A Biologist's Guide to Internet Resources
                        Version 1.5, 13 July 1993

        Una Smith       Department of Biology           smith-una@yale.edu
                        Yale University
                        New Haven, Connecticut  06511

-*- 2. Networking

    The Internet has become an excellent place in which to look for academic
    and professional job announcements, conference announcements and calls
    for papers, and important notices about recent events in many fields of
    biology.  Generally, notices of all forms appear on the Internet well in
    advance of traditional journals and newsletters.  Scientific interest
    groups, both formal and informal ones, maintain electronic discussion
    groups, directories, digests and newsletters.  These resources are
    distributed in three principal ways:  via Usenet newsgroups, (automated)
    listserver mailing lists, and mailing lists administered by real people.
    Increasingly, the two forms of mailing list have "gateways" connecting
    them with Usenet newsgroups.

-*- 2.1. Some Mind-Boggling Statistics

    Recently, approximately 370 thousand articles per week were distributed
    worldwide through Usenet (Anonymous 1993).  This traffic constituted
    roughly 50 megabytes per day of announcements, questions and answers,
    advice and bits of program code, references, heated debates, and data in
    various formats.  There are now nearly a million registered computers
    on the Internet, and thus tens of millions of people;  an estimated
    7 million people have accounts on 65 thousand computers carrying Usenet,
    and nearly 2 million people read Usenet news at least occasionally
    (Reid 1993b).  There are several thousand world-wide Usenet newsgroups,
    several thousand listserver mailing lists, and several thousand other,
    generally small mailing lists.

    It appears that there are on the order of 10 thousand people who read
    biology-related Usenet newsgroups (Reid 1993a), and there may be that
    many using mailing lists for topics in biology.  All together, there are
    a hundred or so newsgroups and mailing lists (most via listservers)
    that may be of particular interest to biologists.  They are listed below.

-*- 2.2. Netiquette

    The professionally-oriented newsgroups and mailing lists follow certain
    conventions of etiquette.  These are none other than those used by most
    people at public events such as academic conferences.  In fact, most of
    the science-related newsgroups (and mailing lists) are very much like
    mid-sized meetings of any professional society, except that they never
    end.  The participants come and go as they please, but the discussions
    and exchange of ideas and information continue as though they had a life
    of their own.

    Submitted articles tend to be of the following types:

    - Discussions on topics of general interest.  Discussions on specific
      topics, techniques, or organisms are also frequent.

    - Announcements of upcoming conferences or other events, calls for papers
      or grant proposal deadlines.  In Usenet, announcements can be set to
      expire (and thus disappear from the list of current articles), and may
      be limited in their distribution so that they are seen only by readers
      in the appropriate organization or geographical area (Beware, this
      feature is often leaky;  see section 2.3, Usenet).

    - Academic and professional job announcements, including many graduate
      fellowships.  These are generally posted in newsgroups/mailing lists
      reserved for such notices, often in advance of publication elsewhere.

    - Reports or comments on new books, papers, methods or software.  Full
      citation of sources is always appropriate and appreciated.  Requests
      for references or comments are also welcome and, when posed as specific
      questions of general interest, often lead to interesting discussions.

    Unacceptable articles include:

    - Commercial advertizements, political lobbying messages, and anything
      not pertaining directly to the topic or purview of the newsgroup or
      mailing list.  Discussions about some commercial products, especially
      books and software, are generally allowed as long as they do not
      constitute advertisements.

    - Requests by students for explicit answers to homework and exam or essay
      questions are generally not welcome.  Requests for help understanding
      problems in biology are welcome, but the requester should demonstrate
      at least a basic understanding of the question.

    Some helpful suggestions:

    - Read before you post (look before you leap)

    Before posting an article for the first time, read the discussions for
    a week or so.  Look for a "FAQ" document that covers frequently asked
    questions, before you make the mistake of asking one yourself.

    - Always include your full name and e-mail address

    Put these at the end of your message, with your usual signature.  You
    might want to use a .signature file (standard on most Unix systems, also
    implemented for Usenet and e-mail readers under VM/CMS) to make this
    automatic. This is necessary because strange things often happen to
    headers in e-mail or Usenet articles sent from one network to another.

    - Send private replies whenever appropriate

    Answers to very esoteric questions are often best sent directly to the
    person who asked for help, rather than to the newsgroup;  the choice of
    whether to post a (public) reply or send (private) e-mail is a personal
    decision.  If you send a reply by e-mail, and would prefer that it be
    kept private, you should say so in your note, because otherwise the other
    person may share your comments with others.  If the original poster
    promises to post a summary at the outset, then all replies should be
    sent by e-mail, unless they constitute an important re-direction of the
    original question.

    - Summarize the replies to your article

    Whenever a question or request for information results in many replies,
    it is expected that the person who posted the original article will
    compile and post a summary of the responses.

    - Use care when writing summaries

      - The "best" answers should come first.
      - All answers should be separated clearly, and nicely formatted.
      - Redundant, irrelevant or verbose comments, and errors of fact or
        spelling should be edited out.  It is appropriate to use square
        brackets and dots to indicate editing [...].
      - Exercise discretion and tact, to ensure a fair and accurate summary.
      - Unless they asked that their names be withheld, the contributors of
        each answer should be named and thanked, individually or as a group.

    - Avoid starting nasty arguments or "flame wars"

      - Be generous when interpreting the arguments of others.
      - Avoid jargon;  write as though addressing an educated lay audience.
      - Remember, the exercise will be good for you.

    If something you read angers you, save it for a few hours while you do
    something else (don't reply on an empty stomach).  Go back to it when
    you are calm and relaxed (and you have thought of a good rebuttal!).
    If you simply must say something highly critical, consider sending
    it via personal e-mail, rather than posting or mailing to the group.

    - Be careful about quotations, citations and copyrights

    The Internet has grown to the point where it has become reasonable to
    cite documents that exist officially only in an electronic version on
    the Internet.  And the issue of authenticity and version control has
    become extremely important.  Thus, it has become appropriate to express
    copyrights, and to specify within documents how they may or may not be
    used, both within the Internet and in print.  Please respect these
    restrictions, which are often very generous, and send the author e-mail
    if you have any doubts about the intended use of any Internet document.

    As a rule of thumb, you may freely cite or quote anything posted to a
    newsgroup or mailing list in that forum *only*.  For citations or quotes
    elsewhere, it is hoped, even expected, that you will first request express
    permission from the author, which is easy, given the author's e-mail
    address.  Although there has been a trend to cite specific articles posted
    in Usenet, it is generally satisfactory to use the "personal communication"
    formula, but for this reason you should request a specific, personal
    statement from the author that is directly relevant to and given in the
    context of the issue that you wish to address.

-*- 2.3. Usenet

    Usenet is a convention, in every sense of the word.

    Usenet is a system of organized "newsgroups" sharing many features with
    traditional newsletters, mailing lists and focused scientific societies.
    Usenet is Internet-based (although before the Internet existed it was
    distributed via UUCP), and strongly developed so that end users need
    know only how to interact with the particular Usenet "reader" program
    on their computers.  Features of Usenet that make it far superior to the
    two types of mailing lists generally include the sorting or "threading"
    of all articles on a related topic, control of the distribution of
    posted articles to hierarchical levels (e.g., the author's university,
    state, country, or continent--but this feature may "leak"), the ability
    to cancel an article even after it has been distributed, and automatic
    expiration of dated articles.  To test any of these features, especially
    the distribution control, try posting an article to misc.test;  your
    article will receive "echoes" from other sites that receive it.

    Usenet is "free", but not cheap;  because it requires a lot of computer
    disk space, and a certain amount of installation and regular maintenance
    work by a system administrator, not all computer systems carry Usenet.
    If Usenet is carried locally, it may still be necessary to prod the local
    Usenet administrator to add the bionet and bit.listserv newsgroups to the
    local "feed".  Usenet was created by two Duke University graduate students
    in 1979:  see Spafford (1993) for the definitive history of Usenet and a
    list of Usenet software for virtually every type of computer.

    To paraphrase Spafford and Salzenberg (1992):  Usenet is *not* a network.
    Usenet is an anarchy, with no laws and no one in charge.  No one has any
    real control outside of their own site.  Computer system administrators
    who distribute Usenet "feeds" to other sites gain some authority by virtue
    of being "upstream";  that is, they have some say over what newsgroups
    their "downstream" neighbors can receive.  Usenet feeds are stored at each
    site in "spools";  it is common for universities to have Usenet spools on
    one or two computers, and to allow everyone at the university to read
    Usenet news via "client" programs that connect to the remote "news server".

    The particular configuration of the Usenet feed to your university or
    organization determines whether the distribution control feature of most
    Usenet posting programs will work properly for you.  For example, the
    mailing lists for the bionet.* newsgroups are gated on the west coast of
    North America, and you might think that it is safe to post local items
    in a bionet.* newsgroup if you live elsewhere.  But many sites get their
    feed of bionet.* groups directly from the machine that runs the mailing
    lists, which is definitely outside your geographic area.  So your article
    will be distributed at your site, but will not be propagated from your
    site to any other site in your area if it must pass out of your region
    and then return through a separate feed to a university in the next city.
    Furthermore, it is a more efficient use of network resources to get as
    much Usenet traffic as possible from the nearest site available.  It is
    important, therefore, to do a little research on Usenet feeds in your area
    before asking your Usenet administrator to add one of the newsgroup
    hierarchies listed in section 2.3.2, Special Usenet Hierarchies and Gated
    Mailing Lists.

    Usenet etiquette:

      - New users should read the Usenet FAQs posted in news.announce.newusers.

      - Use the misc.test newsgroup for posting test articles.  Be sure to
        test the distribution feature here.  Do not post test articles to
        other newsgroups.

      - Use the expiration feature for job and conference announcments.

      - When posting to more than one newsgroup, use the cross-posting feature
        so only one copy of your article goes out, but is seen by many people.

      - Post (and cross-post) sparingly to groups that have associated mailing
        lists, to give a break to people who must read the groups via e-mail.

    The cross-posting of articles to more than one gated newsgroup is strongly
    discouraged, since the e-mail subscribers will get multiple copies of any
    cross-posted articles.  Usenet readers should be aware of proper etiquette
    for mailing lists when posting to gated newsgroups.

-*- 2.3.1. Newsgroups of Special Interest

    An "F" after the newsgroup name indicates an FAQ is available.  "M" means
    that the newsgroup is moderated.  "G" means that the newsgroup has a
    gateway to a parallel mailing list:  see section 2.3.2, Special Usenet
    Hierarchies and Gated Mailing Lists for details.

    alt.bbs.internet             F  Announcements of new Internet services
    alt.cyb-sys                     Cybernetics and Systems
    alt.info-theory                 Information theory a la Shannon
    alt.internet.access.wanted   F  Help getting full Internet access
    alt.internet.services        F  Announcements of new Internet resources
    alt.lang.sas                    SAS discussion
    alt.native                      Indigenous peoples
    alt.sci.*                       [6 groups]
    alt.agriculture.*               [2 groups]

    bionet.agroforestry          G  Agroforestry research
    bionet.announce            FGM  Announcements
    bionet.biology.computational GM Comp. and math. applications in biology
    bionet.biology.n2-fixation   G  Biological nitrogen fixation
    bionet.biology.tropical      G  Tropical biology and ecology
    bionet.chlamydomonas         G  Chlamydomonas discussion
    bionet.cellbio               G  Cell biology discussion
    bionet.general              FG  General discussion
    bionet.genome.*              G  [3 groups:  Arabidopsis and chromosomes]
    bionet.immunology            G  Research in immunology
    bionet.info-theory          FG  Information theory applied to biology
    bionet.jobs                  G  Job opportunities in biology
    bionet.journals.contents    GM  Biological journal TOCs
    bionet.journals.note         G  Publication issues in biology
    bionet.molbio.ageing         G  Cellular and organismal ageing
    bionet.molbio.bio-matrix     G  Computer searches of biological databases
    bionet.molbio.embldatabank   G  Info about the EMBL Nucleic acid database
    bionet.molbio.evolution      G  Evolution, especially molecular
    bionet.molbio.gdb            G  The GDB database
    bionet.molbio.genbank        G  The GenBank nucleic acid database
    bionet.molbio.gene-linkage   G  Genetic linkage analysis.
    bionet.molbio.genome-program G  Human Genome Program issues
    bionet.molbio.methds-reagnts G  Tips on lab techniques and materials
    bionet.molbio.hiv            G  The molecular biology of HIV
    bionet.molbio.proteins       G  Proteins and protein database searches
    bionet.molbio.rapd           G  Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA
    bionet.molbio.yeast          G  Yeast researchers' discussion
    bionet.neuroscience          G  Research issues in the neurosciences
    bionet.photosynthesis        G  Photosynthesis research
    bionet.plants                G  Plant biology, inc. genetics and ecology
    bionet.population-bio        G  Population biology, especially theory
    bionet.sci-resources        GM  Information about funding agencies, etc.
    bionet.software              G  Software for biology, esp. free/shareware
    bionet.software.*            G  [3 groups:  acedb, gcg, and sources]
    bionet.users.addresses       G  Help locating biologists who use e-mail
    bionet.virology              G  Research in virology
    bionet.women-in-bio          G  Discussion by and about women in biology
    bionet.xtallography          G  Protein crystallography

    bit.listserv.biosph-l        G  Biosphere, ecology, Discussion List
    bit.listserv.devel-l         G  Tech. Transfer in Internat. Development
    bit.listserv.ecolog-l        G  Ecological Society of America
    bit.listserv.edstat-l        G  Journal of Statistics Education List
    bit.listserv.ethology        G  Ethology List
    bit.listserv.medforum       MG  Medical Students Discussion
    bit.listserv.sas-l           G  SAS Discussion
    bit.listserv.scifraud        G  Discussion of Fraud in Science
    bit.listserv.spssx-l         G  SPSSX Statistical Discussion
    bit.listserv.stat-l          G  Statistical consulting
    bit.listserv.uigis-l         G  User Interface for GIS
    bit.listserv.vpiej-l         G  Electronic Publishing Discussion List
    bit.org.peace-corps          G  International Volunteers Discussion Group

    comp.infosystems.gis        FG  Geograpical Information Systems
    comp.infosystems.gopher      F  The Internet gopher access tool
    comp.infosystems.wais        F  The Internet WAIS access tool
    comp.infosystems.www            The Internet WWW access tool
    comp.text.tex                F  TeX, LaTeX and related text format systems
    comp.theory.cell-automata    G  Cellular automata research
  comp.theory.dynamic-sys      G  Ergodic theory and dynamic systems
    comp.theory.self-org-sys     G  Topics related to self-organization

    embnet.news.admin            G  EMBnet news helpline for administrators
    embnet.general               G  General discussion
    embnet.net-dev                  Network development discussion
    embnet.rpc                      Technical discussion of data transfers

    info.grass.programmer       GM  GRASS GIS programmer issues
    info.grass.user             GM  GRASS GIS user issues

    math.stat.math                  Mathematical statistics

    news.announce.important     FM  Important notices about Usenet
    news.announce.newusers       F  FAQs for new users of Usenet
    news.answers                FM  All FAQ documents
    news.lists                  FM  Statistics and data about Usenet

    sci.answers                GFM  FAQs pertaining to science
    sci.anthropology                Anthropology discussion
    sci.archaeology                 Archaeology discussion
    sci.bio                      F  General biology discussion
    sci.bio.technology           G  Any topic relating to biotechnology
    sci.environment                 Discussion of environmental issues
    sci.geo.*                       [3 groups]
    sci.image.processing         F  Scientific image processing
    sci.nonlinear                   Nonlinear dynamical systems
    sci.research.careers            Discussion of research careers in science
    sci.*                           [60 other newsgroups]

-*- 2.3.2. Special Usenet Hierarchies and Gated Mailing Lists

    There has been a growing trend in the past few years to link mailing lists
    and newsgroups, and to create Usenet newsgroup hierarchies that are outside
    the "main stream".  Both being new, these two trends often go together.
    Some main-stream groups (e.g., sci.answers, sci.bio.technology and
    comp.infosystems.gis) are gated to (usually listserver) mailing lists, but
    most are not.

    None of the Usenet newsgroup hierarchies mentioned below are main-stream
    ones;  that is, they do not conform to all Usenet conventions, and
    consequently are carried by no more than 30-50% of Usenet sites.  This is
    not necessarily a bad thing, since few or no readers at most sites are
    biologists, and e-mail subscriptions are available for many groups.  If
    your site carries Usenet, but not these hierarcies, a simple request to
    your Usenet administrator might be all that's needed to get them too.
    But see the first part of section 2.3, Usenet for details about what to
    ask for.


    For an e-mail subscription to any bionet newsgroup, send e-mail to
    biosci@daresbury.ac.uk if you live in Europe, or to biosci@net.bio.net
    otherwise, naming the groups that you want.  Brief descriptions of some
    of these groups are given in the BIOSCI FAQ, posted in bionet.announce
    and available via gopher or anonymous FTP from net.bio.net in the
    directory pub/BIOSCI/ or by e-mail on request from biosci@net.bio.net.


    As their names imply, the bit.listserv newsgroups started out as (and
    remain) listserver mailing lists.  Most of these mailing lists became
    so successful that gateways to Usenet were added by popular demand.  The
    appendix includes 100 or so other listserver mailing lists of interest
    to biologists;  those with Usenet gateways are listed in section 2.4.3,
    Gateways to Usenet.  Charters for each of these groups can be obtained
    from the listserver that administers each one.  See sections 2.4,
    Listserver Mailing Lists and 2.4.1, Commands for details about e-mail
    subscriptions and commands for interacting with listserver programs.


    Send e-mail to Erik Fair, fair@ucbarpa.berkeley.edu, or see the list of
    mailing lists posted regularly in news.answers for details about e-mail


    The European Molecular Biology Network (EMBnet) runs a group of Usenet
    newsgroups that are distributed in Europe.  E-mail subscriptions are
    available from nethelp@embl-heidelberg.de, and these newsgroups can be
    read and searched via gopher and WAIS on bioftp.unibas.ch.  Send general
    e-mail queries to embnet@comp.bioz.unibas.ch.


    These groups are mailing lists with gateways to Usenet at the University
    of Illinois.  See section 2.5, Other Mailing Lists for e-mail subscription
    information, or ask your local Usenet administrator to get these groups.


    The Long Term Ecological Research Network (LTERnet) has a setup similar
    to that of EMBnet.  Ask helper@lternet.edu about e-mail subscriptions,
    or see the gopher on lternet.edu.

-*- 2.3.3. Usenet FAQs about Usenet

    You are strongly encouraged to read the following introductory and
    etiquette FAQs before posting any messages to any newsgroup.  They are
    what might be considered the "mandatory course" for new users, and
    are posted frequently in the Usenet newsgroup news.newusers.announce.

    See section 5, Useful and Important FAQs for a list of additional FAQs
    of general use or interest to biologists, section 5.1, What's an FAQ and
    where can I get one? and section 3.6.2, Anonymous FTP for instructions
    on how to get copies by anonymous FTP or e-mail if you don't have access
    to a Usenet reader.

               Title                            Archive filename

                        Introductory information

    What is Usenet?                             what-is-usenet/part1
    Answers to Frequently Asked Questions       usenet-faq/part1
        about Usenet
    Introduction to news.announce               news-announce-intro/part1

                        Etiquette issues

    A Primer on How to Work With the            usenet-primer/part1
        Usenet Community
    Emily Postnews Answers Your Questions       emily-postnews/part1
        on Netiquette
    Hints on writing style for Usenet           usenet-writing-style/part1
    Rules for posting to Usenet                 posting-rules/part1

                        Technical issues

    How to Create a New Usenet Newsgroup        creating-newsgroups/part1
    USENET Software:  History and Sources       usenet-software/part1
    How to become a USENET site                 site-setup
    NetNews/Listserv Gateway Policy             bit/policy
    UNIX BBS Software FAQ with Answers          unix-faq/bbs-software
    Introduction to the news.answers            news-answers/introduction
    Instructions for posting to news.answers    news-answers/guidelines

-*- 2.4. Listserver Mailing Lists

    It is very important that you keep a list of all mailing lists to which
    you are subscribed, along with the address of the list administrator
    and the address you used when you subscribed, if you have more than one.
    This is because you will need to unsubscribe yourself if you go away on
    vacation or your address changes.  Otherwise any mail sent to you from
    the list may bounce or cause other, sometimes severe problems.  And it's
    easier to check the address etc. when you want to tell friends how they
    can subscribe too.

    The appendix at the end of this guide includes most listserver mailing
    lists of particular interest or use to biologists.  Internet addresses
    are given whenever possible, and all addresses are in standard Internet
    format, with the exception that portions of the Internet node names that
    reflect original Bitnet node names are given in uppercase, for the
    convenience of readers on Bitnet nodes.

    Listservers were developed first many years ago on Bitnet, when Eric
    Thomas wrote a computer program named "LISTSERV" that could act like
    a regular computer user:  receiving and sending out e-mail, and keeping
    files.  LISTSERV is now used on hundreds of computers around the world,
    and a number of copy-cat programs with similar features are used at many
    other sites.  Whichever program is used, these listservers are given the
    task of maintaining multiple electronic mailing lists, handling all
    membership requests (subscriptions and cancellation of subscriptions, and
    so on).  Many list owners collect monthly logs of all messages sent to
    the list, and some also provide files of other information.  Eric Thomas's
    LISTSERV program does this automatically, and listservers running this
    program can send "back issue" logs and other files on request.

    Anastasios Kotsikonas has written a similar listserver program for use
    on Unix computers, named "listserv", and the name of a listserver running
    his program is always listserv@<computer address>.  This has become a
    very popular listserver program outside of Bitnet.  The basic subscription
    functions use commands identical to the LISTSERV program, so these are
    not distinguished from true Bitnet LISTSERV listservers.

    Mailing lists run by listservers with slightly different command protocols
    are listed in section 2.5, Other Mailing Lists, together with mailing lists
    run by hand.  Other listservers include "mailbase" and "MAILSERV", both
    written for Bitnet nodes in Europe.  For documents about using mailbase,
    send e-mail to mailbase@mailbase.ac.uk with the text

        send mailbase user-guide        for the lengthly User's Guide
        send mailbase user-card         for a short version of the Guide

    You can get an extensive topical directory of academic mailing lists,
    compiled by Diane Kovacs, dkovacs@KENTVM.kent.edu:  send e-mail to
    listserv@KENTVM.kent.edu with the text

        get acadlist readme

    Charles Bailey posts a directory, Library-Oriented Lists and Electronic
    Serials, to the newsgroup bit.listserv.pacs-l on a regular basis.

    Mailing list etiquette:

      - Whenever possible, Bitnet users should use the Bitnet address of a list
        and its listserver;  Internet users should use the Internet address.

      - Keep a record of your subscriptions, and a copy of any instructions
        that you receive with your subscription.

      - Remember to unsubscribe or otherwise turn off your subscriptions
        before your e-mail address changes or you go away on vacation.

      - Avoid sending articles to more than one mailing list.

      - Be concise or, if your article is more than a few hundred lines long,
        warn your readers in the Subject line.

    A note for users on JANET nodes (in the United Kingdom):  you may be
    able to get subscriptions to Bitnet listserver mailing lists via
    listserv@earn-relay.ac.uk.  Send e-mail to that address with the text

        info ?

    for more information.  This saves electronic transmission costs by having
    a single subscription propagated across the Atlantic Ocean, and then
    re-distributing it to multiple subscribers in the U.K. and elsewhere in

-*- 2.4.1. Commands

    Being computer programs, with nothing else to do, listservers just sit
    and wait for e-mail to arrive, read it, and perform the appropriate task,
    usually immediately.  They respond only to a small set of commands.  A
    summary (Thomas 1993) of these commands can be retrieved by sending the
    message "send listserv refcard" to any listserver.  The main listserver
    is listserv@BITNIC.educom.edu, but there are many listservers around the
    world.  Specificially, there is one on each computer for which a mailing
    list is mentioned in the appendix.  Most listservers maintain more than
    one mailing list.

    To subscribe to any of these mailing lists, send e-mail to the listserver
    at the same address.  For example, subscriptions to the Smithsonian
    Institution's biological conservation list, CONSLINK, may be obtained by
    sending the message

        subscribe conslink <Your Name>

    to listserv@SIVM.si.edu.  To turn off mail from a list temporarily (e.g.,
    while you are away on vacation), send the message

        set <listname> nomail

    and to unsubscribe permanently (e.g., because your e-mail address is about
    to change), send the message

        unsubscribe <listname>

    Send subscription and other administrative requests to the listserver,
    not the list;  e-mail messages sent directly to the mailing list will
    (generally) be sent to all the list subscribers.  Only the listserver
    can process subscription requests, and the listserver only knows about
    requests that it receives directly.

    LISTSERV programs of version 1.7f and higher have a very useful feature
    that lets you receive a daily digest (actually a concatenation, with a
    table of contents) instead of many individual articles.  Send e-mail to
    the apropriate listserver with the message:

        set <listname> digest

-*- 2.4.2. Archives

    In addition to handling the membership requests for particular mailing
    lists, most listservers also archive all messages sent to each list in
    monthly log files.  These files, along with other items contributed by
    list subscribers, are archived by the listserver and can be retrieved
    by e-mail.  Listserv@SIVM.si.edu keeps an archive of various lists of
    conservation organizations and field stations, several newsletters, and
    a large collection of bibliographic references relating to biological
    conservation.  Listserv@UMDD.umd.edu keeps an archive of job openings and
    conference announcements submitted to the Ecological Society of America.

    Commands for retrieving files from listserver archives are described
    in the listserver command reference guide (Thomas 1993), and include:

        help                            to get generally useful information
        review <listname>               to get the list of subscribers
        index <listname>                to get the list of archived files
        get listserv refcard            to get a short summary of commands
        get listfaq memo                to get an FAQ about listservers

    Sending the message "info" to a listserver will result in a list of
    information guides including:

    REFcard    (LISTSERV REFCARD)  Command reference card
    FAQ        (LISTFAQ  MEMO   )  Frequently Asked Questions
    PResent    (LISTPRES MEMO   )  Presentation of LISTSERV for new users
    GENintro   (LISTSERV MEMO   )  General information about Revised LISTSERV
    KEYwords   (LISTKEYW MEMO   )  Description of list header keywords
    AFD        (LISTAFD  MEMO   )  Description of Automatic File Distribution
    FILEs      (LISTFILE MEMO   )  Description of the file-server functions
    LPunch     (LISTLPUN MEMO   )  Description of the LISTSERV-Punch file fmt.
    JOB        (LISTJOB  MEMO   )  Description of the Command Jobs feature
    DISTribute (LISTDIST MEMO   )  Description of Relayed File Distribution
    COORDinat  (LISTCOOR MEMO   )  Information about Listserv Coordination
    FILEOwner  (LISTFOWN MEMO   )  Information guide for file owners
    DATABASE   (LISTDB   MEMO   )  Description of the database functions
    UDD        (LISTUDD  MEMO   )  User Directory Database User's Guide
    UDDADMIN   (LISTUDDA MEMO   )  UDD Administrator's Guide

    To get any one of these, send the message "info <keyword>" where <keyword>
    is, for instance, "REFcard" or "FAQ".  Only the portion in capitals is

-*- 2.4.3. Gateways to Usenet

    Some of the listserver mailing lists in the appendix below are also
    Usenet newsgroups:

    biosph-l@UBVM.cc.buffalo.edu  is bit.listserv.biosph-l
    biotech@UMDD.umd.edu          is sci.bio.technology
    devel-l@AUVM.american.edu     is bit.listserv.devel-l
    ecolog-l@UMDD.umd.edu         is bit.listserv.ecolog-l
    edstat-l@jse.stat.ncsu.edu    is bit.listserv.edstat-l
    ethology@FINHUTC.hut.fi       is bit.listserv.ethology
    gis-l@UBVM.cc.buffalo.edu     is comp.infosystems.gis
    info-tex@                     is comp.text.tex (gate is list-->group only)
    medforum@ARIZVM1.ccit.arizona.edu is bit.listserv.medforum (custom gate)
    sas-l@UGA.cc.uga.edu          is bit.listserv.sas-l
    scifaq-l@YALEVM.cis.yale.edu  is sci.answers (gate is group-->list only)
    spssx-l@UGA.cc.uga.edu        is bit.listserv.spssx-l
    stat-l@vm1.mcgill.ca          is bit.listserv.stat-l
    uigis-l@UBVM.cc.buffalo.edu   is bit.listserv.uigis-l
    vpiej-l@VTVM1.cc.vt.edu       is bit.listserv.vpiej-l

    American University has established itself as the clearing house and
    semi-official keeper of automated gateways between listserver mailing
    lists and Usenet newsgroups.  Questions about the procedure for
    establishing a gateway for any mailing list or newsgroup may be posted to
    the Usenet newsgroup bit.admin or sent to news-admin@AUVM.american.edu.
    A FAQ on this topic appears regularly in the bit.admin newsgroup.

-*- 2.5. Other Mailing Lists

    Remember to save any instructions you receive about unsubscribing from
    a mailing list.  Mailing lists that do not use listserv-style commands
    for subscribing and unsubscribing include:

    Topic or name                               Mailing list address
        Subscription instructions
    Arabidopsis thal. database announcements  aatdb-info@weeds.mgh.harvard.edu
        Contact Mike Cherry, curator@weeds.mgh.harvard.edu.

    Artificial life digest                      alife@cognet.ucla.edu
        Send all subscription requests to alife-request@cognet.ucla.edu.

    Biological Anthropology, Primatology        humbio@acc.fau.edu
        Send "subscribe humbio <Your Name>" to mailserv@acc.fau.edu.

    Biological timing and circadian rhythms
        cbt-general@virginia.edu       cbt-general-request@@virginia.edu

    Biologia y Evolucion (in Spanish)           biologia@athena.mit.edu

    Biology information systems                 biogopher@comp.bioz.unibas.ch
        Contact Reinhard Doelz, doelz@urz.unibas.ch.

    Bulletin for bryologists                    bryonet@uni-duisburg.de
        Send e-mail to the owner, Jan-Peter Frahm, hh216fr@uni-duisburg.de.

    Cytometry discussion
    cytometry@flowcyt.cyto.purdue.edu  cyto-request@flowcyt.cyto.purdue.edu

    Dendrome forest tree genome mapping digest
       Send all subscription requests and submissions to the editor,

    Dinosaurs and other archosaurs      dinosaur@donald.wichitaks.ncr.com
        Send e-mail to dinosaur-request@donald.wichitaks.ncr.com.

    Discover Insight Biosym Users' Group  dibug@comp.bioz.unibas.ch
        Send e-mail to dibug-request@comp.bioz.unibas.ch.

    Ecologia (in Spanish)               ecologia@athena.mit.edu
        Send e-mail to ecologia-request@athena.mit.edu

    Entomology discussion                       ent-list@um.cc.umich.edu
        Send e-mail to the owner, Mark O'Brien, hcfb@um.cc.umich.edu.

    Environmentalists digest                    env-link@andrew.cmu.edu
        Send e-mail to the owner, Josh Knaur, env-link+forms@andrew.cmu.edu.

    Fish and Wildlife Biology                   wildnet@access.usask.ca
        Send e-mail to wildnet-request@access.usask.ca

    Forestry discussion                         forest@lists.funet.fi
        Send e-mail to forest-request@lists.funet.fi

    Genstat statistics package discussion       genstat@ib.rl.ac.uk
        Send "subscribe genstat <Your Name>" to listral@ib.rl.ac.uk.

    GIS digest
       Send all subscription requests and submissions to the editor,

    GIS Users in the United Kingdom             geocal@leicester.ac.uk
        Send "subscribe geocal <Your Name>" to vmsserv@leicester.ac.uk.

    Killifish, Cyprinodontidae                  killie@mejac.palo-alto.ca.us
        Send e-mail to killie-request@mejac.palo-alto.ca.us

    Neotropical birds discussion                avifauna@rcp.pe
        Contact phillips@cipa.ec (Roberto Phillips)

    Neural networks digest              neuron-request@cattel.psych.upenn.edu
        Send requests and all submissions to the above address.  Back issues of
        the digest are available via anonymous FTP on cattell.psych.upenn.edu.

    Orchids                                     orchids@scuacc.SCU.edu
        Send "subscribe orchids <Your Name>" to mailserv@scuacc.SCU.edu.

    Plant Taxonomy                              plant-taxonomy@mailbase.ac.uk
        Send "join plant-taxonomy <Your Name>" to mailbase@mailbase.ac.uk.

    Primate discussion                          primate-talk@primate.wisc.edu
        Send e-mail to the owner, primate-talk-request@primate.wisc.edu.

    Prion Research Digest                       [unknown]
        Send e-mail to prion-request@stolaf.edu.

    The S statistics package                    s-news@utstat.toronto.edu
        Send e-mail to s-news-request@utstat.toronto.edu.

    SANET-MG Sustainable Agriculture Network    sanet-mg@twosocks.ces.ncsu.edu
        Send e-mail with the text "subscribe sanet-mg" or "send guide" or
        "send catalog" to almanac@twosocks.ces.ncsu.edu.

    Young Scientists' Network                   ysn@zoyd.ee.washington.edu
        Send e-mail to ysn-request@zoyd.ee.washington.edu with the Subject
        (not text) "subscribe" or "send info".

    Volcano list
        Send all subscription requests and submissions to the editor,
Jon Fink, aijhf@ASUACAD (via Bitnet) or aijhf@asuvm.inre.asu.edu.

    Note, any mailing lists you may discover at net.bio.net or daresbury.ac.uk
    that are not explicitly mentioned in this FAQ are not mentioned *because*
    they are actually gated lists for the bionet.* newsgroups.  See section
    2.3.2, Special Usenet Hierarchies and Gated Mailing Lists for instructions
    about subscribing to any bionet.* newsgroup via e-mail.

    There is a 4-part FAQ in news.answers (da Silva 1993) that includes
    brief descriptions of the charter of each mailing list.  This FAQ is
    stored in FAQ archives in the directory /mailing-lists/.

    A very long (1.2 megabytes) list of lists is available via anonymous FTP
    from ftp.nisc.sri.com in netinfo/interest-groups or (in compressed form)
    netinfo/interest-groups.Z.  It can also be obtained via e-mail by sending
    the message "send netinfo/interest-groups" to mail-server@nisc.sri.com.
    There is a printed, indexed version, titled "Internet:  Mailing Lists",
    that can be purchased from Prentice Hall.  However, this list is up-dated
    through submissions, and thus is incomplete and not very correct.

-*- 2.6. Newsletters

    Many of the mailing lists mentioned in the above section are actually
    digests, where readers' queries and comments are condensed into a
    single large document that is distributed periodically.  Yet another
    variation on this theme is electronic newsletters.  Those not listed
    elsewhere in this guide include:

    * Animal Behavior Society Newsletter.  Editor James C. Ha,

    * Boissiera.  Editor ? &lt;burdet@cjb.unige.ch>;

    * Candollea.  Editor ? &lt;burdet@cjb.unige.ch>;

    * Flora Online.  A journal for collections-oriented botanists published
      by the Clinton Herbarium, Buffalo Museum of Science, New York USA.
      Editor Richard H. Zander, visbms@UBVMS.bitnet.  Available via gopher
      and anonymous FTP from huh.harvard.edu.

    * Bean Bag: Leguminosae Research Newsletter, edited by Charles R. Gunn
      and Joseph H. Kirkbride, Jr., jkirkbride@asrr.arsusda.gov.  Available
      via gopher and anonymous FTP from huh.harvard.edu.

    * Botanical Electronic News (BEN), edited by Adolf Ceska, Canada.
      Available via gopher and anonymous FTP from huh.harvard.edu, and
      the wildnet mailing list.

    * Environmental Resources Information Network (ERIN) Newsletter, Australia
      Available via gopher and anonymous FTP from huh.harvard.edu, and via
      the ERIN gopher on kaos.erin.gov.au.

    * LTER Data Management Bulletin (DATABITS).  Available via gopher on

    * Climate/Ecosystem Dynamics (CED).  E-mail subscriptions are available
      from Daniel Pommert, daniel@lternet.washington.edu, gopher access
      available via lternet.edu.

    * The Chlamydomonas Newsletter.  E-mail subscriptions are available from
      Mike Adams, adams@ecsuc.ctstateu.edu.  You can also get this newsletter
      via gopher from gopher.duke.edu and via anonymous FTP from
      acpub.duke.edu in pub/chlamy/.

    The paper journal The Scientist is available in an online version via
    anonymous FTP on ds.internic.net, in pub/the-scientist, courtesy of the
    Institute for Scientific Information and the NSF Network Service Center.

    Michael Strangelove, 441495@acadvm1.UOTTAWA.ca has compiled a directory
    of electronic serials.  To retrieve it, send e-mail with the text

        get ejournl1 directry
        get ejournl2 directry

    to listserv@acadvm1.UOTTAWA.ca.