This is the tenth of ten parts of the sci.crypt FAQ. The parts are mostly independent, but you should read the first part before the rest. We don't have the time to send out missing parts by mail, so don't ask. Notes such as ``[KAH67]'' refer to the reference list in this part. The sections of this FAQ are available via anonymous FTP to rtfm.mit.edu as /pub/usenet/news.answers/cryptography-faq/part[xx]. The Cryptography FAQ is posted to the newsgroups sci.crypt, sci.answers, and news.answers every 21 days. Contents 10.1. Books on history and classical methods 10.2. Books on modern methods 10.3. Survey articles 10.4. Reference articles 10.5. Journals, conference proceedings 10.6. Other 10.7. How may one obtain copies of FIPS and ANSI standards cited herein? 10.8. Electronic sources 10.9. RFCs (available from [FTPRF]) 10.10. Related newsgroups 10.1. Books on history and classical methods [FRIE1] Lambros D. Callimahos, William F. Friedman, Military Cryptanalytics. Aegean Park Press, ?. [DEA85] Cipher A. Deavours & Louis Kruh, Machine Cryptography and Modern Cryptanalysis. Artech House, 610 Washington St., Dedham, MA 02026, 1985. [FRIE2] William F. Friedman, Solving German Codes in World War I. Aegean Park Press, ?. [GAI44] H. Gaines, Cryptanalysis, a study of ciphers and their solution. Dover Publications, 1944. [HIN00] F.H.Hinsley, et al., British Intelligence in the Second World War. Cambridge University Press. (vol's 1, 2, 3a, 3b & 4, so far). XXX Years and authors, fix XXX [HOD83] Andrew Hodges, Alan Turing: The Enigma. Burnett Books Ltd., 1983 [KAH91] David Kahn, Seizing the Enigma. Houghton Mifflin, 1991. [KAH67] D. Kahn, The Codebreakers. Macmillan Publishing, 1967. [history] [The abridged paperback edition left out most technical details; the original hardcover edition is recommended.] [KOZ84] W. Kozaczuk, Enigma. University Publications of America, 1984 [KUL76] S. Kullback, Statistical Methods in Cryptanalysis. Aegean Park Press, 1976. [SIN66] A. Sinkov, Elementary Cryptanalysis. Math. Assoc. Am. 1966. [WEL82] Gordon Welchman, The Hut Six Story. McGraw-Hill, 1982. [YARDL] Herbert O. Yardley, The American Black Chamber. Aegean Park Press, ?. 10.2. Books on modern methods [BEK82] H. Beker, F. Piper, Cipher Systems. Wiley, 1982. [BRA88] G. Brassard, Modern Cryptology: a tutorial. Spinger-Verlag, 1988. [DEN82] D. Denning, Cryptography and Data Security. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1982. [KOB89] N. Koblitz, A course in number theory and cryptography. Springer-Verlag, 1987. [KON81] A. Konheim, Cryptography: a primer. Wiley, 1981. [MEY82] C. Meyer and S. Matyas, Cryptography: A new dimension in computer security. Wiley, 1982. [PAT87] Wayne Patterson, Mathematical Cryptology for Computer Scientists and Mathematicians. Rowman & Littlefield, 1987. [PFL89] C. Pfleeger, Security in Computing. Prentice-Hall, 1989. [PRI84] W. Price, D. Davies, Security for computer networks. Wiley, 1984. [RUE86] R. Rueppel, Design and Analysis of Stream Ciphers. Springer-Verlag, 1986. [SAL90] A. Saloma, Public-key cryptography. Springer-Verlag, 1990. [WEL88] D. Welsh, Codes and Cryptography. Claredon Press, 1988. 10.3. Survey articles [ANG83] D. Angluin, D. Lichtenstein, Provable Security in Crypto- systems: a survey. Yale University, Department of Computer Science, #288, 1983. [BET90] T. Beth, Algorithm engineering for public key algorithms. IEEE Selected Areas of Communication, 1(4), 458--466, 1990. [DAV83] M. Davio, J. Goethals, Elements of cryptology. in Secure Digital Communications, G. Longo ed., 1--57, 1983. [DIF79] W. Diffie, M. Hellman, Privacy and Authentication: An introduction to cryptography. IEEE proceedings, 67(3), 397--427, 1979. [DIF88] W. Diffie, The first ten years of public key cryptography. IEEE proceedings, 76(5), 560--577, 1988. [FEI73] H. Feistel, Cryptography and Computer Privacy. Scientific American, 228(5), 15--23, 1973. [FEI75] H. Feistel, H, W. Notz, J. Lynn Smith. Some cryptographic techniques for machine-to-machine data communications, IEEE IEEE proceedings, 63(11), 1545--1554, 1975. [HEL79] M. Hellman, The mathematics of public key cryptography. Scientific American, 130--139, 1979. [LAK83] S. Lakshmivarahan, Algorithms for public key cryptosystems. In Advances in Computers, M. Yovtis ed., 22, Academic Press, 45--108, 1983. [LEM79] A. Lempel, Cryptology in transition, Computing Surveys, 11(4), 285--304, 1979. [MAS88] J. Massey, An introduction to contemporary cryptology, IEEE proceedings, 76(5), 533--549, 1988. [SIM91] G. Simmons (ed.), Contemporary Cryptology: the Science of Information Integrity. IEEE press, 1991. 10.4. Reference articles [AND83] D. Andelman, J. Reeds, On the cryptanalysis of rotor and substitution-permutation networks. IEEE Trans. on Inform. Theory, 28(4), 578--584, 1982. [BEN87] John Bennett, Analysis of the Encryption Algorithm Used in the WordPerfect Word Processing Program. Cryptologia 11(4), 206--210, 1987. [BER91] H. A. Bergen and W. J. Caelli, File Security in WordPerfect 5.0. Cryptologia 15(1), 57--66, January 1991. [BIH91] E. Biham and A. Shamir, Differential cryptanalysis of DES-like cryptosystems. Journal of Cryptology, vol. 4, #1, 3--72, 1991. [BI91a] E. Biham, A. Shamir, Differential cryptanalysis of Snefru, Khafre, REDOC-II, LOKI and LUCIFER. In Proceedings of CRYPTO '91, ed. by J. Feigenbaum, 156--171, 1992. [BOY89] J. Boyar, Inferring Sequences Produced by Pseudo-Random Number Generators. Journal of the ACM, 1989. [BRI86] E. Brickell, J. Moore, M. Purtill, Structure in the S-boxes of DES. In Proceedings of CRYPTO '86, A. M. Odlyzko ed., 3--8, 1987. [BRO89] L. Brown, A proposed design for an extended DES, Computer Security in the Computer Age. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. (North Holland), IFIP, W. J. Caelli ed., 9--22, 1989. [BRO90] L. Brown, J. Pieprzyk, J. Seberry, LOKI - a cryptographic primitive for authentication and secrecy applications. In Proceedings of AUSTCRYPT 90, 229--236, 1990. [CAE90] H. Gustafson, E. Dawson, W. Caelli, Comparison of block ciphers. In Proceedings of AUSCRYPT '90, J. Seberry and J. Piepryzk eds., 208--220, 1990. [CAM93] K. W. Campbell, M. J. Wiener, Proof the DES is Not a Group. In Proceedings of CRYPTO '92, 1993. [CAR86] John Carrol and Steve Martin, The Automated Cryptanalysis of Substitution Ciphers. Cryptologia 10(4), 193--209, 1986. [CAR87] John Carrol and Lynda Robbins, Automated Cryptanalysis of Polyalphabetic Ciphers. Cryptologia 11(4), 193--205, 1987. [ELL88] Carl M. Ellison, A Solution of the Hebern Messages. Cryptologia, vol. XII, #3, 144-158, Jul 1988. [EVE83] S. Even, O. Goldreich, DES-like functions can generate the alternating group. IEEE Trans. on Inform. Theory, vol. 29, #6, 863--865, 1983. [GAR91] G. Garon, R. Outerbridge, DES watch: an examination of the sufficiency of the Data Encryption Standard for financial institutions in the 1990's. Cryptologia, vol. XV, #3, 177--193, 1991. [GIL80] Gillogly, ?. Cryptologia 4(2), 1980. [GM82] Shafi Goldwasser, Silvio Micali, Probabilistic Encryption and How To Play Mental Poker Keeping Secret All Partial Information. Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, 1982. [HUM83] D. G. N. Hunter and A. R. McKenzie, Experiments with Relaxation Algorithms for Breaking Simple Substitution Ciphers. Computer Journal 26(1), 1983. [KAM78] J. Kam, G. Davida, A structured design of substitution- permutation encryption networks. IEEE Trans. Information Theory, 28(10), 747--753, 1978. [KIN78] P. Kinnucan, Data encryption gurus: Tuchman and Meyer. Cryptologia, vol. II #4, 371--XXX, 1978. [KIN92] King and Bahler, Probabilistic Relaxation in the Cryptanalysis of Simple Substitution Ciphers. Cryptologia 16(3), 215--225, 1992. [KIN93] King and Bahler, An Algorithmic Solution of Sequential Homophonic Ciphers. Cryptologia 17(2), in press. [KOC87] Martin Kochanski, A Survey of Data Insecurity Packages. Cryptologia 11(1), 1--15, 1987. [KOC88] Martin Kochanski, Another Data Insecurity Package. Cryptologia 12(3), 165--177, 1988. [KRU88] Kruh, ?. Cryptologia 12(4), 1988. [LAI90] X. Lai, J. Massey, A proposal for a new block encryption standard. EUROCRYPT 90, 389--404, 1990. [LUB88] C. Rackoff, M. Luby, How to construct psuedorandom permutations from psuedorandom functions. SIAM Journal of Computing, vol. 17, #2, 373--386, 1988. [LUC88] Michael Lucks, A Constraint Satisfaction Algorithm for the Automated Decryption of Simple Substitution Ciphers. In CRYPTO '88. [MAS88] J. Massey, An introduction to contemporary cryptology. IEEE proceedings, 76(5), 533--549, 1988. [ME91a] R. Merkle, Fast software encryption functions. In Proceedings of CRYPTO '90, Menezes and Vanstone ed., 476--501, 1991. [MEY78] C. Meyer, Ciphertext/plaintext and ciphertext/key dependence vs. number of rounds for the Data Encryption Standard. AFIPS Conference proceedings, 47, 1119--1126, 1978. [NBS77] Data Encryption Standard. National Bureau of Standards, FIPS PUB 46, Washington, DC, January 1977. [PEL79] S. Peleg and A. Rosenfeld, Breaking Substitution Ciphers Using a Relaxation Algorithm. CACM 22(11), 598--605, 1979. [REE77] J. Reeds, `Cracking' a Random Number Generator. Cryptologia 1(1), 20--26, 1977. [REE84] J. A. Reeds and P. J. Weinberger, File Security and the UNIX Crypt Command. AT&T Bell Laboratories Technical Journal, Vol. 63 #8, part 2, 1673--1684, October, 1984. [SHA49] C. Shannon, Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems. Bell System Technical Journal 28(4), 656--715, 1949. [SHE88] B. Kaliski, R. Rivest, A. Sherman, Is the Data Encryption Standard a Group. Journal of Cryptology, vol. 1, #1, 1--36, 1988. [SHI88] A. Shimizu, S. Miyaguchi, Fast data encipherment algorithm FEAL. EUROCRYPT '87, 267--278, 1988. [SHI92] K. Shirriff, C. Welch, A. Kinsman, Decoding a VCR Controller Code. Cryptologia 16(3), 227--234, 1992. [SOR84] A. Sorkin, LUCIFER: a cryptographic algorithm. Cryptologia, 8(1), 22--35, 1984. [SPI93] R. Spillman et al., Use of Genetic Algorithms in Cryptanalysis of Simple Substitution Ciphers. Cryptologia 17(1), 31--44, 1993. 10.5. Journals, conference proceedings CRYPTO Eurocrypt IEEE Transactions on Information Theory Cryptologia: a cryptology journal, quarterly since Jan 1977. Cryptologia; Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology; Terre Haute Indiana 47803 [general: systems, analysis, history, ...] Journal of Cryptology; International Association for Cryptologic Research; published by Springer Verlag (quarterly since 1988). The Cryptogram (Journal of the American Cryptogram Association); 18789 West Hickory Street; Mundelein, IL 60060; [primarily puzzle cryptograms of various sorts] Cryptosystems Journal, Published by Tony Patti, P.O. Box 188, Newtown PA, USA 18940-0188 or tony_s_patti@cup.portal.com. Publisher's comment: Includes complete cryptosystems with source and executable programs on diskettes. Tutorial. The typical cryptosystems supports multi-megabit keys and Galois Field arithmetic. Inexpensive hardware random number generator details. Computer and Communication Security Reviews, published by Ross Anderson. Sample issue available from various ftp sites, including black.ox.ac.uk. Editorial c/o rja14@cl.cam.ac.uk. Publisher's comment: We review all the conference proceedings in this field, including not just Crypto and Eurocrypt, but regional gatherings like Auscrypt and Chinacrypt. We also abstract over 50 journals, and cover computer security as well as cryptology, so readers can see the research trends in applications as well as theory. 10.6. Other Address of note: Aegean Park Press, P.O. Box 2837, Laguna Hills, CA 92654-0837. Answering machine at 714-586-8811. The ``Orange Book'' is DOD 5200.28-STD, published December 1985 as part of the ``rainbow book'' series. Write to Department of Defense, National Security Agency, ATTN: S332, 9800 Savage Road, Fort Meade, MD 20755-6000, and ask for the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria. Or call 301-766-8729. [BAMFD] Bamford, The Puzzle Palace. Penguin Books, ?. [GOO83] I. J. Good, Good Thinking: the foundations of probability and its applications. University of Minnesota Press, 1983. [KNU81] D. E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming, volume 2: Seminumerical Algorithms. Addison-Wesley, 1981. [KUL68] Soloman Kullbach, Information Theory and Statistics. Dover, 1968. [YAO88] A. Yao, Computational Information Theory. In Complexity in Information Theory, ed. by Abu-Mostafa, 1988. 10.7. How may one obtain copies of FIPS and ANSI standards cited herein? Many textbooks on cryptography contain complete reprints of the FIPS standards, which are not copyrighted. The following standards may be ordered from the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. FIPS PUB 46-1 Data Encryption Standard (this is DES) FIPS PUB 74 Guidelines for Implementing as Using the NBS DES FIPS PUB 81 DES Modes of Operation FIPS PUB 113 Computer Data Authentication (using DES) The following standards may be ordered from the American National Standards Institute Sales Office, 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018. Phone 212.642.4900 ANSI X3.92-1981 Data Encryption Algorithm (identical to FIPS 46-1) ANSI X3.106-1983 DEA Modes of Operation (identical to FIPS 113) Notes: Figure 3 in FIPS PUB 46-1 is in error, but figure 3 in X3.92-1981 is correct. The text is correct in both publications. 10.8. Electronic sources Anonymous ftp: [FTPBK] ftp.uu.net:bsd-sources/usr.bin/des/ [FTPCB] ftp.uu.net:usenet/comp.sources.unix/volume10/cbw/ [FTPDF] ftp.funet.fi:pub/unix/security/destoo.tar.Z [FTPDQ] rsa.com:pub/faq/ [FTPEY] ftp.psy.uq.oz.au:pub/DES/ [FTPMD] rsa.com:? [FTPMR] ripem.msu.edu:pub/crypt/newdes.tar.Z [FTPOB] ftp.3com.com:Orange-book [FTPPF] prep.ai.mit.edu:pub/lpf/ [FTPPK] ucsd.edu:hamradio/packet/tcpip/crypto/des.tar.Z [FTPRF] nic.merit.edu:documents/rfc/ [FTPSF] beta.xerox.com:pub/hash/ [FTPSO] chalmers.se:pub/des/des.1.0.tar.Z [FTPTR] ripem.msu.edu:pub/crypt/other/tran.tar.Z [FTPUF] ftp.uu.net:usenet/comp.sources.unix/volume28/ufc-crypt/ [FTPWP] garbo.uwasa.fi:pc/util/wppass2.zip 10.9. RFCs (available from [FTPRF]) [1424] B. Kaliski, Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic Mail: Part IV: Key Certification and Related Services. RFC 1424, February 1993. [1423] D. Balenson, Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic Mail: Part III: Algorithms, Modes, and Identifiers. RFC 1423, February 1993. [1422] S. Kent, Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic Mail: Part II: Certificate-Based Key Management. RFC 1422, February 1993. [1421] J. Linn, Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic Mail: Part I: Message Encryption and Authentication Procedures. RFC 1421, February 1993. 10.10. Related newsgroups There are other newsgroups which a sci.crypt reader might want also to read. Some have their own FAQs as well. alt.privacy.clipper alt.security general security discussions alt.security.index index to alt.security alt.security.pgp discussion of PGP alt.security.ripem discussion of RIPEM alt.society.civil-liberty general civil liberties, including privacy comp.compression discussion of compression algorithms and code comp.org.eff.news News reports from EFF comp.org.eff.talk discussion of EFF related issues comp.patents discussion of S/W patents, including RSA comp.risks some mention of crypto and wiretapping comp.society.privacy general privacy issues comp.security.announce announcements of security holes misc.legal.computing sci.math general math discussion