job of Father:
             Job of Mother:
             Who lives w/you:

             Other information:

								Page 4 of 5

POSSIBLE QUESTIONS:  One best answer as decided by the students, 
prepared in small groups or total class.  Not all questions have to be 
1.  What time do you usually get up in the morning? 
2.  What do you usually eat for breakfast?
3.  Describe typical school clothing for boys.
4.  Describe typical school clothing for girls.
5.  Describe the weather in May at your school.
6.  What time do you go to school?
7.  How do you travel to school (bus, car, bike)?
8.  How many students go to your school?
9.  What grades are in your school?
10.  What is the 1st thing you do when you get to school? 
11.  What do you like to study best at school?
12.  What is the hardest thing you study at school? 
13.  What do you like to play at school?
14.  What is the name of your principal?
15.  What is your favorite lunch menu?
16.  What time do you finish the school day?
17.  What do you like to do after school.
18.  What do you usually do after school and before supper?. 
19.  What do you usually do after the evening meal? 
20.  What time do you usually go to bed?

GROUP QUESTIONS: (or at least many answers)

1.  What is the average distance students travel
	from home to the school?
2.  Give a typical school day's schedule in your school. 
3.  What do your teachers do that you like best?
4.  What do your teachers do that you like least?

							Page 5 of 5

questions from the information the students will send to each other.  
Teachers should select information they believe will surprise the students 
the most.

1.  What do you think the children in_____________ 	wear to school?

2.  What do you think the children in ______________ eat for breakfast?

3.  How do you think the children travel to the ____________ school?

4.  What do you think the children at the ________________ school like to 

5.  What do you think the children at the _________________ school like 
to play?

6.  What is a modem?


by Kenneth Higdon

     As telecomputing becomes more prevalent in K-12 education, students 
will benefit from the vast resources and information that is available.  
Student will need to learn how to use this resource to maximize the benefit 
it provides.  The following project ideas should provide the experience the 
students need.  These projects are designed for the students of a 
computer science class to use E-mail, FTP, Archie, and listserv discussion 
groups to enhance their learning experience and help them with their 
programming skills. 


     The first project is designed to use E-Mail to conduct a programming 
project between to different sites.  The following could be implemented 
quite easily only requiring both classes to use the same programming 
language.  The below project assumes that Pascal is the programming 
language used but you should be able to modify it for what ever 
programming language that is used.  The idea for this project was 
developed by Cindi K. Schroeder (E-Mail-, a 
computer science teacher in Manhattan, KS, and myself.  


     Description: A group of computer science students at one site
     are assigned a task where each student writes one module of an
     inventory program. The group writes a driver program and then
     combines the modules and driver together to complete the

     Additional modules that sort and search by item name and price
     are written by students at another site. These modules are
     sent over the INTERNET and incorporated into the inventory
     program at site 1. The original inventory program is sent over
     the INTERNET to site 2 and the sort and search modules written
     there are inserted.

     SITE 1

     Using procedure/function headers with pre and post conditions
     and type definitions, a student writes program code for a
     specific module of an inventory program.

     A team of students write a driver program that combines the
     student modules to form an inventory program.

     Students use telecommunications to transfer the inventory
     program to students at another site.

     Students incorporate a program module from another site into
     the current inventory program.

     SITE 2

     Using procedure/function headers with pre and post conditions
     and type definitions, a student writes program code for a sort
     and search module(s) of an inventory program.

     Students use telecommunications to transfer the module to
     students at another site.

     Students incorporate their sort/search module into the base
     program received from site 1.


     Description of the program Site 1: A team of 4 students are to
     write an inventory program. The program asks the user for item
     name, price and quantity. This information is saved to a
     textfile. The program also allows the user to view the entire
     inventory along with total cost per item (item price * item
     quantity). Each team member will write one of the procedures
     below and test its correctness with a stub program. The team
     then writes a driver program that combines the procedures and
     driver together to complete the program. Additional modules
     that sort and search by item name and price will be
     incorporated into the program.

     Description of the program Site 2: A team of students are
     writing the inventory program described above. You are to
     write one sort or search procedure listed below that will
     fulfill the pre/post conditions listed. Write a stub program
     to test the validity of your procedure. This stub will be sent
     over INTERNET to site 1 where it will be integrated into their
     inventory program. The students at site 1 will send their
     original inventory program to you so you can integrate your
     procedure into their program.

     Itemtype = Record
               ItemName : String;
               IntemPrice: Real;
               ItemQuantity: Real;
               ItemTotal; Real;
     End (* record *)

     Itemarr = Array[1..20] of Itemtype;

     Procedure GetInfor (Var Items:Itemarr; Var Count: Integer)
     Pre:  None
     Post: Array of records filled with item name, price, quantity
           and total cost per item

     Procedure SaveInfo (FileItem:Itemarr; NumItem: Integer);
     Pre:  Array of items and number of items in the array
     Post: All records and fields saved on textfile

     Procedure RetreiveInfo(Var GetItem:Itemarr;Var AmtItems:
     Pre:  None
     Post: Array of items filled from reading from textfile

     Procedure Display (DisItem:Itemarr; NItem:Integer)
     Pre:  Array of items
     Post: Display all Field values of all records in columnar form

           on the screen

     Site 2 

     Procedure SortName(List :Itemarr; ListLen: Integer)
     Pre:  Unsorted list and the number of items in the list
     Post: Sorted list by item name

     Procedure SortTotal (List:Itemarr; ListLen: Integer)
     Pre:  Unsorted list and the number of items in the list
     Post: Sorted list by total cost per item

     Procedure SearchName (List:Itemarr; ListLen: Integer)
     Pre: List and number of items in the list
     Post: Price, quantity and total cost per item for desired item


     Procedure SearchPrice (List:Itemarr; ListLen: Integer)
     Pre:  List and number of items in the list
     Post: Price, quantity and total cost per item for all items of 
          a particular cost

     Site 1 (4-5 class hours)
     1. One class period to discuss project design and allow      
        students to plan their module.
     2. One class period for students to write their module and   
        write stubs to test for accuracy.
     3. One period to combine modules into one inventory program  
        and to test and verify.
     4. 10 minutes to upload and send program to site 2.
     5. 10 minutes to download sort/search program module from 2.
     6. One class period to integrate sort/search module (received 
     from site 2) into the inventory program.

     Site 2 (3-4 class hours)
     Same as above but omit step 3

          4 points for individual stub that works
          3 points for group project that works
          2 points for approval/grading of someone else's algorithm
          1 point for your individual algorithm

     Each person will fill out a criteria sheet and staple it to
     his/her algorithm. This algorithm must have the signature of
     the team member who approved it.

     All the team's algorithms will be stapled together as the
     group project packet.

     SUMMARY: The purpose of this activity is to illustrate how
     large programs can be divided into independent sections that
     work on their own and perform just one task. These independent
     sections can be placed together in a main program to allow the
     program to perform many tasks. Most software companies use
     this method when writing programs since it allows for division
     of labor.

     Cindi's class and my class just finish doing a programming project over 
the net.  The result were excellent.  One additional idea that I suggested to 
Cindi was to have the student's at each site do a constructive criticism of 
each others programs.  This turned out to be an excellent teaching tool.

     You could start with a simpler project like having one site do the main 
part of a math quiz program and the other site doing the various math 
modules like addition, division, etc. that would be used in the program.


     The next telecomputing project would be to have the students monitor 
a discussion group for the language you are teaching. The one for pascal 
is  This would provide the students with another 
resource to help them with there programming. It would also let them see 
some practical application of the Internet.  The students could be taught 
how to search the listserv database for programming topics that they are 
currently working on. These previous discussions would provide your 
student real life experience of other programmers.


     The last project would use the FTP and ARCHIE resources of the 
Internet.  The students would be given an assignment where they would 
have to retrieve programming code that they could use in a program that 
they were assigned.  You as the teacher would first have to explore the 
various resource so that find code that would work with your assignment.  
You could either tell the students where the programming code is located.  
If you wanted to provide a little more of a challenge to the students, you 
have them use an ARCHIE site to find where the programming code is 


     These are just few ideas on how you could use the Internet in your 
computer science classroom.  I do know that the E-Mail was very 
beneficial project for the students.  Not only did it give them programming 
experience, it sharpened there writing abilities since they had to critique 
the programs.  They also benefited from the interpersonal relationship that 
results from any interaction between different groups.  If any one that 
reads this would like to get one of the above projects going with another 
site, you could post a request with a teacher discussion group. You could 
also E-Mail me, Kenneth H. Higdon, at khigdon@Tenet.Edu or Cindi at  Currently Cindi is doing a

             Young Children Using Computers for Language
                      Arts and Telecommunication

                          Yolanda Esparza

	The world of technology continues  its never ending quest to move 
us into the technological age.  For educators that means accepting 
computers as tools to enhance the learning opportunities of our students. 
Computers and their peripherals have become the technological tools of 
the 90's.  As an elementary school teacher, who has recently become 
involved with establishing a computer lab at our elementary school, I have 
become curious to seek information about the potential of computers to 
enhance the teaching and learning of language art skills and whether 
telecommunications is appropriate at the early elementary grades.  The 
following is information that I found to support the use of computers in the 
instruction of language arts and the use of telecommunications with young 
	It appears that computer use can integrate the essential 
components of language abilities by providing opportunities for speaking, 
listening, reading, and writing (Roberts, Blakeslee, Brown, & Lenk, 1990).  
There are now available many software programs that provide practice 
with the essential reading skills needed by young students learning to 
read. It is even possible for students to learn phonics, because of the 
ability of computers to produce sound.  Some of these programs are highly 
sophisticated and offer management programs for individual instruction 
according to the student's individual needs.  These types of assisted 
instructional programs address many of the reading and listening skills of 
the language arts instruction for the young elementary child.  It would be 
naive to believe that this is the only way computers provide instruction and 
practice in reading and listening, but it accounts for much of the software 
on the market today.  It is also what most teachers first become familiar 
with. I mention it only to emphasize the ability of computer instruction to 
address the reading and listening skills. 	It is the writing skills, in my 
opinion, that have been enhanced greatly by the use of the computers in 
the educational setting.  It is due primarily to the word processor and the 
features it offers.  A word processor is a software program that allows the 
writer to see what he has typed on the screen and offers editing features 
to make modifying the work much easier.  I know my first graders easily 
learned the basic editing features of Bank Street Writer.  In a study by 
Fisher (1983) teachers reported that students using word processors write, 
edit, and revise more often and students reported they enjoy word 
processing because it makes fixing mistakes much easier.  Marcus (1990) 
reports the word processor teaches about the composing process by 
giving students the control over their written words.
	The dilemma with word processing especially with the young 
elementary student is the skill of keyboarding.  In order to use a word 
processor, it is necessary for a student to know how to use a  keyboard. In 
other words, he must know how to type.   Knowing how to keyboard has 
become an issue for educators.  Some believe it is essential to have 
adequate keyboarding skills before a student can benefit from a word 
processor.  Others feel it is the writing that should be emphasized and not 
the keyboarding skills.  Perhaps because I am a teacher of young children, 
I agree with the latter statement.  If the goal is to get students to express 
themselves by writing, then it makes little difference to me whether they 
peck at the keyboard or use proper finger positions to type.  A study 
comparing fifth graders that were taught keyboarding skills on a regular 
basis for two months with third graders who were not given any 
keyboarding instruction showed that the fifth graders were not typing 
anymore proficiently than the third graders (Kahn & Freyd, 1990).  Another 
study showed that kindergarten students produced meaningful messages 
earlier on the word processor than with pencil and paper (Kahn & Freyd, 
1990).  The mention of these studies is for the purpose of focusing on the 
goal of writing instead of the physical mechanics.  It should not be the 
keyboarding or handwriting skills that are the objective here, but the ability 
to express oneself through the written word that is the prime objective. 
	The speaking component of the language arts skills was 
interestingly addressed by two studies of young children communicating 
by using a cooperative learning approach with and about computers.  A 
study of kindergarten children learning to use Logo found the children's 
talk during practice to be task-related, other-directed, cooperative, and non 
playful (Genishi, 1988).  It appears that the young students were eager to 
share what they knew and seeked information verbally from their peers. 
What a great way to get students to practice verbal communication with a 
real purpose.  In another study by Dickinson (1986) the computer was 
used as a tool for a collaborative writing project with first and second 
graders.  The project forced the students to discuss with their partners 
ideas, opinions, objections and plans for the writing assignment.  The 
project made oral communication a necessary component for 
accomplishing the task.  These are just two ways in which computers have 
provided opportunities for students to practice and expand their speaking 
abilities. 	Computers and appropriate software can enhance the 
teaching and learning of the language art skills for the young elementary 
student as suggested by the sited examples above.  Therefore, I suggest 
since telecommunications uses written language as the method of 
information transfer and young students can begin to communicate with 
written words it is worth investigating the possible advantages it may 
provide for our students.
	First, telecommunications is communication among computers 
across distances by use of computer networks (Roberts, Blakeslee, 
Brown, Lenk, 1990).  The necessary equipment needed to access the 
information source of the future and the communication link to places 
around the world are a computer, a telecommunications software program, 
a modem, and a telephone.  If the goal of education is to prepare our 
children for the future then telecommunications must be a factor in that 
goal (Roberts, Blakeslee, Brown, Lenk, 1990).
	Telecommunications is a language arts tool that gives teachers 
another strategy for increasing the student's communication skills 
(Roberts, Blakeslee, Brown, Lenk, 1990)  Since language arts is all about 
communication skills, telecommunications makeng.  The use of a special 
projectors allows the students to monitor the words transposed to print. 
Telecommunication could begin in this manner with another class and as 
the year progresses small groups of students will likely be able to write 
letters and stories with little help from the teacher to send to their 
electronic buddies.  It is the excitement and joy that telecommunications 
bring to the study of language arts that should not be ignored by any grade 
	We have at our disposal spectacular New Age machines.  The 
	worst we could do-whatever the age of the learner-is use 
        	them for groundless or unimaginative purposes that fail to lead to
        	children's understanding and control.  Used thoughtfully, computers
        	could change traditional visions of classrooms to enhance the
        	children's thinking and learning (Genishi,1988, p.199).


Dickinson, David K. "Cooperation, Collaboration, and a Computer:  
   Intergrating a Computer into First-Second Grade Writing Program." 
   Research in the Teaching of English, Vol. 20 (December 1986), pp. 
Fisher, Glenn. "Word Processing Will it make all kids love to write?" 
   Instructor and Teacher, Vol. 92 (February 1983), pp. 87-8. Genishi, 
Celia. "Kindergarteners and Computers: A Case Study of Six 
   Children." The Elementary School Journal, Vol. 89 (November 
   1988), pp. 185-201.
Holvig, Kenneth C. "Jamming the Phone Lines: Pencils, Notebooks, and 
   Modems." English Journal, Vol. 78 (December 1989), pp. 68-70. Kahn, 
J. and P.Freyd. "Online: A whole Language Perspective on 
   Keyboarding." Language Arts, Vol. 67, No.1 (January 1990), pp.84- 
Marcus, Stephen. "Computers in the Language Arts: from Pioneers to 
   Settlers." Language Arts, Vol. 67, No.5 (September 1990), pp.519-
Roberts, N., G.Blakeslee, M. Brown, and C. Lenk. Integrating 
   Telecommunication into Education. NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990.

                           THE YEAR IN REVIEW 
                          WHAT MATTERS TO YOU?

                Cynthia Zapalac Garrett and Julie McMahon

 Racial Violence, School Finance, Economic Stimulus, NAFTA, National 
Health Care, European Economic Community, Crime ...What does this 
have to do with me? 

 Many educators find it difficult to interest students in current issues 
beyond the "in" brand of jeans and the week's top ten hits.  
Telecommunications may be the key to awakening young people's interest 
in the world around them and to creating an awareness of the accessibility 
of the global village.  With this in mind, the ultimate goal of the "The Year 
in Review -- What Matters to You?"  is to allow students to actively explore 
current world events utilizing the global resources of the Internet.  
However, as is true with any adventure, many other important skills are 
developed along the path of exploration.

 "The Year in Review -- What Matters to You?" is an interdisciplinary 
project involving the Social Studies, Language Arts, and Computer 
Literacy content areas.  Because of its flexibility, the project may be 
effectively utilized in grades 6-12.  Furthermo re, although designed as an 
interdisciplinary unit, it may be delivered successfully in a single subject 
area.  The project time line would need to be adjusted accordingly. The 
final outcome of the unit is the production of a current events newspaper, 
designed and written by the students, entitled "A Year in Review -- What 
Matters to You?".  Telecommunications is employed as the medium to 
"interview" students all over the world and gather source material for the 
news stories the class will write.  Instead of merely reading about world 
events as assigned by a teacher, students are asked to "discover" what 
was truly important to their peers around the world by asking other 
students.  To begin the project, cooperative teams design a survey which 
asks other students to name what they believe are the most important 
events of the current year.  The survey should en courage the contribution 
of events which are important to their school, city/state, and country. After 
the survey is designed, it is then sent out across the Internet to elicit world-
wide response.  Upon receipt of the responses, student teams categorize 
the data, develop a database, and graph the frequency of response 
themes.  Finally, the students use the survey responses and the research 
capabilities of the Internet to create world events newspaper articles. 

	Although the overall goal of the project is to enhance student 
awareness of world events, several other educational objectives are 
stressed during the course of study.  These specific objectives are listed 

*  The learner will design a public opinion survey. 
*  The learner will post the survey on Internet bulletin boards and
*  The learner will monitor e-mail, save, print and reply to responses daily. 
*  The learner will compile and code the results of the survey. 
*  The learner will create a database of the survey responses. 
*  The learner will use the Internet to research the events described
   in the survey responses.
*  The learner will create a newspaper article based on the research


Day 1 & 2 (Social Studies Class):

	The teacher leads a class discussion of basic survey design. 
Students analyze and discuss various surveys which have been collected 
from newspapers and magazine sources.  Finally, the class develops 
criteria for the World Events Survey to be distributed  across the Internet.

Day 3 (Computer Lab):

	Students work in cooperative groups to design the World Events 
Survey, using the criteria developed previously in Social Studies class. 
The class will select the best survey design from all those developed by 
the cooperative groups, and that survey will
 be posted on the Internet.  

	An example of the survey posted by our classes at Stafford Middle 
School and Wharton Junior High School is shown below.  Note that a 
response deadline is given, which allowed two weeks for students to 
respond to the survey from the date of the original p osting. 

//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Hello World!

	We are 8th grade middle school students from Texas and would 
like your help with a class project.  We would like to create a database 
which contains the most important world events from the past year.  Then, 
we will research the important world events and create newspaper articles 
based on our findings.  Our classes are willing to share these reports with 
those who reply to our survey. 

	If you can help us, please answer the following survey by April 26, 
1993.  E-mail the results to:

Thank you from:

	Computer Literacy  Classes		Computer Literacy Classes 
	Stafford Middle School			Wharton Junior High 
	School 	Stafford, TX  USA		Wharton, TX  USA



1)   How old are you?

2)	Are you a male or a female?

3)	Where so you live?  (City, State, Country)

4)	What is the name of your school?

5) 	What was the most important event that happened in your school 
during the past year? (Please explain briefly why you feel this event was 
so important)

6)	What was the most important event that happened in your city or 
state during the past year? (Please explain briefly why you feel this event 
was so important)

7) 	What was the most important event that happened in your country 
during the past year?  (Please explain briefly why you feel this event was 
so important)


	Examples of places to post survey:

	-KidSphere (previously KidsNet) Internet BBS, 	
	address Kidsphere-Request@VMS.CIS.PITT.EDU

	-KidCafe LISTSERV, subscription address 

	Tip:  To get more international responses, have your students 
		 "cruise the KidCafe".  Have students mail the survey to
           	international students who are looking for penpals. These 
		students are anxious to write and the survey is a good  basis 
		for developing a pen-friend relationship.

Days 4 - 17 (Computer Lab)

	Cooperative learning groups take turns monitoring the e-mail for 
responses to the survey.  Students should save the results to a file, print 
the results, and distribute them to the social studies teacher. Students 
should also acknowledge responses via e-mail.

Days 12-17 (Social Studies Class)

	Students should begin to discuss and categorize responses by 
themes.  Then, the class designs a Key Word Code structure to aid in 
consistent data entry for the computerized database.  An example of a 
Key Word code structure is shown below for the most im portant events 
	   Survey Response                 Key Word

	Presidential Election              Politics
	Rodney King Trial                  Racial Tension or Police Brutality 
	Toronto Blue Jay's win 	   World Series Sports
Day 18 (Language Arts)

	Teacher should discuss format and criteria for the newspaper 
article as well as the proper documentation techniques for 
telecommunications sources.  Students should select research topics for 
their newspaper article, based on the survey responses. 

Day 18 (Computer Lab)

	Students and teacher design a database that would be appropriate 
for entering the survey results.  The database should utilize the keyword 
codes developed in social studies class. 

Day 19 - 21 (Computer Lab)

	Two activities will be going on simultaneously in the computer lab (if 
as in most schools, access to the modem is limited).  Students should be 
placed in pairs to work on database entry, having one student enter the 
results while the other checks for acc uracy.  During this time, each set of 
partners can have a chance to use the Internet to research their article 

*Examples of Internet Resources for Research*

Telnet Sites:

		  This site has a large variety of information including many
            science databases, the geographic name server, and access to 
            many libraries.

UMD Info Database - or

		 This site has a gopher system available which will allow 
		 students to perform Veronica searches and WAIS based 
		searches. From the main menu of the site, government 
		information such as  the CIA World Fact Book and economic 
		data are available.

Cleveland Freenet - or 
		There is a wealth of information available at this site.  For 
		 the research project, students may be interested in the on-
		line access to USA Today.

FTP Sites:

Lyric Server -

	This site contains a wealth of information on music and would 
	be appropriate for students researching topics related to music.

(CARL) Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries - or
           Online database, book reviews, magazine fax
            delivery service.  On-line encyclopedia.
            Access to library catalogs.  Access to ERIC.

Earthquake Info.-  or
            Seismographic Net Info.

Handicap/Medical Site -  or
            General medical information and information for specific
            diseases and conditions.

World News -
            World news (usenet newsgroups) and court opinions

Day 22 (Computer Lab) 

	Students use the database to create graphs and charts which 
	represent frequency of response themes.  On-line research may 
	continue if necessary.

Days 19-22 (Language Arts)

	Students write articles for the newspaper based on research 

Days 23-25 (Computer Lab)

	Students use desktop publishing software (or a word processor) 
	to create the final newspaper, "The Year in Review - What Matters
           to You?"


	Teachers are encouraged to utilize this project description as a 
framework for their own world events research units.  Each school has 
slightly different computer lab access and team structure, therefore the 
project can be adapted to suit each school's n eeds.  Parts of the project 
may need to be omitted or enhanced to emphasize a particular teacher's 
objectives.  However, this project teaches many valuable research skills 
and allows students to think critically about the events happening in their 
world.  Through incorporating different activities, and different disciplines, 
students see a variety of views of the same problem which enhances 
lateral thinking.  Do you need a fresh way to teach old topics -- database, 
current affairs, journalism, desktop pub lishing?  Why not try "A Year in 
Review -- What Matters to You?".

by Sue Vasser <>;
3rd grade teacher
Austin, Texas 78731

RATIONALE: With the overwhelming evidence that interactive activities in 
education produce better learning, I wanted to incorporate several facets 
of this style of learning into my Social Studies project.  It is my belief that 
with only a little modification, teachers from others grade levels would be 
able to adapt this lesson idea.

SUBJECT AND AUDIENCE:  Social Studies (Communities), 3rd grade

1. Students will describe how their community is similar and different from 
other communities in the United States. 
2. Students will simulate the growth and development or decline of a city 
or small town.
3. Students will cite factors relating to a population's growth or decline.
4. Students will gather data from different communities in the U.S. to assist 
in their research.
5. Students will relate their findings to the cities they have connected with 
through the internet.

MATERIALS NEEDED: Computer with hard drive, printer, modem and 
software, access to the internet, and SimCity (software program by Maxis), 
and classes around the United States willing to contribute information 
about their community  through e-mail.

PRIOR KNOWLEDGE: Students should become familiar with the 
computer program, SimCity. In this program they will need to be able to 
maneuver around so as to construct their cities and deal with disasters.  
They will experience the need to make ,save and spend money wisely. 
There is plenty of opportunity for teachers to expand this program into the 
areas of math and science as well as social studies. Students will also 
need to feel comfortable logging onto the internet and the tasks necessary 
to accomplish the task.  For this particular unit students will need to be 
able to use e-mail, the Geographic Name Server, the Underground 
Weather Service. and the World Factbook.

TIMELINE: 3 weeks to establish prior knowledge and teacher preparation 
and 3 weeks to complete assignments.

TEACHER PREPARATION:  Create an invitation to participate in the 
project, and post the invitation on matchmaker with the appropriate 
guidelines as outlined by two articles presently posted on 
Matchmaker,"Keys to Successful Telecomputing" by Al Rogers, Yvonne 
Andres, Mary Jacks, The FrEDMail Foundation, Published in The 
Computing Teacher, May, 1990, Page 25ff and "Tips for Successful 
Telecommunications Projects" by B.J. and J.A. Dodge.  Both of these are 
great. Through this preparation, I would hope to find classes from several 
different kinds of communities such as farming, mining, and port 
communities.  The teacher should learn the program SimCity City and be 
prepared to teach it as a large group instruction. Later students will break 
into groups for their own special endeavors. 

1.Geographic Name Server  telnet 3000 
2.Underground Weather -telnet 3000 
3.World Factbook-Telnet
4.Matchmaker (News and Conferences)

1. Several weeks prior to starting the unit post the call for collaboration.
2. Teach the students how to log on to the internet and perhaps let them 
practice e-mailing some classes in nearby schools.
3.  Prepare the students to use the software program, SimCity.
4. Begin the unit. Students will be divided into three groups; mining, 
farming, and ports. These groups will brainstorm the kind of information 
they would like to collect from their new internet friends and then make 
contact with the participating schools respectively. Hopefully, the students 
will in turn use the data  and information they are collecting to help them 
make some good decisions when building their different communities.  
Each group will be constructing the kind of community they were assigned 
to Students will keep a log or journal of each day's activities and record 
pertinent information gathered either from telnet sites, e-mail or their 
SimCity program. Each group will at the end of 3 weeks report their 
findings in a class presentation, using charts and graphs showing data 
collected and success or failure of their community and tell why.

	As a part of each day, I will present general but basic information 
about these three types of communities. Our textbook has a lot to offer in 
terms of  basic information.  Each day students will also check the 
Underground Weather Service (telnet 3000) to 
record the temperature of their 'sister city' or one nearby.  In the beginning 
students will telnet to 3000 to access the 
Geographic Name Server.  Using this they will record longitude and 
latitude, population etc. from this site.of their sister city. This information 
will be used in their class report.

	Students will also telnet to use the World 
Factbook.  Using this will take some teacher guidance at the 3rd grade 
level. From this site information about specific ports, mines and farming 
regions around the world are available.

	The conclusion of this project will be the presentation of the group 
reports.  If students show reasons why changes took place and can 
explain or justify their choices when building their community, as well as 
give first hand information from the internet city, I will consider the project 

1. Display a world may showing location of cities that we are "typing' to .
2. Write stories whose settings are in our different communities.
3. Write a song about our kind of community.
4. Draw a diagram of of each simulated city.
5. Read stories and books set in each of the communities. (A Paradise 
Called Texas by Janice Shefelman)
6. Write letters to the internet cities explaining what we are learning and 
share our final data collection with them

The students will be personally involved in being city planners of the 
future.  They will use information gathered from their internet friends and 
their communities to make good decisions in creating the simulated cities. 
In  this process students will use many skills and resources from all 
classes as they learn some new and valuable computing skills.

Software Program Information:
SimCity, 3rd grade through adult,
Maxis Software
Two Theatre Square, Suite 230,
Orinda, CA 94563-3346


by Emil Biga


k-12 mac-lab care-takers and teachers with some knowledge 
of the internet


I am a teacher sitting at my desk wondering where I would find 
the time to write an application that would help me in my 
classes.  I also know that others are probably thinking the 
same thoughts, and that one of those people might actually 
write a similar application, but how would I find time to find 

Or I am a network supervisor and the users of the Mac-lab are 
loading on and removing applications from the hard drives on 
the networked computers.  Someone could and should write 
shareware applications to help me manage the network.  Where 
could I find time to find such resources?

Establishing section:

You will now find out by to teaching your students how to 
access a newsreader to find the availability and brief 
descriptions of new applications.  These applications range 
over the entire spectrum of applications that creative Mac 
programming minds can produce. Many are just what you may 
be looking for--even if you do not realize that now.  Your 
students will also be taught where to get the applications, and 
then store the applications in the hard drives of the computer 


The two newsgroups that I frequent are comp.sys.mac.announce 
and comp.sys.mac.digest

Both groups are moderated so the information is current and 
stays in the newsgroup for only a few days.  

The comp.sys.mac.announce newsgroup contains announcements 
that are of interest to the Mac community as interpreted by 
the moderator.  The latest virus released on the Mac 
community will be announced here, and in a few days, the 
updated virus protectors will be posted.  For those virus 
protection  applications which need only to have a few lines of 
information changed, that information will appear in this 
newsgroup.  With those virus protection applications that are 
redone, the ftp site will be given.  

For a particular example, on 27 Apr 1992 13:43:58, Peter Dodd 
from the University of Texas at Austin posted a note that a 
free Laboratory Administration Utilities package was 
available from Western Australia University CS-Department. 
One of the utilities was called BootPass.  BootPass is a simple 
password protection system extension which can protect 
certain applications from tampering.

The other newsgroup, comp.sys.mac.digest, contains zero to 
five daily digests of Mac-related questions, comments, 
thoughts, and new applications. Every digest is less than a 
week old.  They are also archived at SUMEX-AIM.Stanford.EDU, 
in the info-mac directory, if you miss them in the 
comp.sys.mac.digest newsgroup. SUMEX-AIM.Stanford.EDU is one 
of the ftp sites that you can download virus protection 
applications, especially the freeware Disinfectant. 

The following is the list of the many subdirectories in the 
info- mac directory, each of may contain hundreds of 
applications. Monitoring this list is a time-consuming task, 
which students could enjoy doing.

      gif (compressed pictures and applications to view them)
      qt (quick time movies)
   card (HyperCard stacks)
   comm(unication applications)
   cp (computer programs)
   da (desk accessories)
   demo(nstrations of applications)
      csmp  (com-sci mac programmers digest)
      im    (general questions and answers digest with 
       of files added to info-mac archives)
      tb    (tidbits archive)
            (new additions to the above digests are available on      
             comp.sys.mac.digest newsgroup)
      vapor (vaporware archive)
   ex(tras  applications that don't fit any where else)
   font  (fonts)
      tt (true type fonts)
   lang(uages computer languages)
      ad (after dark files)

One of the comments posted on Mon, 27, Apr 92  22:03 EST by 
Jerome A. Levin, from the Medical College of Ohio, describes 
Hard Drive Updating software.   He wrote that there is an 
application called RevRDist that will compare every file on the 
Hard Drive with a reference folder, when the Mac starts up. If 
any extra files are found, they will be placed in a Junk Folder, 
which can be placed anywhere and will be discarded at 
specified intervals.  If any extensions or control panels are 
replaced, the client Mac will reboot when the process is done.  
This can also be used to add or update any files on the client 
Macs by placing them in the reference folder.  Of course the 
caveat is that this will slow the initial startup process and 
put heavy traffic on the network when the Macs are turned on 
at the beginning of each day, but this application will save the 
Lab staff (us) time.

How can this all be accomplished?

Pick a group of students who enjoy working in the Lab.  Have 
them monitor the newsgroups and keep electronic notes on the 
applications and announcements that are current for that week.  
At weekly meetings of these various students (sooner if there 
is a virus alert), an agreement will be made as to which 
applications look inviting.  Let the students go to a ftp-site 
and download the applications to an account at your 
cooperating university. From there, the students will download 
the application for distribution.  They will play with the 
application and return to the group with comments on its use.  
These comments will lead to an evaluation as to the 
usefulness and appropriateness of the application, and the 
application will be put on your network or it will be saved for 
more thought, or you will decide not to put it on the network.

Not only will students be learning a process, they will be 
freeing you from the monitoring and acquisition of 
applications.  This time can be spent on the less mundane tasks 
we all have to do. 


by Becky Larson, Jody McQuillan, & Barb Andersen

	The study of astronomy is found in upper elementary 
through middle level science classes.  Through 
interdisciplinary activities within science, language arts and 
telecommunications, astronomy may be enhanced.  
Telecommunications can be used to enhance the scientific 
method approach to learning because of its motivational 
interactive platform.  Not only can we measure, predict, 
hypothesize and communicate within our own class, but we can 
also do the same with distant classrooms.  Language arts and 
telecommunications enhances astronomy by allowing the 
learner to ask, seek and find, and interact with his/her own 
ideas on what astronomy is.  

SCIENCE  	Within the science classes, the students, using the 
scientific method, will observe and measure the location of 
the constellations or specific planets at their own site and 
through analysis and computations predict the location of the 
constellations and planets at a different site school.  Students 
will be using email, telnet, and ftp internet resources to 
accomplish these activities. 
	To find a school to collaborate with, a posting can be 
placed on SpaceMet, an internet telnet resource, KidsNet, or 
KidProj, both Kids are listserv groups.  To connect to 
SpaceMet, use the telnet address,  When at the SpaceMet main menu, 
choose the Bulletin submenu, within this submenu choose 
(B)ulletin Boards in Massachusetts, within this submenu 
choose SpaceMet/Physics Forum, within this submenu choose 
the file educator.lst.  At the beginning, there will be directions 
as to posting in this list or you can scroll through the list 
looking for schools you might contact yourself.  To subscribe 
to KidsNet use the address,, 
leave the subject line blank and in the body type, Subscribe  
KidsNet  Your full name.  To send correspondence use the 
address,, type your request in the 
body of the message.  To subscribe to KidProj use the address, 
listserv@ndsuvm1.bitnet, leave the subject line blank and in 
the body type, Subscribe  KidProj  Your full name.  To send 
correspondence use the address, KidProj@ndsuvm1.bitnet, type 
your request in the body of the message.  Science students 
using email will communicate their astronomy predictions to 
other students from at least one other school.
	Since weather can be a limiting factor, students can 
access current weather data and conditions from Weather 
Underground, a telnet resource site, or WX-TALK: Weather, a 
listserv group.  To connect to Weather Underground use the 
address, 3000 or 3000.  
To subscribe to WX-TALK use the address, 
listserv@uiucvmd.bitnet, leave the subject line blank and in 
the body type, Subscribe  WX-TALK  Your full name.  To send 
correspondence use the address, WX- TALK@uiucvmd.bitnet, 
type your request in the body of the message.
	To access information concerning the different planets, 
Spacelink can be used.  To connect to Spacelink, use the telnet 
address, or  When it 
asks for user-id type: newuser.  Password is also newuser.  
When at the NASA Spacelink main menu choose Classroom 
Materials, within this submenu choose Astronomy Information, 
within this submenu choose Our Solar System at a Glance, 
within this submenu choose the file Mercury.  This file 
describes Mercury's attributes and location on the horizon at 
dusk and dawn.  Currently, information on the constellations 
has not been found at telnet or ftp sites on the Internet.  
Astronomy textbooks and reference books from your own 
library or the public library may be of assistance.  Another 
possible contact may be your local university physics 
department and/or local planetarium.
	To implement and verify the predictions of this activity 
the students will need a protractor, sextant and a compass.  
Use the compass to locate magnetic north.  For the lower to 
middle level grades, a giant protractor can be made.  By placing 
it on the ground, the students will stand in the middle facing 
magnetic north and turn clockwise to obtain the location, in 
degrees, of the planet or constellation in reference to 
magnetic north.  To find the location, in degrees, of the 
constellations and planets above the horizon, students will 
utilize the sextant.  Predictions can be obtained by 
determining the longitude and latitude of the sister site, as 
well as time of observation and inserting these figures into a 
software application such as Voyager 1.0 or MacAstro.  These 
figures will render the right ascension and declination of the 
particular constellation or planet under investigation.  If 
weather conditions do not allow synchronous viewing by 
participating schools, a factor of .986 degrees per day needs to 
be added to the initial right ascension figure.

	The study of astronomy will cross discipline lines using 
the language arts curriculum to enhance the science curriculm.  
While learning about astronomy, the student will have the 
opportunity to gain insight into astronomers of the past, and 
some possible origins of the constellations.   A character 
online, through email,  would be a sounding board for students 
to communicate their ideas to and be a disseminator facts and 
information.   We felt the idea of our students being able to 
ask questions, share ideas about constellations and planets, 
and explore possible mythological origins of the solar system 
is a very powerful way to initiate discussion and aid in 
student communication and language skills.

	THE PLAN: for Language arts integration

Your online character could be recruited from a planetarium, 
university physics department or interested high school 

	Third-Fourth grades : Galileo Project	

	After being given the initial lessons on the solar system, 
and being introduced to Galileo, one the first astronomers, the 
students would be asked to write a letter to him.  They could 
brainstorm in small groups some "important" questions they 
could ask Galileo.  The teacher could direct them toward 
questions like : "Where did your ideas come from?  What did 
you to make your telescope?"  During this time the student's 
questions could be compiled and through group consensus and 
electronically mailed to him.    Use groups of three students 
per "letter" to compose, edit, and scribe (Type in this case).  
The students then will receive messages back from Galileo 
that may contain a few old english terms, and of course as 
accurate information compiled by our team.  We will continue 
to "communicate" in this way through out the year building our 
writing, spelling, editing, and collaboration skills.  The 
discussions will increase in information exchange as we learn 
more about the solar system and planets from our other 
electronic sites.

          Fifth and Sixth Grades:  Ask Starmann

	After being given the initial lessons on the solar system, 
and being introduced to a fictional character named Starmann.  
The students would be asked to write letters, asking questions 
about their most recent learning about the stars and planets.   
They could brainstorm "important" questions  in small groups.  
The teacher could direct them toward concepts and ideas that 
need further exploration.  Starmann may ask them more 
questions than they ask him.  He would communicate in a very 
sci-fi futuristic tone.  The language arts infusion would 
incorporate the writing skills and highlight the use of clear 
communication and character development.

	Seventh and Eighth Grades: Mythology and the Stars

	After being given the initial lessons on the solar system, 
and being introduced to mythological Greek characters that are 
found in the sky, the students would be asked to write a letter 
to their favorite astrological cluster.  They could agree upon 
the possible character to discuss for the week and then write 
a letter to that character at a Heavenly address.  IE: Zeus at 
Hera's Palace,  Mount Olympus.  The students would be asked to 
compose possible myths about why the stars were placed in 
the sky.  They could also ask for possible hints.  This could be 
used with word bank lists from actual myths about a 
particular firmament placed in the sky.  IE: The story of Icarus 
which contains these words: wax-wing- melted-ocean-flew-
wishes-warning-sun-capture-chariot-Zeus.  Now construct a 
story using these words about the creation of the constellation 
Icarus.  The main goal of this extension to the stars, would be 
for short story fiction writing, again incorporating skills of 
communication, editing and writing into science and space 
exploration.  These activities can be adapted to a variety of 
grade levels with minor alterations.  The thrust of our ideas 
focuses on the students' realization that information is no 
longer a limiting factor in our experiences.  The advent of 
telecommunications has allowed for the expansion of 
interactive learning, cooperative thinking and global 
awareness.  Students are now able to tread where no student 
has trod before.



 5 MAY 92

             Our society is entering the Information Age, a time in 
which information is the raw material and communication its 
means of production.  The transition from an industrial to an 
information society is being attributed to the increased 
availability of affordable technology such as computers, VCRs, 
and Video Cameras.  The effects of technological innovation on 
business, government, and industry are paralleled by dramatic 
changes in the physical, social, and life sciences.  More than 
many other areas of study and application, mathematics is 
being taken in new directions.  Modern technology has caused a 
shift in what mathematics a person needs to know.  Yet, in the 
midst of this change, the teaching of mathematics has 
remained relatively unchanged.   

             We can not continue relying on rote memorization of 
rules as enough to prepare students for productive, fulfilling 
lives in the Information Age.  The National Council of Teachers 
of Mathematics have noticed the need for change and have 
developed the Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School 
Mathematics.  The following lesson plan, is an idea I had that 
is aimed at accomplishing at least two of the five goals.  The 
first goal states that students should learn to value 
mathematics through numerous, varied learning experiences 
that illuminate the cultural, historical, and scientific 
evolution of mathematics.  The second goal states that 
students should become confident in their mathematical 

             The following lesson plan involves the study the 
evolution of mathematics with emphasis on the various people 
and cultures that shaped it.  Students need to be aware of the 
variety of contributions each culture has made to 
mathematics, especially the non-European cultures such as 
Africa or Asia.  Our history texts frequently leave out the 
contributions of non-European cultures and women.  Racial 
barriers are hard to break down; blacks, Hispanics, and women 
are often led to believe they can't succeed in mathematics, so 
why even try.  By giving all students a chance to study the 
contributions of past cultures, I believe students will not only 
learn to value mathematics and its relationships to other 
disciplines, but become confident in their own mathematical 
abilities.  By understanding how mathematics evolved through 
the different disciplines, students will develop an 
appreciation for mathematical skills in today's world.  

        CONTENT AREA/TOPIC:  Mathematics History:  The study of 
mathematicians and their cultures with the use of 

        GRADE LEVEL:7-10

        OBJECTIVES:  Students will...

1.  Learn how to research facts related to a historical period, 
culture, or topic.
2.  Learn how to collect, organize, store, and retrieve 
information using telecommunications.  
3.  Discuss the information obtained on past mathematicians 
and their contributions.
4.  Learn how to communicate with a distant audience via 
5.  Learn how to engage in electronic transfer of information.
6.  Develop descriptive writing skills.
7.  Broaden cultural experiences by learning about people and 
cultures from other geographic locations.
8.  Learn how to upload and download text files.
9.  Learn how to create and enter information into a data base.
10.  Practice their word processing skills.

             Prefer some previous experience with using database 
and word processing software.  Otherwise, the teacher should 
allow another week for developing basic skills.


             Software:  Word processing software such as 
FrEdWriter or WordStar that can be used for uploading and 
sending to other computers.  It is easier though to use 
integrated softare that includes word processing, data base, 
and telecommunications capability all in one such as Apple 
Works or Microsoft Works.  This would be better since you will 
be using all three applications.  

             Hardware:  Internal or External modem, a telephone 
line, access to Internet (contact your local college or 
university for access), an IBM PC, Apple II, or Macintosh 

1.  During the research and data collection phases of the 
lesson, students will need intermittent access to the 
computers to perform online searches of libraries.  These 
libraries should be in the local area, if your school does not 
have access to online libraries or services such as BRS or 
Dialog Information Services, Inc. which provide downloading of 
full text.
2.  Students will need access to computers for development 
and transmission of electronic messages to the Cleveland 
Free-Net (telnet to,,, or

1.  Gather software and resource materials.
2.  Make group assignments.  Suggest groups of four.
3.  At least 4 weeks before starting the project, you will need 
to contact the Cleveland Free-Net and register as a new user.  
Once you have received approval, your ID and password, you 
will need to go to the Academy One directory and enter your 
class as an Academy One school.  Next, print a list of the non-
US partners identified in the Academy One 

1.  Motivating Activity:  As a whole class, have students 
pretend they live in an Indian village like the one in the movie 
"Dances With Wolves".  Have the students discuss how or why 
they would use math.  For example, how would they barter with 
other people or villages.  How would they calculate time.  Who 
are these people who devise theories or methods about 
numbers.  Ask the students to think about how people became 
involved in mathematics hundreds of years ago.  Were there any 
mathematicians who were women?  Did other cultures such as 
Africa or Latin America have mathematicians like Einstein?

2.  Introduce the lesson by stating that the object of the 
project is to collect information on mathematicians from 
around the world throughout history.  To prevent duplication, 
you may want to provide a list of possible mathematicians and 
let them choose those individuals they want to research.  The 
students will first start by researching information about 
mathematicians that we have in our Libraries.  The children 
will collect preliminary information by accessing Online 
Library Catalogs to develop a list of books or other references 
that have information on mathematicians.  Remind the students 
that many mathematicians don't have books written about 
them, so they will have to research books on mathematics 
history or mathematicians in general.  Encyclopedias and 
magazines may even have some information.  The teacher can 
either obtain the books for the students or let the students get 
the necessary books/information on their own.  This depends 
on the age of the students.
3.  After the students have collected preliminary information 
on the mathematicians, have them discuss what information 
they want to include in the data base.  Here is a selection of 
data base fields you might list on the chalkboard for your 
students to consider:  Last Name, First Name, Date of Birth, 
Date of Death, Place of Birth, Nickname, Nationality, 
Occupation(s), Known for, and Interesting Facts.  When your 
students have decided what fields the data base should 
include, have each group design and sketch out possible data 
record layouts on the chalkboard.  Once the design of the data 
base is chosen, set it up on the computer for them using your 
data base software.  Print out a blank data record, and make 
photocopies for the students to use for information gathering.

4.  After the groups have filled in their data records, print out 
the records and have each group quality check the other groups' 
records.  Once the data base is complete, have each team brief 
what interesting information they found and what, if any, 
difficulty they had finding information about certain 
individuals.  Pinpoint on a map where each mathematician was 
from and discuss any cultures such as Blacks or Asians that 
they did not have any information about?  If so, discuss why 
there is no information on these cultures?
5.  The next step is to separate the list of Academy One 
schools among the groups.  Their task is to send an email 
message that explains their project and outlines what they 
discovered during their research and the class discussion.  
They are to ask the school for information on mathematicians 
from their country to be added to the data base.  A copy of the 
data base information will be sent to them once all the 
information has been compiled from around the world.  Each 
student in the group should write at least one of the email 
6.  Once all the international information is added to the data 
base, have each group discuss what additional information they 
found.  What conclusions can they draw?  

7.  Have each of the groups compose email messages 
expressing their appreciation for the additional information 
and the findings/reactions of the class about the project.  Each 
group should send a copy of the data base to each school they 
corresponded with during the project.


1.  A follow on project could be to publish the information for 
other mathematics classes.
2.  You might want the students to interview professionals in 
other disciplines such as business, medicine, arts, agriculture, 
crime control and prevention, and science use mathematics.  
The students can interview professionals found in the 
professional Online Discussion Groups (often found in services 
such as USENET and LISTSERV) that are available on the 
Internet or Bitnet.  This will impress on the students the 
importance of math in the future as well as the past.


by Shirley Hasche
Jolene Langan
Barbara Renkenberger

     The number of students that are not graduating from 
traditional schools is increasing.  We, as educators, need to 
find a way to make these at risk students become contributing 
members of society.  As the computer becomes a vital part of 
the future job market, we need to make sure that at risk 
students are empowered with the knowledge of computers so 
that they may join the next generation of productive thinkers.

    SCANS Goals
    According to the Department of Labor, SCANS (Secretary's 
Commission of Achieving Necessary Skills), there is a three-
part foundation that students need to have in order to find and 
hold jobs.  The first one is the need for Basic Skills which 
deals with reading, writing, performing arithmetic and 
mathematical operations, listening and speaking.  The second 
one is Thinking Skills which deals with thinking creatively, 
making decisions, solving problems, visualizing, knowing how 
to learn, and reasoning.  The final part is Personal Qualities 
that display responsibility, self-esteem, sociability, self-
management, integrity and honesty.  Infusing 
telecommunications into the education of at risk students will 
help achieve SCANS goals.  

The Project
    The at risk students attending two high schools will be 
involved in telecommunicating with each other as they learn to 
use the computer skills needed for their future.  Computers 
will be integrated into every class that the at risk students 
attend and will be used for homework, extra credit projects 
and classroom work.  The introduction to computer use will 
start with these different levels.    
Level 1:  One-Way Electronic Mail
Level 2:  Online - Participative (Bulletin Board)
Level 3:  Online - Full Interactive Communications
Level 4:  Online - Interactive and Planning

E-Mail and Bulletin Boards
     There will be a bulletin board and E-mail system set up so 
that both schools can link up.  Students will start by sending 
surveys to each other about cars, sports and other topics of 
interest.  They will be required to report in their English and 
Speech classes the results.  The bulletin board will be 
designed as a place where they can relax, chit chat and 
compare problems. By using the bulletin board, the students 
will be improving their listening (reading) and speaking skills 
as well as learning proper social skills (avoid flaming) and 
relating to peers in a positive ways.  This will also improve 
their self-esteem.

File Transter Protocal Sites (FTP)
     The fine arts will be the FTP Archives site Lyric and 
Discograph (FTP where the students will be able to 
get information about music, it's lyrics, and information about 
the classical  and popular musicians.  The students will be 
assigned a song, composer or band and will have to research 
and gather data about that time period.  The students will have 
to do a report about their topic for Social Studies about the 
mood of society in that time frame.  The use of computers in 
this area will aid in the development of reading, writing, 
gathering data, decision  making, and creative thinking.

Telnet Sites
     The students will work on the computer for math class by 
developing story problems.  The students will be given zip 
codes for the 24 cities that contain professional football 
leagues. Each school will receive 12 zip codes.  The students 
must create two step word problems that have the zip code as 
the answer. They will exchange the problems and then solve 
the ones sent to them. They will have to use the Geographic 
Name Server (telnet 3000 or telnet 3000)  to discover the teams that they had 
correct.  This will help in the acquisition of such skills as 
performing arithmetic and mathematical operations, problem 
solving, reasoning and cooperative learning.

The spinoff from this Level 3:  
     Full Interactive Communication will be to use other telnet 
sites for a host of integrated activities that the at risk 
students can identify with as relevant to their lives.  For 
example, in the area of Science, the students will be able to 
use telnet sites to:  find out the weather in all parts of the 
world (Weather Underground:  telnet or telent, to check natural disasters that are happening, to 
get updated on ecology, and to do comparison shopping of 
staple food items of our global village.
     The at risk students also need to have the experiences of 
art and P.E.  Telecommunications will provide exposure to 
ASCII Art which will provide humor, creativity, and positive 
self-expression.  the P.E. experience will include building 
manipulative dexterity, improving left and right brained 
crossover activities, and eye/hand coordination.  

    The use of telecommunications by at risk students will help 
them to change from being possible dropouts to becoming 
positive, enthusiastic members of society.  By including 
telecommunications within the education of at risk students, 
we are adding to their education, the goals that SCANS 
demands for productive members of society.
     The addresses given were current at the time of writing, 
but could change in the future.  Teachers need to use their own 
experiences to explore other sites and develop other uses of 
telecommunications. They need to expand the suggestions 
above to teach students in a new way which is exciting to both 
the teacher and students.


Drucker, P.F., (1992). Performance, accountability, and results. 
     The American School Board, March. A4-A11.

Frymier, J.R., (1989). The phi delta kappa study of students at 
     risk. Phi Delta Kappan, October. 142-146.

Gross, B. (1990). Here dropouts drop in and stay! Phi Beta 
     Kappan. April. 625-627.

Kagan, D.M., (1990). How schools alienate students at risk: a 
     model for examining proximal classroom variables. 
     Educational Psychologist, Vol.25, 2: 105-125. 

Kagan, D.M., (1988) How do teacher define students at risk? 
The Clearning House / AEIS / ASU. Vol.61, 7: 320-324. 
     Mailing address Arizona Educational Information System 
                     Bureau of Educational Research and Services 
                     Tempe College of Education
                     Arizona Stat University
                     Tempe, AZ 85287-2611

U.S. Government Department of Labor. (1991). What work 
requires of schools / a scans report for america 2000. 
U.S.Government Printing Office. Telephone 1-800-788-SKILL 
for a free publication.


by Arlene Haynes and Karen Spellman

     Telecomputing began at Oak Valley School as a result of 
receiving a classic Macintosh from a school community 
promotion in partnership with a local adopt-a-school partner.  
The capabilities of the computer were quite limited and little 
appropriate software was available to meet the needs of the 
students.  In addition, the staff was not familiar  with the 
Macintosh and would need training.    Utilizing  the site-based 
management budget monies, the necessary hardware was 
ordered to  make  the  low functioning Classic Macintosh into  
a  21st  century telecommunication center for our school of 
290 students.   Thus the beginnings of telecomputing at Oak 
Valley School.  

     Knowing that the equipment would be in the building and in 
place sometime during the first semester of the school year, 
plans were needed for the training and implementation of this 
system.  The principal and a second teacher decided to take a 
course and learn more in-depth about telecommunication.  As a 
result of the university course, the training,  and research that 
was done,  the implementation of  telecomputing became a 
reality through the following projects.

     The second graders began preparing early in the school year 
for telecommunications.  They  became familiar with the 
keyboard and a few basic  programs.   It  did not take long for  
the  children  to  become comfortable  using  the computer 
every day to practice and  extend  the skills they were 
learning.  Portable,  battery-operated keyboards  were used to 
familiarize the children with the keyboard.   The use of  these 
keyboards allowed the students to practice locating the main 
keys without monopolizing the computer for keyboard 
instruction.   The  computer itself remained available for work 
on assigned programs.   The children quickly learned the 
location of the keys needed to type their names and to  run a 
basic program.   Practice on these keyboards was assigned  to 
the students as a learning center activity.

     After the students had a chance to become familiar with 
the keyboard, the concept of telecommunications via a 
computer was introduced.  A public domain program, KidMail, 
simulated an actual telecommunications situation.  This 
simulated program required account names and passwords.  
Another class of second graders became involved.  Partners 
were assigned and the children began corresponding.  Each 
child typed  their own letters, with some help from the 
teacher.  The letters were short reflecting their age and 
writing ability.  Instead of sending these messages over the 
phone lines, the disks were exchanged by hand (sneaker mail as 
it is called) and the children read their partners letters and 
responded.  This correspondence continued for several months.  

     As a culminating activity, a sixth grade teacher, second 
grade teacher and principal began collaborating on how the 
students could write and answer "Dear Santa" letters using 
KidMail.  The project was well received by the sixth graders.  
The second grade students were thrilled that  their  letters 
were answered via the computer.   Santa  has  gone hi-tech!

     The sixth graders expanded their knowledge and expertise 
of telecommunications through instruction by the principal and 
sixth grade teacher.  A compatible telecomputing program was 
installed which allowed the students to correspond with a 
local magnet classroom.  An exchange of mail between the 
schools began.

     Through the use of telecommunications a group called Kids-
92 was discovered.  This listserv group enabled the second 
graders to locate a fourth grade classroom in Juneau, Alaska 
who wished to correspond via EMail.  This correspondence was 
conducted as a class project.  Group letters, rather than 
individual messages, were preferred, especially when working 
with primary children.  With the EMail penpals in Juneau, the 
children compared weather conditions, averaged the growth of 
daylight as the seasons changed, offered suggestions for a 
problem with bears on the school playground, measured 
distances, shared creative writing, compared local grocery 
store prices, learned of local traditions such as the Iditarod 
Sled Dog Race, and shared experiences about a field trip to a 
local rain forest.  The children were always anxious to receive 
a new message and were eager to respond.  

     The benefits of this type of correspondence are limitless.  
The study of  Alaska became real to the students.    They 
actually learned  about the people and the land in a meaningful 
way.  The second graders have learned more about Alaska than 
they ever could from a textbook.  They have conversed with 
real people and have discussed real situations. They have been 
doing projects with a real purpose and have been very excited 
about sharing their work with their new friends.  Our world is 
indeed  becoming  smaller and the students are realizing  the  
benefits from sharing knowledge and ideas with others.

     Another project has been the exploration of SpaceMet, an 
FTP site.  Exciting  lesson plans and activities for a space 
exploration  unit  have been  found.   The class of sixth graders 
used some of the  information when studying about rockets.   
The sixth grade teacher has been  introduced  to  a wealth of 
complete lesson plans  available  to  educators. These  lesson 
plans can be utilized at all grade levels.   These  files have 
been accessed and downloaded so they maybe presented to the  
staff for infusion into the science units.

     A final project involved work with a small group of gifted 
and talented students.  These students were highly motivated 
and extremely eager to undertake this challenging task.  This 
project involved the use of a telnet   site  called  Cleveland  
Freenet.    (Telnet   or  or  This telnet site offered a  plethora  of 
knowledge.   The challenge for the students involved being able 
to make decisions concerning how to locate the desired 
information.   A scavenger hunt activity designed by Sue 
Anderson,  an assistant professor  at Texas  Christian 
University.  (  was  used. The 
scavenger hunt was modified to make it appropriate for the 
interest and  abilities of the students.   Eight students were 
divided into  two teams.  Each team was given five questions 
and timed to see how long it took to locate the answers.   The 
teams worked on identical  questions, but on different days 
since there was only one dedicated phone line for computers.   
The students were astounded by the information  available. 
When  the time came to return to the classrooms,  they begged 
for  time to do more research!   One team required thirty-three 
minutes to locate the  answers,   while  the  other  team  
completed  the  assignment  in twenty-five minutes.   It was 
interesting to listen to their  reasoning concerning  the  choice  
of submenus.  The children  learned  not  only facts,  but more 
importantly they learned how to locate answers quickly and 
efficiently.   As we move into the Information Age,  the ability 
to locate, analyze, and use information will be invaluable. 

     The telecomputing activities were truly an experience in 
probing the future for the students and adults involved.  After 
all, the future is where we will be spending the remainder of 
our lives!

                                       Arlene Haynes

                                       Karen Spellman


by Nancy Paben

     Have you ever wondered how a language develops?  Well I 
have and I thought it would be a wonderful project for the 
students to investigate.  Just in talking with my own children, 
who are now in their teens, I will be snickered at because of 
some outdated use of our language.  They may even ask me to 
interpret, like I was speaking a foreign language. GEE WHIZ!!
     There are several different avenues one could take the 
students down in this venture.  Interviews with grandparents, 
parents, and other teachers could give them a list of words and 
phrases that have changed meaning and possibly even become 
extinct.  Another avenue would take the students to a large 
library where they could browse through some really "old" 
literature to add to the list of "outdated" words and phrases.  
Yet another group will wander down Report Lane and write on 
how the English language originated.  Did it start at the Tower 
of Babel?  What's its history?
     The project would come to life if several classes around 
the country would connect through E-mail.  As an interested 
teacher you could telnet to the Cleveland Freenet.  This tel- 
net site can be accessed from:  telnet or 
telnet  Once at the Main Menu select the Arts 
Building.  Now that you are in the Arts Building you will choose 
Literary Arts from the menu.  Read about the area and then 
choose the appropriate Bulletin Board for your age students.  
(This area may also be accessed under Academy One, Kid-Lit 
menu.) Exchanging funny phrases and word meanings over the 
Bulletin Boards would keep the students excited and more than 
likely entertained.
     The grand finale will be the SNIGLET PROJECT.  These are 
words that appear to be words but are not found in the 
dictionary--yet.  Examples: an informary - The place where you 
keep the piles of stuff that you have accumulated while down-
loading files off your computer.  a snipit - an "R" rated sniglet.
     How to implement.  This will more than likely be a 4 - 6 
week project.  You will want to make sure that you have enough 
time to complete it.  Recruit at least one other class to 
collaborate with through telecommunications.  Once this is 
done you need to break up into teams or units each with a 
different assignment.  Team one - - interviews.  Team two - - 
browse through "old" literature.  Team three - - brainstorm for 
ideas on why words change meaning and where new words 
come from.  Team four - - a report on the history of the 
English Language.  At least once a week the classes need to get 
on line and share some of the interesting items they have 
discovered and chuckle together.  The age of the students will 
determine the level of telecommunications involvment. Older 
students would be able to use nationwide library searches in 
their reports, etc.  Once all team assignments have been 
completed the information would need to be compiled and put 
into a unified report.  The instructors involved could best 
determine how to do this.  This report will be so enlightening 
that the participants will want to place it in one of the 
Journal sections back at the Cleveland Freenet.      Now for the 
icing on the cake.  Make up your own SNIGLETS.  Have each class 
come up with say ten to twenty sniglets (words that look like 
words but are not found in the dictionary - - yet!)  These will 
be exchanged with the other participating classes.  If the 
students have a definition in mind do not pass this along, as 
part of the fun will be to see what the other class thinks the 
meaning is.  My guess is that your meanings for the words will 
not even come close to what the other students come up with.  
You will be doing the same with the SNIGLETS you are given.  
Be sure to end with the TOP 10 list and post them for others to 
see and "use". Now wait and see if any of these SNIGLETS show 
up in a dictionary 20 years from now!!


by Cece Schwennsen

	Every year I get a new group of chemistry students.  At 
first, these students feel that they have no use for chemistry 
in their daily lives.  They believe that there has been no new 
information gathered on elements and chemical bonding since 
before their parents were born.  I have tried in the past to have 
them do a library search on an assigned element.  One of the 
questions I ask them to answer is:  What is a common and/or 
interesting use for your element?  Invariably , one generally 
overachieving student discovers the  Handbook of Chemistry 
and Physics.  I end up with 92 paragraphs paraphrased from 
this resource.  Not only is that boring to read but it is 
perpetuating the notion that chemistry is unchanging.  What 
would it be like for them to talk to a chemist?  To find 
research on new  findings?  To discover the wonders of 
telecommunication while doing some investigation work?  
With the help of the computer teacher in the school I plan to 
provide just that experience.

	Using several resources on the Internet, students will do 
on-line searches to include but not be limited to following 
appropriate Newsgroups, telneting to sites where they can 
obtain information, and emailing contacts I have gained on the 
Net.  Once they have what they consider to be comprehensive 
information on their assigned element, they will transfer that 
knowledge to a card or cards in a Hypercard stack.  These cards 
may be rearranged to present the material in any order I like.
	Before we begin the students will need some background 
on: 	1.	How to access the Internet resources.
	2.	Appropriate *behavior*  (students forget that they 
are talking to professionals).
	3.	Types of information that should be included.
	4.	Basics on designing a card.

To introduce the students to the Internet we will have a class 
scavenger hunt.  Working in teams, the students will search for 
information given clues and instructions.  (This hunt will 
include mostly  Telnet sites.)  This will take a day or two.  It 
should be designed to be short, fun and interesting.


	Once students are familiar with the Internet, they will 
be assigned an element to research.  (Because of the limited 
number of phone lines, each student will be given a limited 
amount of time in class to do this.)  The sites they will search 
Telnet and FTP sites (access address listed):
		Archie		(
				User name:  archie
				Terminal type:  vt100			

		Services		(
				Login:  services

		MacSciTech	(
		(ftp)		(
				Login: anonymous
		Science Education Archives 			(ftp)	
				Login: anonymous

	Newsgroups (follow postings):
		K.12 Science Education
		Science Education

	Email resources (access through email 		addresses 
will be given in class):
		University of Wisconsin	
		University of Ontario

Students are asked to include basic information on the card(s) 
like:  atomic weight, density, reactivity, general 
characteristics and a brief description.  They are also 
requested to include uses the element has in their daily lives 
and some information or discovery about their element that 
has occurred recently.	
	After students have gathered the information, they will 
create one card in a Hypercard stack.  The class will only 
receive  basic training on writing and building a Hypercard 
stack.  (Some students are more knowledgeable about 
Hypercard than others and may include graphics and interface 
with our Periodic Table laserdisc.  Others may have text only.)  
The only assessment I will make is whether or not they have 
worked up to their respective abilities.  	I will use the 
stack to present the class information on the periodic table, as 
the cards can be arranged in numeric order or realigned to 
demonstrate periodicity with relative ease.

	Although this is topic specific, many of the same sites 
can be used for a variety of subjects.  With a small amount of 
modification, the plan can be used for students to research 
endangered species in my Zoology course.  Using the same idea 
but different sites this would be a way for social studies 
teachers to keep up with the political and geographic changes 
in Africa and Europe.  (When a card is outdated it can be thrown 
away and replaced with currentinformation.)  Students enjoy 
interacting with others across the Net and most finished 
products exceed my expectations.


by Joan Miller

Computer Science, as most of you know, is an exciting, 
everchanging field of study.  One of the most challenging parts 
of being a computer science teacher is keeping informed of 
new technological breakthroughs, and in turn, relaying these 
findings to the students in the classroom. 	In the past, I 
have made an attempt to keep students abreast of new 
knowledge by dedicating part of every other Friday to the 
sharing of "new technologies."  The students were required to 
bring in an article from a magazine, book or newspaper and 
report their findings to the class.  The class then discussed 
the technology, and how it may affect them. 	Next year, I plan 
to update this part of the Introduction to Computer Science 
curriculum through the use of a Bulletin Board System, 
Internet sites, file transferring, newsgroups, a scanner and 
mail messages.  In the following article, I will discuss how I 
plan to infuse this into a first semester high school computer 
science classroom.
	The Bulletin Board will contain two sections: a message 
section and a file section.  The message section will be an 
open forum for discussion among class members about the 
information they have found.  The second section of the 
Bulletin Board will be used for storage of files.  The file 
portion will contain graphics as well as text files.  The text 
files will include articles that have been found on the Internet, 
in Newsgroups,  FTP sites or scanned in from print.
	The Bulletin Board will be on twenty-four hours a day.  
Those students who have access to modems at home will be 
able to access the board any time they choose.  Members of the 
class who do not own a modem, will complete their work 
during school time. 	Although Bulletin Board maintenance 
can be done by the instructor, I recommend selecting two or 
three students to oversee these duties.  These students will be 
known as the System Operators or SYSOPS.   Training should be 
given to these students on how to maintain the board.  As the 
semester progresses, these students will be responsible for 
showing other students how to run the board.  By the end of the 
semester, each student in the class should have had the 
opportunity to act as the SYSOP of the board for at least one 
		Computer with Hard Drive-- (to run the Bulletin 
		Phone Line(s)
		Bulletin Board Shareware
		Telecommunications Software
		File Decompression Shareware (Optional)
	Every student in the class will be given a one week mini 
course on how to use the  Bulletin Board, scanner, newsgroups  
and selected Internet Sites.  The curriculum time invested in 
this week of instruction, will pay off over the semester, as 
the students will be using it on a daily basis.  As the students' 
abilities with telecommunications increases, additional 
Internet and FTP sites can be introduced.
	Although many Internet sites, FTP sites and newsgroups 
may contain information about recent technologies in the 
computer industry, the sites and groups mentioned below are 
excellent sources of information. 	Information in 
newsgroups is the most easily accessible source of 
information for new telecommuters.  At the beginning of the 
semester, the students will read the postings in the newsgroup 
of their choice, and write short summaries of their findings.  
The summaries will be stored in the file section of the BBS.  
As the semester progresses, additional instruction may be 
provided to the students on how to download the postings from 
the newsgroup, and transfer them directly to the BBS.  There 
are hundreds of suitable newsgroups that are available.  Below 
are listed some of the groups I plan to use in my classroom.
	The first Internet site I plan to use in the classroom, is 
the SERVICES site.  SERVICES is one of the largest and easiest 
telnet sites to use.  Through SERVICES, nearly one hundred 
other sites may be accessed through the use of a menu system.  
Although most of the sites in SERVICES are not strictly 
computer related, updates in technology may be found through 
careful searching.   After the students are comfortable using 
the menu system in SERVICES to access other telnet sites, 
they may begin telneting directly to the sites of their choice.  
A couple of sites, along with SERVICES, I would recommend are 
listed below with their Internet address, and a brief 
discription of what is stored at that location. 


Provides information about  	IBM computer technology.

Provides a 24th century 	Science Fiction Environment 
students can communicate in.

Provides access to a menu 	system from which other sites 
can be accessed.

Provides access to National Science Foundation Publications.

Provides article summaries from 10,000 journals.
	The third source of online information can come from 
FTP sites.  FTP sites are the most difficult, yet most 
rewarding sites to use.  The downloading and decompression of 
files can be a confusing process to experienced computer users 
let alone high school students.  I would recommend using FTP 
sites only after the students have had lots of success with 
telneting.   Below are listed three FTP sites, their addresses, 
and a short description of the type of information they may 


Computers and 		General 
Academic Freedom 	(then: cd pub/academic) about 
Macintosh Software Macintosh 
software. 				(then: cd info-mac)

Washington U. Public	Collection of 
freeware Domain Archives		and shareware for various 
	The destiny of computers in education has not been set.  
We as educators have a responsibility to provide students with 
the types of computer experiences that will make them 
computer literate members of the 21st century.  I feel the use 
of a BBS in a high school classroom is one small step in the 
right direction.  

Nancy Lyman
Library/Media Specialist
Platteview Central Junior High

     Since teachers in my school seemed too busy "winding up 
the year" with their curriculum but interested in 
telecommunications, I decided to try and whet the appetites of 
those who showed interest.  Even though they were busy I 
thought if I started a project for them and let them see it, 
some would like to try this new method of learning.  To start 
at a very basic level and build up a program is the key to 
getting people started in telecomputing.  If teachers new to 
this kind of communication wanted to try any of these 
projects, they would need to acquire an account on a computer 
that has Internet access.  These accounts are most frequently 
available through a University, a registered educational 
service center or if they belong to a large school district.  
Upon acquiring an account, the teachers would type at the 
prompt Telnet>
                                   or try
                                   or try

Teachers can enter as a visitor to browse for 1 hour or set up a 
permanent account by registering.  It is strongly suggested 
that users not register unless they plan to use CFN frequently.

                 NPTN Student News Network

    The reading department is the most closely linked to the 
media center in their activities in my school.  I work well with 
the teacher.  She is very creative and we share a love of 
innovative projects.  She assists the students in making a 
school newspaper each quarter and expressed interest in the 
NPTN Student News Network under Academy One of the 
Cleveland Freenet.  I plan to submit their last paper on the 
freenet with her permission and see what kind of feedback we 
get.  When we see just exactly what this entails, we can make 
more definite plans as to how to use this.  It will be 
interesting to show the students when they return over the 

                     EMail and KID-LIT

     The English department is a very friendly and risk-taking 
group.  E-mail would be a very logical place to start.  Since it 
would be more interesting to converse with students from 
another country, we could establish groups with a Great 
Britain contact I made over the Freenet thru my own email.  
This may be exciting to contact another country, but I would 
have to monitor how long my answers come from him this 
summer before I would attempt this in the fall.  Once 
comfortable with telecommunications commands, I would have 
them begin KID-LIT on Academy One of the Cleveland Freenet.  
The seventh graders produce a booklet of stories, poems and 
written science experiments, they have done during the first 
quarter.  Classes could decide which stories should be sent or 
each one could be sent.  I plan to try sending a few from this 
spring's booklet to KID-LIT over the summer so I can show the 
English teachers what happens in this group when entries are 
submitted.  One of the teachers helped me pick four to send so 
I know she's interested.  Later we could co-write stories with 
a middle school in Texas I have contacted thru E-mail on the 
Cleveland Freenet.

            Scavenger Hunt using CFN

     The seventh grade math department has been teaching 
students how to log on to a site using the modem.  Using their 
problem solving skills, I would like to use a modified program 
of a scavenger hunt on the Cleveland Freenet I searched in my 
college telecommunications class.  I would add some questions 
so each group of four could have three questions for which to 
look. At the end they could share their data and devise a new 
scavenger hunt for the group nextyear.

      ListServ, WX-TALK  and Weather Underground on CFN

     The science department loves to gather data and do group-
drawn graphics.  With the way our weather changes in 
Nebraska, their charts could be very dramatic.  They could use 
information from the listserv, WX-TALK.  The address from 
email at the To: would be LISTSERV@UIUCVMD.  I would 
subscribe to this and could download the information for them 
to use.  We could also use Weather Underground in the 
Government section of The Cleveland Freenet.  They could 
spend about a week gathering the data before charting their 
findings.  I would teach one of my student library aides, how to 
download this information in the morning as one of their daily 
duties.  It would be fun as an ongoing project to get seasonal 
and climatic comparisons from the Great Britain penpals.  

               KIDS-INTERNATIONAL on CFN

     A language link would be an easy link to incorporate by 
using KIDS-INTERNATIONAL from Academy One of the Cleveland 
Freenet.  Each quarter, the students do reports on topics such 
as holidays, foods, sports, favorite places, and other aspects 
of life.  This is the kind of information exchanged in this group. 
Since I'm not sure of the teachers receptiveness, I would leave 
this until last so that the interest generated from other 
classes would draw the teacher.


     Even though no single department knows each part of 
telecomputing, as they discuss their experiences over lunch 
different ways of using material might be generated.  Those 
with no experience will want to be included in the excitement.  
The students will talk about what they are doing.  All will 
want to see what new things can be done thru the modem. 
    Currently we only have one phone line connected to a modem 
and the board office does not support the cost of any more 
lines. Once this ball of telecommunications gets rolling, we 
will be able to more than justify the need for the extra lines 
and modems.


"Academy One: A Natinal Online Educational Community," 
in Education News," II, 2 (Spring, 1991) 9-11.

Anderson, S.E. [The Cleveland freenet scavenger hunt]. 
Unpublished electronic 
document. 1991.

Roberts, N, Blakeskee, G., Brown, M., & Lenk, C."Integrating 
Telecommunications into education". Englewood Cliffs, NJ: 
Prentice Hall, 1990.

Nancy Lyman
adapted from Sue Anderson's hunt

On-line Scavenger hunt on the Cleveland FreeNet

At the YOUR CHOICE ===> give number commands or letter 
            For example, p     go back to previous menu
                         h     help
                         q     leave this menu
                         x     exit from CFN

Each "hunt" question has one word that is a hint about the 
answer to the question.  The word is *starred* in the sentence.

1. What is the first line of the Koran?  (hint: Where can I
     *find information electronically*?)

2. What is the name of the drummer from the *musical* group
      "Genesis" and what is he doing today?   

3. Give me a rule of puppy training?  (hint: What expert will
     answer your *question*?)

4. How much did Mozart charge for his Requiem? It is a 
     piece and considered in the *art* section.

5. Where would you look for a new law about grandparents in 

6. What is the name of the virus that causes *Feline* 
     Is it contagious?

7. What is the weather like today on the West Coast, especially
     Los Angeles?  (hint: Check in *government)

8. Where can I get a recipe for Peanut Butter Pie?  I want one
      that will be a culinary *art*.

9. In what year was Christopher Columbus born?   How old was 
     when he died? (hint: He discovered America: the land of the
     *free*.) (extra clue if needed: Info in the *library*)

10. How many calories in 1 French artichoke? (hint:  any 
     of *food* makes me hungry)

11. What is the phone number for President George Bush? (hint:
     he works for the *government*.)

12. What is the name of a test used to diagnose HIV (the viral
     organism that causes the malfunction of the immune 
     in *AIDS*)?

13. How long is the Atlantic Ocean coastline?  (hint: find a 
     in the *library*)  VERY DIFFICULT!!!

14. What is today's news message on energy prices? (hint: 
     is taught in eighth grade *science*)

15. Name the dangerous flea spray for your pet? (hint: Your
      *animal clinic* can give you some answers.)

16. What is the cost of addmission to the Museum of *Natural
      History*? (hint: Lots of neat *science* stuff here)

17. What year did Eric the Red colonize Greenland? (hint:
     You need some *information* from Academy One)

18. Tell me the first *headline* of yesterday's news?

19. What is the first question seen in space by *NASA*?

20. What is the telephone number for the central office of
      Alcoholics Anonymous in your area?  (hint: This is a
      *community* service)

21. Would you be considered a solid waste criminal if you
     threw some away? (hint: You would not be a friend to
     the *science* environment)

22. What is the remedy if your pet eats antifreeze ?  (hint:
      Question your *veterinarian*)

23. You get to go with dad on his *business trip* to Anaheim
     CA.  There's a place to visit with a famous ship.  Name
     the ship.

24. Will X-raying a recorded *music* video tape affect it?

25. Who made the news as the first american woman to fly in


                       	by Bob Avant and Keith Rutledge

OVERVIEW:  What is contained in this paper.

I.   The Internet is briefly described and explained. 
II.  The utility of the Internet for education is described. 
III. Internet access is explained. 
IV.  A direct high speed connection is proposed to meet access needs. 
V.   A background to methods of connecting to the Internet is given. 
VI.  A step by step process is provided to facilitate a direct connection. 
VII. System design is discussed and an example is described and 
VIII.Other connection options are mentioned.
IX.  A cost comparison between Direct Connect and Dial Up is made. 
X.   A summary statement is made for perspective.


The Internet is a world wide network of computers.  The entity is not just 
one central network, but rather a huge loose collection of computer 
networks that can communicate with each other.  The Internet originated 
with ARPANET a United States government network experiment set up in 
1969. The original ARPANET was set up for government and military 
research.  In the late 1970's to the early 1980's several loose networks 
such as UUCP, USENET, CSNET, and BITNET were established.  
Originally these networks were not connected to ARPANET, (by now 
called the Internet) but gateways were soon established for connections.  
The next big change in the Internet came in 1986, with the establishment 
of NSFNET, which connected researchers with five super computing 
centers.  Since that time, the Internet has continued to grow from about 
213 computers registered on the Internet in 1981 to over 1.5 million today.  
The present Internet contains over 5,000 networks spanning the entire 
globe.  This extensive worldwide network can be of great utility to 
educators, and contains many useful resources and services which will be 
expounded upon in the following section. 


Access to the Internet can potentially be a great resource for educators.  
Several states (presently four) have state wide networks which are 
connected to the Internet.  Even if one's own state does not yet have such 
a network, much can be gained by access to the Internet through a local 
university.  There are many useful assets available to the educator.  The 
first asset that naturally comes to mind is the use of electronic mail or e-
mail. One of the authors of this article has begun using this feature with 
the secondary classes that he teaches.  His students have exchanged 
messages with multiple foreign countries.  Basically e- mail allows one to 
electronically communicate with other computers that have an Internet 
electronic address.  Whenever an individual or institution obtains an 
Internet account, an Internet address is assigned to that account.  Lesson 
plans, collaborative projects, interest surveys, and other teaching ideas 
can be exchanged between the two sites.  One of the true advantages of 
e-mail is that the service usually involves a local phone call and there are 
no long distance charges, no matter where the message is sent. 

The Internet has another resource for the educator which are called telnet 
sites.  Telnet sites are computers which are online mechanisms for 
researching various topics.  For example, an educator could link up to 
online encyclopedias or data bases for class projects.  Many library 
catalogs (including the Library of Congress) are linked to the Internet as 
telnet sites.  Students can also telnet to various sites to get current 
weather information, earthquake reports, or even current daily information 
from NASA on ongoing space shuttle missions.

Listserv's and Newsgroups are two very useful informational tools for the 
educator.  A Listserv is the electronic equivalent of a magazine 
subscription and discussion group, it is usually part of the BITNET network 
but is easily accessible from the Internet.  There are over 2,000 Listserv's 
available for subscription, with topics ranging from bee keeping to deaf 
education.  Newsgroups are usually part of the USENET network.  They 
are the electronic equal of a daily newspaper, but usually are devoted to 
one specific topic.  Both of the previously mentioned resources have the 
potential to be of great classroom utility as students and teachers can 
select a specific resource applicable to a specific topic being researched.

Another very useful Internet resource available to educators are FTP sites.  
FTP stands for file transfer protocol.  FTP sites are electronic depositories 
of free programs, shareware, articles, and graphics that can easily be 
downloaded and transferred to the local classroom computer.  For 
example, one of the writers of this article has had his students download 
programs demonstrating fractal geometry, articles on music, and images 
from NASA voyager missions.  These students then used these 
downloads for reports and research in their other classes.


Computers are linked together over a distance usually through the use of 
modems and telephone lines.  Modems are pieces of equipment that 
convert a computer's digital signal into an analog signal which can be then 
transmitted over an ordinary telephone line.  Another modem will in turn 
reconvert the analog signal back into a digital signal which the receiving 
computer can then use.  Most educational Internet connections are 
through local universities and colleges.  All that is needed is a computer, 
telecommunications software, a modem, a phone line, and an Internet 
node or gateway at the local institute of higher learning that can be dialed.  
A few states have statewide networks which allow educators to interact 
with the Internet.  One such network (with which the authors are 
participating, and thus the example used in this article) is TENET, 
sponsored by the Texas Education Agency.  As of Spring 1993, 21,000 
educators across the state are registered to use this resource.  Most 
schools and educators use local telephone lines which allow them to 
connect to TENET nodes (a local university), which in turn give them 
Internet access. Most of the hookups are via individual telephone lines and 
individual modems.  Individual teachers dial the modem pool number at 
the local institute of higher learning and gain access if a local line is free.   
Four sites in the state presently have direct hookups which is a second 
way of Internet access.  A direct line is a more economical alternative for 
Internet access, and is thus the topic of this paper.


A direct hookup to the Internet is a good use of educational funding for 
both an individual school or a school district.  A single high speed line 
connects a local area network (LAN) at a school to the Internet gateway at 
the local college or university. Such a connection would not be economical 
for individual use. This solution would best be utilized when a school 
desires for multiple computers to have access simultaneously to the 
Internet. For example, if a high school wants to have several computer 
labs simultaneously logged on to the Internet, the most cost effective 
linkage would be through one direct line, versus one modem and phone 
line per computer.  In the case with TENET, a direct line would ease the 
strain on local dial in modem pools.  Presently, with so many educators 
using the service, teachers have to wait for a free line to connect to the 
Internet.  At times the wait can be quite significant.


"Informatics, Information Age, Telecommunications, Infoglut, Networking, 
Global Classroom, Bytes, Bits, and Baud." These are but a few common 
words in a world which in some eyes may seem like an entire sub-culture;  
the world called the Internet.  The Internet is an electronic network of 
networks of networks and extends to most parts of the globe. 
Communication on this system is handled nearly instantaneously and by 
some estimates, there are around six million people who access the 
resources found on the Internet daily.  Cost is dependent upon the method 
of connection to the system and to what degree the keeper of the access 
point wishes to charge to recoup their costs or even make a profit. 
Fortunately, there are many access points with more on the way. 
Hopefully, this growing system will bring down the costs of the hardware 
and other costs associated with connecting to the network.  The issue for 
this portion of the paper is connectivity.  How can a school district or 
individual campus gain access to the Internet?  What are the steps to take 
in order to obtain a Direct Connect?  What are some possibilities to 
designing a system to connect? And finally, how much does it cost?

For the purposes of the paper, it is assumed that you already have 
established the worth and value of a connection to the Internet. Actually, 
that is half the battle, for if you have convinced the "powers that be" that 
this possibility is worth whatever it takes, then you will get whatever you 
want.  You have to do a sales job first.  Probably the most difficult thing to 
do is to describe to the uninitiated what it means to be on the Internet.  It is 
very difficult to quantify the information available.  It is suggested to look at 
finding practical infusion ideas and examples to present to those that 
control the budget.  For now, we'll leave this important step as it is not the 
focus of the paper.

Quality access is the key.  Quality is interpreted to mean speed of data 
transmission and system reliability.  Access may be described as ease of 
use and availability.  These are the issues that this paper relates to the 

        Connection Alternatives

	A.  Dial Up Option

	Probably the most common method to connect to the Internet is 
through a 	dial up modem pool.  That is, your computer's modem calls a 
host 	system's collection of modems.  Once a link has occurred, your 
computer 	has access to what the remote system allows you access to-
-including 	their connection to the Internet.  There are several pros and 
cons 	to this method.

	1.  For an individual, this is perhaps the simplest, least complicated, 
	and least expensive way to connect. You can purchase a modem 
	for anywhere between $65 to $300 or more, plug an existing 
	telephone line to it and with communications software, gain access 
	to the outside world. One point to remember is that if you are tying 
	up the phone line, then no one else can use it.  If the phone line 
	happens to have an extension, then that extension must not be 
	picked up during the modem usage time.  If it does get picked up, 
	then your modem connection will most likely be severely disrupted. 
	Some people have a special phone line installed which is then 
	considered to be "dedicated" to the modem use.  Having a 
	dedicated line can increase access.

	2.  Having a connection like this means that there is minimal 
	maintenance of the connection.  There is just not much on your side 
	that can go wrong.  On the other side, the host that you are 
	connecting to must maintain all of their hardware, software, and 
	other facilities. Typically, depending on the size and complexity of 
	the system, there is a staff hired specifically to manage this task.  
	You can let them worry about all the technical stuff. 

	1.  The speed of the data transfer is dependent upon your 
	modem and the modem pool that you are connecting to.  The 
	slowest participating modem speed determines the data 
	transmission speed. 	
	2.  The quality of the phone lines is a factor.  "Noisy" lines can 
	confuse modems and create unwanted characters on the screen. 
	3. Typically, you are in competition with others for a fixed number of 
	connection points.  In other words, the modem pool size usually is 
	fixed at a small number while the possible number of users is larger 
	and growing.  This is a major negative factor for access. 	
	4.  You use one modem and one phone line for every connection 
	established.  This can become expensive when many people wish 
	to be connected in a location such as a school.  The expense is that 
	there are monthly phone bills for each line.

    B.  Direct Connection

	This is currently the best alternative if your concern is of quality 
	access.  What is a Direct Connect?  The Internet can be compared 
	to a road system.  There are various types of roads that you can 
	drive on. Some are electronic superhighways (which speak in a 
	format called TCP/IP) and some are back roads (which speak in 
	digital and analog formats).  The Internet has a "backbone" of 
	superhighway data routes.  Surprisingly, there are not that many of 
	them.  This backbone can transmit data at the fastest rates 
	available.  There are many lesser highway systems that connect to 
	these data routes. At the ends of these are large networks such as 
	TENET, FIRN, institutions of higher education, and others.  In 
	reality, these networks are the only ones that are directly connected 
	to the Internet (backbone). >From these networks come lesser 
	roads of data communications.  Some of these are merely pass 
	through points directly to the Internet and others are closed 
	systems which then can connect to the Internet.  Typically, dial up 
	modem pools belong to these closed networks.  The important point 
	is that the further away from the backbone that you get, the less 
	speed and reliability there exists.  The goal then is to establish your 
	access point as close the the backbone level as possible while 
	keeping your connection costs balanced with the value of the 

	To actually establish a true Direct Connect is generally not feasible 
	because the access points are limited and distant.  (Distance is a 
	factor in determining cost of the use of the lines).  There are two 
	options:  1) establish access to a system that can connect to the 
	Internet, and 2) establish access to a system that is directly 
	connected in such a way as to have the same benefits of their 
	access level.  The first option has already been discussed as the 
	Dial Up Option.  The second option is what will be referred to from 
	this point on as a Direct Connect (even though it is really a 
	secondary direct connection in that you are getting "directly" to 
	the Internet through a host). 

	There are several pros and cons to establishing a Direct Connect. 
	1. Guaranteed and immediate access to the Internet (unless the 
	host has a rare mechanical failure in which case no one has 
	2.  Extremely fast data transfer rates. 	
	3.  Many users may have simultaneous yet independent sessions 
	on the same connection line. 

	1.  The initial cost of the hardware may be a factor.  The dollar 
	amount could range from about $7000 to much higher depending 
	on your needs and existing network situation.  	
	2.  There is a monthly phone bill for the special line that must be 
	installed.  The charges for this line (called a 56kb line) may be 
	around $200 per month.  	
	3.  As owners of the hardware, you must develop knowledge and 
	skills in installation, troubleshooting, and maintenance.  It takes 
	time to do these things. 

	The process of gaining and maintaining a Direct Connect is not one 
	for the novice or uninformed.  This paper should only serve as an 
	introduction to the process and should be followed up with much 
	investigation and knowledge building before going ahead with 


First of all, you will need assistance in this process.  You will need the help 
of someone or some people that can guide you as you begin and as you 
need technical assistance.  The host organization that you are connecting 
to should be your best choice for this invaluable assistance.  Get to know 
them and establish a great (not just good) relationship.  You will be calling 
upon them often.

Step one: 
Determine the access point and the owner of the connection link to the 
Internet.  As mentioned earlier, you will not be actually connecting directly 
to the Internet, rather you will be gaining access through a host network 
who can provide a connection.  Remember that your goal should be to be 
as close to the backbone level as possible. Otherwise, the more links in 
the chain, the more possibility of hardware failures affecting your access.  
A good place to start in locating a connection point is your local university 
or college.  Most of these institutions are connected to the Internet and 
they will probably become your access point anyway.  Also, check with 
your state Education Agency. They may have some information for you as 
to options.

Step two:
Get permission from your soon to be host to connect to the Internet 
through them.  This request should be done in writing and include the 
details of your system such as the hardware that will be utilized (if known), 
the type of phone line to be used, and specifically what site that your 
system would tie into the host system (remember, distance is an issue).

Step three:
You should next apply for an Internet Protocol (IP) address for your site. 
This will give you a Class C network number and a block of 254 unique 
addresses for your network. The application comes by mail from the DDN 
Network Information Center, 14200 Park Meadow Dr.-Suite 200, Chantilly, 
VA, 22021,  or by electronic mail at HOSTMASTER@NIC.DDN.MIL .  You 
can contact them with questions at (800) 365-3642.  Once submitted, you 
will receive confirmation within 8 working days by e-mail (if you submitted 
your application in that way) or in about a month through US Mail.

Step four:
Determine specifically your network design and hardware needs.  
Because you are connecting your system to a host, you need to make 
sure that your equipment is compatible with their system.  They may even 
tell you what equipment you must use.  Talk to them.  When everything is 
settled upon, order the hardware for your system.

Step five:
Determine and order the communications software that your system PC's 
will use.  The software must be TCP/IP capable.  In addition, there may be 
other protocols and features that are needed or desired.  Ask your host for 
a recommendation.  Keep in mind that there are shareware/freeware 
versions that you can obtain via ftp.  There are also very powerful 
commercial products available.  Some of these software solutions will be 
described later in this paper.

Step six:
Install your phone line.  Contact your local phone company to do this. 
Remember that as soon as it is installed, you will be charged for its 
existence.  Therefore, try to time things so that this is the last ingredient to 
your system to obtain.

Step seven:
After everything is in place, you will have to have the hardware and 
software configured for use.  Hopefully, your host personnel can help you 
with this installation. There may or may not be a fee associated.  If there 
is, pay it.  It's worth it.  Designate a person on your staff to look over their 
shoulder and learn all that they can.  This way, you can begin to develop 
some in house expertise.


Every Direct Connect network system is unique.  There are many 
variables in a network design such as building size, length of cabling for 
the network, and the type of computers are involved-Mac, MS-DOS, other, 
or mixed.  Another consideration is what type of networking will be 
involved. There are three main types, Ethernet, Token Ring, and FDDI 
(fiber optics). These are the networking types that your Direct Connect 
hardware can usually work with.  It is best (because it is cheaper) to stick 
with one format.  There are also some platform specific networking types 
that if present, must play a role in your plan (such as LocalTalk, etc). Other 
variables include remote buildings that need to be included on the 
network, numbers of users, anticipated networking traffic, and on and on. 
With all of the variables, there are a few constants.  	
	1) You will need to have a router and a DSU/CSU which is 
connected to a 56kb (or better) phone line.
	2) You have to have a network of computers so that they can take 
advantage of the Direct Connect.  Once again, the suggestion is lots of 
consultation with your host friends.  Also, check with the major computer 
and telecommunication hardware vendors that you deal with and tap their 
expertise.  But beware, you probably will find as many suggested designs 
as people that you talk to.  So take in all the information that you can and 
come to your decisions based on that input and the knowledge that is 
unique to your situation. 

A System Design Case Study: 
The Education Service Center, Region XIII,  Austin, Texas

This site is one of twenty such sites in Texas and works to improve 
resources and leadership to its clients of nearly 65 school districts.  In 
order to improve training capabilities, in-house access, client access, and 
to model a solution, it was determined to obtain a direct connection to the 
Internet.  The discussions and planning began in October of 1992 and the 
system was operational in April of 1993.  The building was already 
networked with wiring that would accept ethernet RJ45 plugs.  Most of the 
users are on Macintoshes while the others are MS-DOS based.  The 
existing network system protocol was Apple LocalTalk. We followed the 
steps outlined previously fairly closely although some steps happened 
concurrently.  It was determined that a Cisco Router (model 4000) was the 
best choice given all our unique considerations.  This router could be 
configured to connect to any of the three major types of networking types. 
We chose ethernet thinnet. In order not to lose the benefits of the existing 
network, we found a device that would connect a LocalTalk network to an 
ethernet network.  There were several brands available but we chose the 
Compatible Systems RISC 3000 model.  This box could connect two 
LocalTalk networks to two ethernet networks. We also discovered that we 
had to have two special cables in order to connect all the machines. 
Additional expense was incurred as we chose to create an ethernet 
connected Lab.  That expense included the cost of the ethernet cards (one 
per machine) and the cabling .  In order to take advantage of this new 
direct connection, special software is needed. Each machine must be 
TCP/IP capable and must have a communications software package 
installed that meets the needs of the network that you are connecting with.  
In our case, we needed a package that included TCP/IP, telnet, ftp (x, y, 
and z file transfers) and Kermit protocol.  There are several solutions 
being looked into at the time of this writing.

Macintosh Software Solution #1: This first combination of titles is attractive 
because they are free. There are two titles:  first, a connection package 
called NCSA Telnet. This enables a connection to any available site via 
telnet.  This package supports telnet and TCP/IP.  (By the way, you must 
purchase a copy of TCP/IP controlling software for each machine used 
with NCSA Telnet.  This cost works out to be around $15-20 per machine.) 
Although you can ftp with NCSA, it lacks an easy ftp interface.  The 
solution to this shortcoming is a very effective and versatile ftp package 
called Fetch.  With Fetch, you make a two way connection between your 
computer and the remote site.  The interface is very user friendly yet 
powerful.  You have the option of setting the transfer mode to text, binary, 
or automatic.  The automatic setting takes the guesswork out of 
determining which filetype to set for those mysterious file suffixes.  In 
addition, there is a post-processing feature that can be set to automatically 
decompress any compressed transferred file and launch the file with its 
appropriate application.  Once again, this program is attractive not only for 
its power and simplicity, but because it is freeware.  The other 
shortcoming of using the NCSA software is that it does not support online 
printing due to the type of protocol that our host remote network is built 

Macintosh Software Solution #2: There are several (even numerous) 
commercial packages which meet most or all of the criteria mentioned 
earlier.  One package being evaluated currently is called VersaTerm.  This 
package contains all the features of the Software Solution #1 plus it is 
easy to print from within the application.  An educational institutional price 
will be at a substantial discount from the retail price.  Check with the 
company for current pricing.

The end result is that we have an effective solution for demonstrating and 
experiencing the benefits of a Direct Connect to the Internet.  Training and 
utilization is underway.

(The following diagram was created using Courier, 10 point)

...............         .................Control Room....................
.             .         .                           +++++++++++++++++++ .
.  COMPUTER   .    -------------------|---------::::+     CISCO 4000  + .
.    LAB      .  /      .             |             +       ROUTER    + .
.             . /       .             |             +                 + .
.  ETHERNET----/        .         ,,,,|,,,,,,,,     +                 + .
.             .         .         , RISC 3000 ,     +++++++++][++++++++ .
...............         .         ,,,,,,,,,,,,,              ][         .
                        .                @                   ][         .
                        .                @               ____][____     .
                        .               @               |          |    .
                        .       --------------          |  DSU/CSU **** .
                        .       | LocalTalk  |          |__________|  * .
                        .       |  Network   |                        * .
                        .       --------------                        * .
                        .                                             * .
                        .                                             * .
                                                             UT Connection

:::::::::::::::::::KEY TO DIAGRAM::::::::::::::::::
::                                               ::
::  ---- and |   thinnet ethernet cable          ::
::        ::::   Transceiver cable (AUI->thinnet)::
::          ][   v.35 Transition Cable           ::
::           @   AppleTalk cable                 ::
::        ****   56kb phone line                 ::

VIII. Other Connection Options
This section will be very short because the purpose is only to make 
mention of some areas to look into for your possible consideration.

Option A -- You have a central office and several campuses.  Do you need 
to install all of the above equipment at each site in order to establish a 
direct connect?  Maybe, but maybe not.  You have several things to 
consider. One, are the buildings close enough to run a cable between 
them to connect the networks? If so, then that would be the best 
alternative. Be sure to understand the limitations of distance in networking.   
Two, there are hardware solutions to consider which can link remote 
networks. Three, you could set up a dial up modem pool at the site of the 
router for your designated set of users. In this case, you would need a 
Terminal Server and enough modems and incoming lines to address your 

Option B -- Packet Radio uses a licensed Ham Radio station/operator to 
make a wireless connection to the Internet.  Speeds are generally slow, 
around 2400 baud to 9600 baud, but there are no ongoing fees and no 
phone lines involved.

Option C -- Your local cable company may have some ideas on 
connectivity through what is called the INET.

Option D -- There are grant monies available for telecommunications 
projects. Check with your State Educational Agency.  Also, contact your 
local phone company.  Sometimes they will support innovative projects.


This section will attempt to compare the costs of a direct connect for an 
entire campus with the cost of connecting just five classrooms on five 
computers with five separate phone lines in a dial up scenario.

DIRECT CONNECT                       DIAL UP
********************************     ********************************
HARDWARE                             HARDWARE
  Router     $6000                    5 Modems @150   $750
  DSU/CSU      750                    5 Phone lines    200 (monthly)
  1 56kb line  200 (monthly)
  Networking expense est.=$ 2500

  Communication software (free+)      Communication software (free+)

  *Every* computer on the network      The five modems and lines
  can have instant, sustained, and     compete for a connection
  separate access to the Internet.     to the limited number of
  Enhanced access to the Internet      available incoming ports
  through tools such as Fetch (file    at the host system.  Access
  retrieval package), gopher           therefore, is not guaranteed
  (information searching tool),        and may be limited by daily
  and more.  Greatly enhanced          login time limits.  Only the
  downloading and file transfer        resources of the host system
  speeds. Quality access is            are available.  File transfers
  maintained.                          are as much as 25 times slower.
                                       Quality access is not maintained.

Five Users
   (Direct Connect)   @ $14,000      (Dial Up)   @ $5,550

Thirty Users
   (Direct Connect)   @ $14,000      (Dial Up)   @ $33,300

Five Users
   (Direct Connect)   @ $21,250      (Dial Up)   @ $12,750

Thirty Users
   (Direct Connect)   @ $21,250      (Dial Up)   @ $76,500

It is hoped that this paper has been a starting point for you as you begin 
your quest for greater quality access to information for your students and 
staff.  The Information Age is a fact of society that will be waiting for our 
graduates whether they are prepared or not.  Connecting to the Internet is 
a beginning.  Good Luck.

* * * * * * * APPENDIX 1

Contact information for products mentioned

P.O. Box 3075
1525 O'Brien Dr.
Menlo Park, CA  94026

4730 Walnut, Suite 102
P.O. Box 17220
Boulder, CO  80308
(303) 444-9532

152 Computing Applications Bldg.
605 E. Springfield Ave.
Champaign, IL  61820

6028 Kiewit Computation Center
Hanover, NH  03755-3523

2457 Perkiomen Ave.
Reading, PA  19606

   Bob Avant
   Keith Rutledge


by Nancy Reppert (

"CD-ROM is a new storage medium that can serve as a 
quick, economical source of information for students, 
researchers, writers, and professionals in many fields" 
(Schamber, 1988).  Though, no longer "new", CD-ROM 
technology is a valuable resource tool for educators and 
continual improvements and developments being realized 
will provide even more educational materials for use in 
the classroom.  Educators will want to keep abreast of 
the newest CD-ROM developments, which they can do very 
easily through the use of computer telecomputing 
technology.  Description of CD-ROMs, their application 
in the classroom, and steps on how educators can find 
CD-ROM information utilizing Internet resources will be 
covered in this report.

CD-ROM stands for Compact Disk-Read Only Memory.  CD-
ROMs are similar to floppy disks in that they are 
approximately the same size, they store information in 
digital form, and they are used with a personal 
computer.   However, information contained on a floppy 
disk is stored in the form of magnetic charges, while 
CD-ROM information is encoded by laser onto optical 
disks in the form of microscopic pits.  This laser data 
encoding process allows CD-ROMs to carry much more 
information than a floppy disk (Schamber, 1988).  A CD 
physically has a single spiral track about three miles 
long and spins at about 500 RPM when reading near the 
center, down to about 250 RPM when reading near the 
circumference (Poggio, 1988).

CD-ROMs durability, high storage capacity and low cost 
make them very appealing to the educator.  CD-ROM's are 
not only resistant to scratches and other handling 
damage, but users are not able to write on, change, or 
erase information contained on the disc, thus providing 
the K-12 teachers some safeguards against potential 
misuse by students.  Any information expressed in 
digital form -- be it text, images, graphics or sound -- 
can be stored on a CD-ROM (Poggio, 1988).  Because of 
CD-ROMs immense storage capacity, industry has made CD-
ROM the standard for storing and distributing massive 
amounts of information, games and educational programs 
(Miller, 1992).  The storage capacity of the CD-ROMs 
currently on the market range from about 540 to 660  
megabytes.   According to Schamber (1990) a 660 megabyte 
capacity CD-ROM contains the equivalent of 330,000 
typewritten pages.  With ever increasing technological 
advances, increased utilization and improvement of 
compression techniques, disc storage capacity will 
certainly continue to increase.

CD-ROMs are a very useful resource tool and can be used 
for remedial instruction, for  classroom learning 
enrichment, and as presentation tools to enhance student 
and faculty reports and projects.  Some of the programs 
and subjects presently available on CD-ROM formats 
include Birds of North America, Shakespeare on Disc, 
Mammals of North America, Webster's Dictionary, Exotic 
Japan and Beethoven: The Ninth Symphony (MacUser, 1991).  
Utilizing the Beethoven CD-ROM, one can read about the 
conductor, explore the structure of the symphony, and 
see and hear the symphony.  Networked encyclopedias 
available on CD-ROM allow students to easily access 
examples of how words are used in different contexts 
(Becker, p. 8).

In addition to CD-ROM discs which enhance student 
learning are CD-ROM databases and bibliographic 
information for educators and librarians.  The ERIC 
(Educational Resources Information Center) database 
which many librarians, information centers, educators 
and students now access through the Internet is now 
available on CD-ROM.  The entire ERIC database, with its 
25 years of citations and indexes, fits on two compact 
disks, with quarterly updates available by subscription 
(Schamber, 1990).  This allows users to leisurely peruse 
and access information directly, free from any on-line 
telecomputing costs or line-noise problems.   

However, you will want to utilize the Internet to access 
ERIC information and other sources of information on CD-
ROMs because it is easy, rewarding and will provide yoku 
with a wealth of information. There are many routes to 
travel on the Internet to find information, let's start 
with ERIC.  My account which is on the TENET (Texas 
Education Network) system provides me with an AskERIC 
Special Information Services menu.  The main menu has a 
list of services.  
I type: 8  (Special Information Services) 
then type: 3 (The AskERIC Service)  
then type: 2 (AskERIC a Question)
The system then reveals the Pine electronic mail program 
with the AskERIC address already provided on the "TO:" 
line.  All I have to do is type a search question about 
CD-ROMs in the message body.  "AskERIC staff will 
respond with an answer within 48 working hours" 
(Tkachuck, 1993).  If your system does not provide this 
special information service from the menu, you can still 
"AskERIC" simply by sending an Internet E-mail message 
to AskERIC does not review 
individual CD-ROM products but can provide the location 
of articles and perform searches on CD-ROMs applications 
and uses. 

There is a way you can find out about CD-ROM products 
however.  Again, access the Special Information Services 
from the main menu -- Type: 8
Type: 2 (WAIS -- Wide Area Information Search and 
Type: 5 (TESS listing)
The system will ask you what keywords you would like 
TESS to search.
Type:  CD-ROM
By performing a TESS search under the WAIS Services that 
the Internet Resources provides my search resulted in 40 
CD-ROM program listings, ranging from "The CIA World 
Factbook," to "Heather Hits Her First Home Run."  When 
you access your desired title, you are provided a 
plethora of information about the CD-ROM, including a 
description of the program, who sells it and how much it 
cost, the applicable classroom subjects which could 
incorporate the CD-ROM disc, its uses in the classroom, 
what grade level, and supplier information.

Another telecomputing tool to find CD-ROM information on 
the Internet is using the Online Library Catalog listed 
under #3 Internet Resources from the main menu. 
Type: 3 (Internet Resources) 
Type: 3 (Online Library Catalogs) 
A list of seven different University libraries extending 
from the University of Hawaii to Sam Houston State 
University come up on the screen.  Select the number 
next to your desired library.   The libraries each have 
their own methods for obtaining information, so the user 
needs to respond to the prompts from their particular 
library.  To reach the UT Library archives, one need 
only type UTCAT at the prompt.  Conduct a subject search 
by  typing in "s CD-ROM".  From my search I received a 
list of 27 CD-ROM related files ranging from juvenile 
literature available on CD-ROM to CD-ROM handbooks.  
Type the number corresponding to the topic file you wish 
to access.  Within each file is a listing of all 
resources located in that file. To obtain further 
information on the file, type the number next to the 
listing you want which gives a detailed display 
including title, when published, description of the 
listing (such as book, videocassette, speech, etc.) and 
notes which briefly describe what is included in the 

So far we have performed rather easy searches utilizing 
intrastate resources.  Let's explore what type of CD-ROM 
information we can glean out of state.  For instance, 
let's go get Poggio's interesting article on CD-ROMs.  
To access this document can perform an FTP.  FTP stands 
for File Transfer Protocol and it allows the Internet 
user to visit  various server sites around the world, 
searching, and transferring information from the foreign 
site to one's own computer.  Most FTP sites allow 
anonymous login rights to Internet users to access their 
public archives.  Thus, an educator can get gigabytes of 
information for free without even requiring a login name 
(Krol, p. 60).  

The Poggio article is located at the address  To FTP to this site perform the 
following steps:
At the system prompt, type: ftp
At the login prompt, type:  anonymous 
At the password prompt, type in your e-mail address.
Once in the site, type, "dir" at the prompt.  This will 
provide you with a menu of directories and 
subdirectories available at that site.  Included in this 
list is the subdirectory entitled <cd-rom>.  This 
subdirectory is available for public use.  
At the prompt, type: cd pub  
This will provide you with a menu of what is contained 
in the <pub> subdirectory.   You will find another 
subdirectory entitled <cd-rom>.  
At the system prompt, type: cd cd-rom 
The cd-rom.summary file, which you see listed on your 
screen, is Poggio's article.  The system tells you the 
date of the article and how large the file is.    
To see the file, type: get cd-rom.summary |more
The full text will appear on your screen.  
To transfer the file to your telecomputing account, 
type: get cd-rom.summary.  The file will be 
automatically transferred to your account, which you can 
then download to your computer, to print.  
To exit the FTP site, type: Bye
The system will respond with a goodbye message.

Now, what if you didn't know that this CD-ROM article 
was at this FTP site?  Well, you could perform an Archie 
search to find locations of servers around the world who 
have information on CD-ROMs.  To conduct an Archie 
search, follow these steps.
At the system prompt, type:  telnet
At the login prompt, type: archie
Archie is a very popular means for Internetters to get 
information and is heavily used.  There may be too many 
users accessing Archie when you attempt to log in.  If 
there is, the system will advise you to try again later.
At the keyword prompt, type:   CD-ROM
During my Archie search for CD-ROM information I 
received a list of 20 different host sites around the 
world which had articles containing information on CD-
ROMs.  Archie provides the user with the site's address, 
the specific location of the file within the site (i.e., 
under what subdirectories), how large the file is, and 
the date and name of the article.  
Although my Archie search resulted in a list of servers 
located in Japan, the United Kingdom, the U.S., Germany, 
Switzerland and Sweden, I needn't be a polyglot to read 
the articles from these countries, because the articles 
accessed are in English.  Many of the same CD-ROM 
articles are located at different sites, so it is up to 
the user to decide to which site they want to FTP.   
However, the closer the proximity of the site to your 
location, the better and less demanding on the Internet 
system.  In fact, when FTPing to a  server site in 
Hannover, Germany, the system requested that users 
located in the U.S. please use a server located nearer 
to them.  

However, I must admit, it is fun and exceptionally easy 
to explore sites around the world and FTPing to the site 
is very swift  once you type in the foreign server 
address.  Each server has its own personality -- some 
are congenial, others are more business-like.  For 
example, a server in Switzerland has a little welcome 
note and a London-based server  provides the user with 
the local time.  Japan and Sweden servers connect you to 
their files with little fanfare.  Some sites issue a 
warning stating that all actions you perform at their 
site are monitored. The Swiss warn the user this way:  
"Everything you do is logged so be nice ;-)"  What 
wonderful netiquette!  Just like gophering and other 
types of Internetting functions, use may be limited.  
When FTPing to London, England one is told what user 
number they are out of a maximum usage rate (e.g., 31, 
out of a maximum of 40).

Another means of finding information on CD-ROMs is to 
"gopher" to a site.  "The Internet Gopher allows you to 
browse for resources using menus (Krol, p. 190).  Gopher 
provides many menus and options, so you will want to 
explore on your own.  Below, is a sample gophering 
episode to find CD-ROM information.
At the system prompt, type: gopher
A menu appears offering many options for searching.  
Select #8 --  Other Gopher and Information Servers 
Select #11 - WAIS Based Information
Select #3 -- Everything  (It is wise to keep your 
options open.) 
When I performed my search 16 pages of various server 
topics came up after some time.  One can either scroll 
down using the arrow key or type in the number 
corresponding to your required option.  
For this sample, type: 25 (ERIC -archive. src)
The screen will ask you what Index word(s) you wish to 
search for.  
Type: CD-ROM
This database in not case sensitive so typing "cd-rom" 
will result in the same article listings.  My search 
brought up 26 CD-ROM related titles.  Again, either 
scroll down or type in the number corresponding to your 
desired file.  It takes the system just a few seconds to 
retrieve a file.  Once you have accessed the file, you 
have four command options: exiting, mailing, saving or 
printing the article.  You will see the "mail" "save"  
and "print" options located at the bottom of the screen 
after you type "q" to quit the article.   
To save the article type "s".  You will be prompted to 
name the file where you want the article saved.  When 
saving subsequent articles the system will prompt you to 
"Enter save file name:" and will include the name of the 
file previously created.  Be careful, because if you 
don't change the name the new article will REPLACE the 
stored article in that file.  Articles can not be 
amended to existing files, as they can using some other 
programs.  After you have saved articles in your account 
you can then download them to your personal computer, 
edit and print them. If you access an article and want 
to get back to the list of articles menu, after typing 
"q" to quit, press, Enter.  
One interesting aspect of CD-ROM technology is its 
applicability to Internet use.  "Many types of 
references that previously were available only in books 
or through electronic search devices are now available 
on diskette.  Owning a diskette version of this type of 
material gives quick access to the information at any 
time... " (Gottlieb, 1989).  CD-ROM use is a tremendous 
boon for heavy Internet users whose access to Internet 
resources may be limited due to cost considerations, 
operation malfunctions.  In addition, educators can 
employ many of the same search methods they use on the 
Internet without worries of log-in restrictions problems 
due to access restrictions when the maximum number of 
users on the system has already been reached.  

One can even purchase CD-ROMs which store Internet 
newsgroup postings and information.   "Now, with 
NetNews/CD, the wealth of information available via 
USENET is archived and readily available when you need 
it, not just when it arrives" Landfield (1992).   As CD-
ROM popularity continues to grow, many other newsgroups 
will surely save their articles and postings on such a 
medium.  Subscribers to LISTSERVs will no longer have to 
download desired information to their hard drives or a 
floppy disk, thus saving time and reducing the 
aggravation which sometimes occurs when one can not  
transfer files due to the limited storage capacity of 
ones computer.  As Becker (1991) so nicely puts it, "CD-
ROM promises to end that dependency on whatever you can 
squeeze onto a diskette".

As you can see, the applications for CD-ROM usage is 
vast and by utilizing Internet resources, one can 
readily learn more about their potential uses.  Internet 
users can even use telecomputing techniques to access 
CD-ROM information on how to use telecomputing commands.  
For example, the Prime Time Freeware (PTF) has produced 
a CD-ROM of UNIX-related source codes (Morin 1992).  
Telecomputing using the resources of the Internet for 
educational purposes is becoming ever more popular.  
"CD-ROM encyclopedias are demonstrating useful and 
powerful tools for learning right now.  If teachers can 
find the time to develop learning activities and 
assignments that exploit their power, and if schools can 
implement the software in student accessible networks, 
we will see an "order of magnitude" change in the value 
of instructional computer software for school based 
learning." (Becker, 1991, p. 20).   On-line access to 
CD-ROM may become "one of the more important 
technologies to provide distance learners with access to 
reference and research materials" (Brey, 1989).

Naturally, in order to utilize all of the wonderful 
educational tools CD-ROMs provide you will need the 
proper equipment including a CD-ROM Drive.  There are 
almost as many options in buying a CD-ROM drive as there 
are CD-ROMs to play.  For example, you can purchase a 
multisession capability drive which when coupled with 
Kodak's Photo CD technology, allows the user to store as 
many as 100 digital photographs on a CD-ROM.  You may 
want to buy dual-speed disc drives which rotate at twice 
the speed of conventional CD-ROM drives.  Maybe you want 
to make a faculty presentation using CD-ROM technology 
or want your entire class to hear a Bach concerto in a 
music appreciation class.  Then, you'll want to be sure 
to purchase a CD-ROM drive with RCA preamp jacks which 
let you hook up a pair of external speakers.  For 
conferencing using CD-ROM technology,  drives that allow 
you to use more than one disc at a time are available, 
such as the CD-ROM jukeboxes which can swap as many as 
six discs into and out of a single drive mechanism (Von 

Just as you used Internet resources to find information 
on CD-ROM technology, you can do the same to find out 
all about CD-ROM drives!  You be the driver!  It's fast, 
it's fun and it's educational!  ;-).   Nancy Reppert


Becker, H.J. (1991, February).  Encyclopedias on CD-ROM: 
Two Orders of Magnitude 	More Than Any Other 
Educational Software Has Ever Delivered Before. 
Educational Technology, pp. 7-20.

Brey, R. (1990).  Telecourse Utilization Survey Project 
-- Third-Year Report: Fall 1986-Summer 1989, Austin 
Community College, p. 61.

Gottlieb, S. (1989).  Using Personal Computers to 
Acquire Special Education Information.  (ERIC Document 
Reproduction Service No. ED314914).

Krol, E.  (1992).  The Whole Internet, User's Guide & 
Catalog.  O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.

Landfield, K. (1992, February).  RE: News available on 
CD-ROM [Electronic mail 	message]. Florida SunFlash, 
38 (18).

MacUser  (1991, December). 7 (12), pp. 63, 64.

Miller, Michael  (1992, March 31). Multimedia.  PC 
Magazine, pp. 112-120.

Morin, Rich (1992, January). RE: Sources on CD-ROM 
[Electronic mail message].  Florida SunFlash, (38) 6.

Poggio, Andy (1988, March).  From Plastic Pits to 
Fantasia.  CD-ROM Technical Summary [  

Schamber, Linda (1990, December).  ERIC on CD-ROM. (ERIC 
Document Reproduction Service No.ED330372).

Schamber, Linda (1988, May).  The Novice User and CD-ROM 
Database Service.  (ERIC Document Reproduction Service 
No. ED300032). 

Tkachuck, R. (1993, May).  RE: AskERIC Services provided 
for Educators [Electronic 	mail message].  ERIC 
Clearinghouse on Information Resources, Syracuse, New 

Von Biel, V. (1993, June).  How to Buy CD-ROM Drives.  
MacUser (p. 100).