Persons in the Book Trade in Norwich before 1650
A bookseller and bookbinder in St Peter Mancroft parish from 1636 until 1653. The son of Nicholas Atfend, a Norwich grocer, he was apprenticed to John Grismond, a stationer, printer and typefounder of London, for eight years from 5 Oct. 1629 (McKenzie - under Atfield). He did not complete his apprenticeship and just over six years later he had returned to Norwich and become a freeman by patrimony as a stationer (17 Feb. 1635/6). In 1640 an edition of Giles Fletcher's Christ's victorie and triumph was printed for him by Roger Daniel in Cambridge. In the same year he was arrested and appeared before the Court of High Commission (Vol. 434 f. l60b P.R.O.). After pleading guilty to receiving and vending "Holland Bibles and books in English printed beyond the seas" and promising his good behaviour, he was discharged on payment of the costs. Atfend appeared before the Norwich Quarter Sessions to give evidence on 3 Apr. 1638, and on 21 Sep. 1646 for unspecified reasons. In 1643 he subscribed two pounds towards the relief of Newcastle (Norfolk Archaeology Vol.18 p.149). He also paid rates to the overseers of the poor for his parish until 1645, being assessed on goods to the value of sixteen pounds. Atfend's will was proved in the Norwich Archdeacon's Court on 1 Mar.1652/3, his sole legatee being Michael Crotch "who has kept me in my sickness".
A bookbinder circa 1583. He is known only from two brief references, one in the Mayor's Court Book 11 25 May 1583, the other in the Norwich Quarter Sessions Minutes 15 May 1585. On the second occasion he produced recognizances of £20 to reappear before the court on 12 Jul. 1585, for unspecified reasons. He was possibly the same -man who was apprenticed to William Seres in London as a stationer in 1565? (Arber).
A stationer at the sign of the "Upper halfe moone" until 1654, he was buried in St Peter Mancroft churchyard on 1 Nov. of that year (parish register). He was probably a journeyman working for Edward Martin, who died at this address and was buried 3 Mar. 1653/4.
He became a freeman 1388 (no trade given).
She was fined 12d in 1375 for trading, not being a citizen, and was listed as paying rent to the city in 1397 for her corner shop in St Michael at Plea Parish (Hudson & Tingey I p. 382 and II p. 246).
He rented a tenement in St Cuthbert's parish circa 1390 (Norwich Dean & Chapter Sacrist Rolls, box 2.).
He was listed with Thomas Carre on a military document of 1588, as the servant of Nicholas Colman working in the parish of St Andrew (Miscellaneous Military Documents, N.R.O. 13A).
A bookseller in St Peeer Mancroft parish from around 1607 until around 1617 and thereafter at Kings Lynn. Heisfirstnoticedin 1599appearingon a muster on behalf of his master Thomas Ollyett. In 1607 he appeared on a muster in his own right, and from 1608 until 1614 he was represented by his own servant, Edmund Casson (Miscellaneous Military Documents, N.R.O. 13A). In 1609 he purchased a tenement in Cutler Row, St Andrew's parish, formerly in the possession of Thomas Ollyett. He sold this property again in 1614 (Court Roll 33 f.43 &Roll34f.53). Hebecame a freeman by purchase, as a stationer, on 25 Feb. 1611/2, and paid rates to the Overseers of St Peter Mancroft parish until 1617. He supplied a "Court Book" to the city authorities 30 Mar. 1615 (Chamberlain's Accounts 1602-1625). His son, Thomas, was christened on 9 Jan.1615/6, and his wife, Anne, was buried 26th February following (parish register). Jeremy Bromley appears to have moved soon afterwards to Kings Lynn where he became a freeman as a bookseller 1627/8. His son Edward became a freeman of Lynn in 1635/6 and Mayor in 1675.
A bookbinder in the parish of St Peter Mancroft circa 1622; his wife Margaret was buried in the churchyard 7 Jun. 1622 (parish register). "Wynefride Boothe singlewoman from Carre book bynder" was buried in the parish 26 Aug. 1625 (parish register): this may refer to either John Carre or Thomas Carre.
A bookseller and bookbinder in St Peter Mancroft parish from 1603 until 1645. The son of John Carre, a husbandman of Calthorp in Norfolk, he was apprenticed to Nicholas Colman, citizen and stationer of London, for eight years from 1582 (Arber). Carre moved to Norwich with his master about 1586, and appears to have worked for Colman as a journeyman after the completion of his apprenticeship in 1590. He became a freeman of Norwich, by service, as a stationer 4 Jan. 1601/2 and set up in business in the parish of St Peter Mancroft. His name appears on musters and other military documents for the parish from 1607 (N.R.O. Miscellaneous military documents 13A). Carre priced the inventory of Thomas Gilbert along with John Clifford 3 Jan. 1603/4 (N.C.C. Inventories INV 19/210). He supplied an Assembly Book and undertook binding work for the city authorities in 1627 and 1628 (Chamberlain's Accounts). In 1631 he published an issue of John Brinsley's The preacher's charge and people's duty. Thomas Carre was the master of William Franklin who became a freeman in 1645, and of William Girlinge who died in 1639. Carre died in 1645, a comparatively rich man; his will is N.C.C. 66 Burlye.
A sherman and bookbinder of St John Maddermarket parish from 1468 until 1505. He became a freeman of Norwich as a sherman in 1468, and his name appears on the lay subsidy for the parish in 1488. In a law suit of 1502 he was described as a bookbinder (Plomer - Some notices). Carter died in 1505, a comparatively wealthy man. His will described him as a sherman and bookbinder, and included a legacy to the guild of St Michael in Norwich (N.C.C. Wills 196 Ryxe, 1505).
A bookseller and bookbinder at the sign of "the Bible" in the Market Place, St Peter Mancroft parish, from 1613 until 1635. The son of Thomas Casson, gentleman (deceased) of London, he was apprenticed to William Firebrand, citizen and stationer of London, for eight years from 24 Jun. 1600 (Arber). Firebrand died in the year Casson would have finished his apprenticeship (1608) and Casson is found soon afterwards working for Jeremy Bromley in Norwich. He became a freeman of Norwich, by purchase, as a stationer 11 Oct. 1613. From 1620 he was the master of Henry Weston and in the years 1622 and 1623 he was the first and only warden of the shortlived Company of- Stationers in Norwich (Mayors Court Book 15 f.405). In the year 1630 Casson bought a messuage in St Peter Mancroft parish "late in the occupation of Christopher Ponder" (Court Roll 37 fol. 32). Casson was the first Norwich bookseller to undertake the publication of small books, notably Alexander Neville's Norfolk furies (1615 and 1623) and Samuel Garey's Jentaculum judicum (1623). In 1631 his name is found on the imprint of one issue of a play by Ralph Rnevet Rhodon and Iris. Casson's name is also frequently found in the churchwardens' and overseers' account books for his parish; he was reasonably prosperous and paid 3d.~poor rate in the year 1634/5. He was buried in the parish churchyard of St Peter Mancroft 18 Dec. 1635 (parish register).
A refugee printer who arrived in Norwich from Holland in 1567. His name is known only from a reference on a census of aliens taken for Archbishop Parker in 1568. (A contemporary copy of this census is in the Norwich Dean & Chapter archive.) He may have worked for Anthony de Solempne. Christian was almost certainly the Vianen printer Albert Christiaensz (see Verwey).
A bookbinder in St Andrew's parish from 1562 until around 1612. Hewas an apprentice of William Gilbert, and became a freeman of Norwich as a grocer 14 Jan. 1561/2. Clifford's name appears in the Chamberlain's accounts for 1565/6 and 1591/2, having bound books for the Norwich Corporation. His name also appears on a general muster of the city, under the parish of St Andrew (N.R.O. Rye MS.361). He appeared before the Norwich Quarter Sessions in the same year (1595) when he stood bail for Thomas Joyner, a husbandman. In 1603 he was one of the appraisers of the inventory of Thomas Gilbert along with Thomas Carre. In 1612 a man of this name was listed as one of the tenants living in a tenement in Cutler Row, which was transferred to Thomas Olyett (Court Roll 34 fol. 31.).
A bookseller and bookbinder in St Andrew's churchyard from around 1586 until about 1602. The son of Henry Colman of Harrington, Northamptonshire, he was apprenticed to Arthur Pepwell for eight years from 1565, and later set over to Augustin Laughton. He became a freeman of the Stationers' Company 7 Jul. 1579 (Arber). He moved to Norwich around 1586 and in the same year he published ballads on a fire in Beccles by Thomas Deloney and by D. Sterrie. Thomas Carre was his apprentice from 1582, and was later his journeyman. John Brodway was also employed by Colman at about the same time. Colman's name appears on musters and parish registers until 1600 when his wife was buried in St Andrew's churchyard. He also borrowed money from the Cambridge Chest charity in this parish between 1589 and 1596. Colman finally purchased his freedom of Norwich 30 Jan. 1587/8 and was in business in the city until shorely before his death in 1603, possibly leaving shortly before Thomas Carre became a freeman in 1602. Colman died in London and was buried in the churchyard of St Giles Cripplegate 3 Sep. 1603 (Miller).
A journeyman bookbinder from 1555 until at least 1570. The son of William Cotton a carrier, he was apprenticed to Leonard Delyson from 1554/5 for eight years (Norfolk Record Society vol. 29). In 1570 he was listed as a poor man of thirty years of age living in St Martin at the Bale parish, and in the employment of Delyson (Norfolk Record Society vol. 40).
A bookbinder, probably of St Peter Mancroft parish, from 1631 until at least 1652 and possibly 1663/4. The son of Nathan Crotch a worsted weaver, he obtained his freedom as a bookbinder 4 Jan. 1631/2. It is interesting to note that he appears to have been in prison at this time. According to the Quarter Sessions Minutes he was imprisoned 12 Dec. 1631 until he could find sureties, and was also fined £10, the crime not being stated. He had to remain in prison 6 Mar. 1631/2 but was freed 15 Sep. 1632, having found sureties of twenty pounds for his good behaviour. He also had to appear before the Court and produce recognizances 19 Feb. 1632/3 and 24 Aug.1643. Michael Crotch is the only legatee mentioned in the will of Abraham Atfend. In the St Peter Mancroft Churchwardens' accounts there are two payments to "goodman Croch" for repairing books in 1663/4. It is possible that Michael may still have been alive in 1677/8 when his sons Adam and John became freemen.
A bookseller and binder in St Peter Mancroft parish from 1550 until 1571. A Dutchman, he became naturalised 29 Oct. 1550 (Huguenot Society Denizations) and became a freeman of Norwich by purchase 24 Feb. 1550/1. He buried a daughter, Judith, 1 May 1552 and christened a son, Robert, 1 Apr. 1565 (St Peter Mancroft parish registers). He was the master of Henry Reynold from 1551, John Cotton from 1554/5, and Nicholas Nicker from about 1561. He died 13 Apr. 1571, his nuncupative will (N.C.C. 201 Brugge) shows that he was insolvent at the time of his death.
A bookseller and bookbinder in the Market Place from 1645 until 1664. As an apprentice of Thomas Carre, he was a witness to the will of William Girlinge in 1639. He became a freeman of Norwich 26 Sep. 1645 and had a shop "next to the George". In 1646 he published Vox Norwici, in answer to the tract Vox populi and the following year John Brinsley's Stand still. He had published more than a dozen works by 1660. On the death of Edward Martin in 1654, Franklin purchased his shop at the sign of "the Upper halfe moone" on the west side of the Market Place (Norwich Court Roll 40 fol. 36) for £300. In 1656 Franklin and his wife, Hester, transferred property in St Stephen's parish to another (ibid fol. 43). Franklin was a Common Councillor from March 1656/7 until March 1664/5 for Mancroft ward, during which time he served on a committee to enquire into the state of the postal service from the City (Assembly Book and Court Book for 1656). He appeared before the Norwich Quarter Sessions 15 Sep. 1645 and 23 Apr. 1660 for unspecified reasons, and in 1662 he donated two pounds towards a gift to Charles II (Norfolk Record Society vol. 1). He was assessed on goods to the value of six pounds in February 1664/5, and paid one pound rate in 1661 (St Peter Mancroft overseers' accounts). His name is also found on an address to General Monck by the gentry of Norfolk and Norwich of 1660 (N.R.O.), indicating that he was considered a man of some substance in the city. Franklin died in 1664 and was buried in St Peter's churchyard 9 May 1664 (parish register); his will is N.C.C. 103 Stockdell. Franklin was the master of John Sprat and William Nowell.
A bookseller and bookbinder in St Andrew's parish from around 1559 until 1603. His name appears on various military documents for the parish between 1569 and 1588 (N.R.O. case 13A) and he figures regularly in the Cambridge Chest charity accounts as having borrowed money between 1582 and 1591. His son, William, became a freeman in 1602 as a tailor, and another son, Thomas, was buried in St Peter Mancroft churchyard 26 Mar. 1603 (parish register). Gilbert was the master of Thomas Ollyett who became a freeman in 1593, and in the following year he was bound overfor ten pounds in the Mayor's Court, a reputed father of an illegitimate child (Court Book 15 Jun. 1594). He died in 1603, leaving all of his possessions to his wife Dorothy (N.C.C. Wills 9 Norfforthe). An inventory of Gilbert's effects was priced by Thomas Carre and John Clifford and was valued at £166 3s 4d (N.C.C. Inventories INV 19/210).
A bookseller with this name is known in London between 1588 and 1590 (McKerrow). He may also have been the man of this name mentioned by the Morris Dancer William Kemp, in his account of his reception in Norwich (Kemp's nine daies wonder).
Probably a bookseller, he was the master of John Clifford and possibly the father of Thomas Gilbert. He became a freeman of Norwich as a grocer 1531/2.
A journeyman bookseller in the employment of Thomas Carre from around 1611 until 1638. His name first appears on a Muster as Carre's servant in 1611 (N.R.0.13A). He was bound over to keep the peace at the Norwich Quarter Sessions 10 Aug. 1629 for an unspecified reason. Girlinge was buried in St Peter Mancroft churchyard 8 Oct. 1638 (parish register), and his will was proved in 1639 (N.C.C.93 Green). Carre was the executor and principal legatee; William Franklin was one of the witnesses.
A bookbinder and stationer in St Peter Mancroft parish from before 1622 until 1629. He became a freeman of Norwich by purchase 10 Mar.1622/3, but had already sealed apprenticeship indentures between himself (as master) and Edward Martin before this date. He paid £3 6s 8d for his freedom and was therefore considered to be reasonably well off at this time. He supplied a Court Book in 1624 (Chamberlain's Accounts). James died in May 1629, and there exists an interesting inventory of his house, shop, stock, and tools (N`C.C. Inventories INV 35/104). At the time of his death he appears to have had very little property. James was also the master of Benjamin Wellham.
JASON (JASS), Pieter
An alien bookseller who came from the Low Countries and settled in Norwich in 1562. He is listed, with his wife and son, on a census of aliens compiled in 1568 (see under Christian). (Walter Rye printed a transcript of this document in Norfolk Antiquarian Miscellany 1st series, vol.3, but he did not consult a contemporary copy of the document, and so the name is wrongly transcribed as Jass rather than Jason.)
The son of John Lynge, a Norwich parchmentmakerg he became a very successful London bookseller betweeen 1579 and 1607 (see McKerrow). There is evidence to show that Lynge spent at least five of these years (1585-90) in Norwich. An apprentice was bound to Lynge in London 25 Mar. 1585 "provided alwaies and yt is agreed that yf the said nicholas linge shall Departe with Any of his shoppes That then he shall put out his Apprentice to some of ye cumpanie". The apprentice in question was put over to Symon Waterson 6 Dec. 1585 (Arber). Nicholas Lynge became a freeman of Norwich by patrimony 7 Aug. 1585 and so was presumably living in the city at this time, his trade being given as "stationer". The will of John Lyuge, dated 1590, refers to tenements in Norwich in the possession of his son (N.C.C. Wills 608 Flack). In the year following his father's death, Nicholas Lynge is once again noticed as being in London (Arber). He died between 1607 and 1610 and his will is Prerogative Court of Canterbury 58 Wingfield.
The son of Walter Marcoll, a worsted weaver, he was an apprentice of Thomas Ollyett. He became a freeman of Norwich as a bookbinder 24 Feb. 1610/1.
A bookseller and binder at the sign of "the Upper halfe moone" in the Market Place from 1627 until 1654. Although he was an apprentice of Thomas James he had to purchase his freedom of the city for £1 13s 4d because Thomas James had not been a freeman when Martin's indentures were sealed (Foreign Receiver's accounts). He became a freeman bookbinder 5 Jan. 1628/9, but he had been described as a stationer as early as 21 Oct. 1627 (St Peter Mancrofe churchwardens'accounts). He supplied a new Book of Common Prayer to this church in 1630, and paid one penny poor rate in 1634/5 (ibid). Martin appeared twice before the Norwich Quarter Sessions: on 3 Apr. 1637 he stood bail for another, and on the 8 Apr. 1650 he appeared for an unspecified reason. Martin's publications included An hue and cry after Vox populi 1646, Matthew Hopkins' Discovery of witches 1647, and John Robinson's Miscellaneous propositions and quaeries 1649. He died in 1654 and was buried in St Peter Mancroft churchyard 3 Mar. 1653/4 (parish register). Martin's servant, Robert Bartlett died at the same address and was buried 1 Nov. 1654. The shop was later used by William Franklin.
A bookbinder around 1639. He is known only from an entry in the Mayor's Court Book for 20 Jul. 1639: this was possibly a clerical error for Edward Martin.
He became a freeman of Norwich in 1536 as a "bookmaker" but is not otherwise known.
A bookbinder in 1567. An alien, he is known only from a letter (reprinted in Tawney & Power) which stated that he had trained as a bookbinder in Norwich, but he had given it up after a few months because it did not bring in enough work.
A bookseller in St Peter Mancroft parish from 1644 until 1660. He purchased his freedom of Norwich 17 Jul. 1644 for £6 (Foreign Receiver's accounts). He paid overseers' rates to the parish until 1645, but is not noticed again until 12 May 1660 when he and his wife, Elizabeth, transferred a property at St Martin at Bale parish (Norwich Court Roll 40 fol. 84). (A man of this name was bound apprentice to Philip Nevill, a London stationer, for seven years from 2 Sep. 1639, and apparently never finished his apprenticeship (Stationers' Registers).)
An apprentice bookbinder, bound to Leonard Delyson from about 1561 until around 1570. He is known only from the records of a dispute with his master in which John Cotton (another of Delyson's apprentices) was also examined (N.R.O. 12a.1d Interrogations and Depositions).
A bookseller and bookbinder in St Andrew's parish from around 1589 until 1616. He is first noticed on 14 Jul. 1589 when he appeared before the Norwich Quarter Sessions and paid £10 recognizance to appear and give evidence. He became a freeman of Norwich as a bookbinder and stationer, the apprentice of Thomas Gilbert, 9 Mar. 1593/4. In the same year his son, Edward, was baptised in St Andrew's parish (parish register). In 1598 he was a constable of his parish and also borrowed £5 from the Cambridge chest charity. From around 1599 he employed Jeremy Bromley, and from around 1611 a man named William James is listed as Ollyett's servant on musters and other military documents (N.R.O. 13a). He served on the Common Council for Wymer ward from 7 Apr.1605 until April 1607, and is mentioned in the Chamberlain's Accounts for 1607 and 1614 as having supplied books to the city. In 1599 Ollyett purchased a property in Cutlers' Row which he sold again in 1612 (Court Roll 33 fol.43 and Roll 34 fol. 33). In 1613 he bought two messuages in Cuelers'Row and Poteergate (one of the tenants being the bookbinder John Clifford) and the following year he sold a tenement in Racky Lane (Court Roll 34 fols.31 and 53). His name ceases to appear on musters for the parish in 1615, and the name Christopher Ponder, his former apprentice, is found in its place (N.R.O. 13a).
A Dutch refugee listed as a bookseller in 1568 on a census of aliens, having come to Norwich the previous year (a copy of the census is in Norwich Dean & Chapter archive).
A bookseller and binder at the sign of "the Angel" in St Andrew's parish and St Peter Mancroft parish from 1615 until around 1624. He was the apprentice of Thomas Ollyett, and his name appears on musters for St Andrew's in 1615 at the same time as his master's name ceased to appear (N.R.O. 13a). He was still in this parish in 1616 but from 1618 until 1624 his name is found on these documents for St Peter Mancroft parish. In 1616 he published James Spottiswood's Execution of Neschech printed in Edinburgh by Andrew Hart. Ponder became a freeman as a stationer 16 Dec. 1616. Alehough nothing more is known of him after 1624, he may have been in business until 1630, for in that year Edmund Casson bought a messuage in St Peter's parish which was described as "late in the occupation of Christopher Ponder" (Court Roll 36. fol. 32).
A Dutch bookseller listed on a census of aliens of 1568 (Norwich Dean & Chapter archive). He came to the city in 1567 with a wife and child. His name is mentioned in the London Dutch Church register in 1561 (Alnutt). Rabat's name is given by Berry & Poole as possibly a printer in Norwich in 1567, but no further explanation of the statement is given.
The son of Henry Reynold, a brewer of Diss, he was bound apprentice to Leonard Delyson for seven years from 1551 (Norfolk Record Society vol. 29).
A printer from Norwich circa 1626, he is described as being betrothed in Amsterdam 28 Nov. 1626 (Briels). It is extremely doubtful that he worked in Norwich in this capacity.
A bookseller and binder from around 1568 until 1571. He is known from a law suit brought by the bookseller Abraham Veale in the Court of Common Pleas in 1571 against him for the non-payment of debt (P.R.O. CP40/1297 m. 1668 Michaelmas 1571). He was very probably the same Robert Scott who obtained his freedom of Norwich as a grocer, by order of the Municipal Assembly, 24 Feb. 1560/1. This man lived in St Andrew's parish where he was a constable in 1561/2, and where he purchased property from a Thomas Garton in 1566 (Court Roll 26. fol. 57). Scott also borrowed money from the Cambridge Chest charity in 1568 and 1569. He died in 1572; his administration is in the Norwich Consistory Court Series. He may have been succeeded by his wife.
A bookbinder circa 1540, he was paid sixteen pence for binding the Norwich 'Domesday Book' (Hudson & Tingey Catalogue p. 106).
SOLEMPNE, Anthony de
The first printer in Norwich, he was a refugee from the Duke of Alva, at Antwerp. He arrived in Norwich in 1567 with his wife and two sons (see a census of aliens in the city, 1568, preserved in the Norwich Dean and Chapter archive). He was possibly the master of Albert Christian Solempne purchased the freedom of Norwich as a printer and vendor of Rhenish wine,11 Dec. 1570 for 40s. (Assembly Book). At this time he was living in the parish of St Andrew (T. Brooke, Certayn versis, 1570) but by 1572 he had moved to premises at the sign of the "White Dove" in the parish of St John Maddermarket, where he is known until 1584 (Norfolk and Norwich Notes and Queries, 1st series 1888 p. 34). His name also appears on the Lay Subsidy for this parish in 1581 and he was apparently one of the wealthiest men in the refugee community in Norwich (P.R.O. 152/403 m.7). In 1578 he was described as a deacon of the Dutch church (Mayor's Court Book 30 Aug.1578). The name Antoyne Solence is known in London in 1544 (Worman, p. 63), and the name Antony de Solembe is recorded in the St Stephen's parish churchwardens' account in 1606/7: the latter reference at least probably refers to a son of the printer. Solempne's productions were mostly in Dutch and certainly include a psalm book and catechism, a confession of faith, and a perpetual calendar. Several other Dutch books without any imprint have been attributed to his press, and there is still a certain amount of confusion over what he may or may not have printed (Stoker, Anthony de Solempne). Solempne is also known to have printed a broadside in French and several items in English, including an execution broadside, a prayer for the abatement of bad weather, byelaws for the Norwich Corporation, and proclamations for the parish of St Andrew. He appears to have given up printing around 1572.
A grocer who in 1554 was ordered not to "utter or sell seditious books" (Blomefield vol. 3, p. 269).
VAN HILLE, Cornelius
A refugee bookseller, he arrived in Norwich 1567 and is listed on a census of aliens in 1568 (see under Christian).
An apprentice of Thomas James, he was bound for seven years from 1623 (Norfolk Record Society vol. 29).
An apprentice of Edmund Casson, he was bound apprentice for seven years from 1620 (Norfolk Record Society vol. 29).
A bookbinder in St Stephen's parish who died in 1512 (N.C.C. Wills 192 Johnson).
From: The Norwich book trades before 1800, by David Stoker, published in the Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society, Vol. VIII, Part 1, 1981, pp. 79 - 125.
Transcribed by G.Edward Godwin for research purposes.
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